MODALS USED TO – WOULD
Geçmisteki alıskanlıklardan bahsederken kullanılırlar.
Used to; geçmişte sürekli tekrarlanan elemleri veya bir durumu belirtmek için kullanılır.
Would ise; sadece tekrarlanan eylemleri belirtmek için kullanılır, bir durumu anlatmak için
*** Genelde ‘be – have – live’ gibi fiillerle would KULLANILMAZ.
When I was a child, my father used to read me some stories before I went to bed.
We used to live in Kadıköy 20 years ago.
She used to be very shy when she was young.
DIDN’T USE TO
I didn’t use to drink bear until I was 17.
!!! Would tipik bir davranıs biçimini belirtmek için de kullanılır. Ancak bu sadece PRESENT bir anlam
You know Henry well. He would do such a thing.
She would never tell lies.
*** Geçmisteki alıskanlıklar dısında GENELDE alıskanlıklarda bahsedilirken de kullanılan kalıplar vardır:
be used to (alıskın olmak) get used to (alısmak)
BE USED TO (Be accustommed to)
Be used to + noun group OR Be used to + V-ing
I’m used to the hot weather in this country.
He is used to driving on the left because he has lived in England for a long time.
GET USED TO (Get accustommed to)
Get used to + noun group OR Get used to + V-ing
I haven’t been able to get used to the sun coming through the window, yet.
I hope I will get accustommed to studying till late hours.
1 – Günümüzde ya da gelecekteki yetenek ve becerileri anlatmak için kullanılır. ‘can’ yerine ‘am – is –
are able to’ yapısı da kullanılabilinir.
Peter can speak English fluently but he can’t write it well.
2 – Gelecekte elde edilecek bir yetenek ya da beceriden bahsederken ‘will be able to’ yapısı kullanılır.
After a few lessons, John will be able to swim like a fish.
If you study hard, you will be able to get into university.
*** Geçmiste baslayıp hala süre bir beceri için de söyle bir yapı kullanılabilinir:
I have been able to drive since 2002.
COULD / WAS – WERE ABLE TO
1 – Bu yapılar, geçmiste bir isi yapabilmekten bahseder. Ancak ‘be able to’ yapısı geçmiste bir kereye
mahsus özel bir durumda bir seyi yapabilmekten bahsederken kullanılır.
‘Could’ ise geçmiste sürekli olarak basarılmıs genel seyleri anlatır.
Jack was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody but once he had a difficult match
against Sam. Sam played very well but in the end jack was able to beat him.
When the ship sank, everybody was able to (OR was managed to) swim and survive.
*** Geçmiste ister bir kereye mahsus olsun ister sürekli olsun olumsuz cümlelerde wasn’t – weren’t able
to DEGİL ‘could’ kullanılır.
Tarık İnce Dilko2
I couldn’t swim very well when I was young.
We did our best but couldn’t persuade him to come with us.
2 – Can, izin ve ricalarda kullanılır.
You look very tired, you can go home. (permission)
Can you help me with my Project? (request)
Could I get some information about the times of planes? (request)
3 – Can, öneri ve olasılık için kullanılır.
A: Tomorrow is my brother’s birthday. I can’t decide what I am going to buy for him.
B: You can buy a sweater for him. (advise)
There could be a rise in petrol prises soon. (probability)
4 – Olasılık anlamındaki ‘could’, geçmis zamanlı bir cümlede kullanılacaksa;
‘COULD + HAVE + V3’ olarak kullanılır.
We could have eaten ice-cream instead we drank coffee.
Why did you stay at a hotel in London? You could have stayed with us.
Why didn’t you apply for the job? You could have got the job.
He couldn’t have taken him to the station because he didn’t have a car.
I could have stayed with you but I didn’t want to disturb you.
We couldn’t have played tennis because the court wasn’t free.
We couldn’t have played tennis because it was raining a lot.
Gözlemlere dayanan kuvvetli tahminlerde bulunurken veya bir durumdan sonuç çıkarırken kullanılır.
This man doesn’t work but spends a lot. He must get his wife’s money.
He knows a lot about movies. He must often go to the cinema.
*** Çıkarım veya tahminlerde bulunurken kullanılan ‘must’ın olumsuz hali ‘mustn’t’ DEGİLDİR =
olumsuz hali için bu cümlelerde CAN’T KULLANILIR.
Mustn’t = yasaklama anlamındadır ve bu tür cümlelerde olumsuz anlam verirken KULLANILMAZ.
You have just had diner. You can’t be hungry.
A: The door bell is ringing. Could it be Mary?
B: No, it can’t be Mary. Because she said she would come at 7.00, but it is only 5.00.
MUST + BE + V-ing
CAN’T + BE + V-ing
A: What’s Tom doing in his room? B: He must be studying English.
A: How do you know? B: He borrowed my English boks and notes yesterday.
A: Is Jane washing her hair in the bathroom?
B: No, she can’t be washing her hair. Because she washed it an hour ago.
MUST + HAVE + V3
CAN’T + HAVE + V3
When I came home last night, I made too much noise. You must have heard me.
When I woke up this morning the lights were on. I must have forgotten to turn them off.
A: I did perfectly well in the exam. B: The questions can’t have been very difficult.
MUST + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing
CAN’T + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing
What a lovely suntan. You must have been sunbathing all the time this summer.
A: I saw Tim walking down the street. B: He can’t have been walking because he
broke his leg.
Tarık İnce Dilko3
He didn’t eat anything at the party. He must have eaten something before he came.
You can’t have seen Albert yesterday because he wasn’t here.
MAY – MIGHT
iki anlamı vardır.
1 – Olasılık – posiibility
Don’t say such things. Somebody cmay hear you.
A: My cousin might be the President one day. B: Of course. Pigs may fly as well, one
2 – izin – permission
The children may stay up late. Tomorrow is Sunday.
May I borrow your car for tomorrow?
MAY + BE + V-ing
MIGHT + BE + V-ing
A: What’s jack doing in the garden? B: I don’t know. He might be playing football with
MAY + HAVE + V3
MIGHT + HAVE + V3
A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. B: You might have left it in the Office.
If Napoleon hadn’t gone to Moscow, he may have been the leader of the world.
MUST – HAVE TO
Her iki sözcük de zorunluluk anlatır. Aralarında anlam olarak çok büyük bir fark olmamakla birlikte;
MUST daha çok konusan kisinin zorunlulugunu,
HAVE TO ise baskalarının zorunlulugunu anlatmak için kullanılır.
I can’t meet you on Friday. I have to work.
I haven’t written to Ann for a long time. I must write to her soon.
*** Soru cümlelerinde must KULLANILMAZ.
Do you have to study everyday? Does he have to earn much money?
*** MUST ve HAVE TO kullanıldıgında, olumlu cümlelerde anlam aynıdır: zorunluluk. Ancak olumsuz
cümlelerde must not yasaklama bildirir. Oysa don’t / doesn’t have to gereklilik-zorunluluk olmadıgını
You mustn’t drink whiskey. It is harmful for your health.
You don’t have to drink whiskey. There is some brandy in the closet.
*** MUST ve HAVE TO = past halleri = HAD TO
Last year I had 6 classes and I had to work 40 hours a week.
HAD TO – DIDN’T HAVE TO
She didn’t have to got to work because it was a public holiday. (She did not go.)
Did you have to get up early last weekend?
SHOULD – OUGHT TO Tavsiye anlatmak için, fikir belirtmek için ya da bir beklentiyi anlatmak için
You look tired. You should get some rest.
Recently you’ve been caughing a lot. You should give up smoking.
SHOULDN’T – OUGHT NOT TO
Janet is not a clever woman. She ought not to get the job.
OR Janet is not a clever woman. She shouldn’t get the job.
Tarık İnce Dilko4
SHOULD + HAVE + V3
OUGHT TO + HAVE + V3
Geçmiste bir seyi yapmamız / yapmamamız gerekirken yapmıssak / yapmamıssak bu yapıları
kullanırız. Bu anlamı vermek istedigimizde must have ya da must not have kesinlikle KULLANILMAZ.
You should have saved money when you were younger. (But you did not.)
I have a terrible stomach ache. I shouldn’t have eaten so much chocolate last night.
You’d beter take care of that cut in your hand or it will get infected.
HAD BETTER + HAVE + V3
You had beter visited her when she was in the hospital.
WOULD RATHER + V1 Tercih anlatır.
I would rather eat later. I’d rather travel by car. I’d rather not stay at home
WOULD RATHER + SOMEONE + V2
I am so tired. I’d rather you cooked diner.
It is cold outside. I’d rather you didn’t open the window.
WOULD RATHER + HAVE + V3
I’d rather have stayed with you on my holiday but I booked a room in a hotel.
WOULD PREFER + – TO INFINITIVE Tercih bildirir.
I would prefer to eat fish.
WOULD LIKE + -TO INFINITIVE istek bildirir.
I would like to g oto the match.
NEED + -TO INFINITIVE
You need to study instead of going to the match.
*** You needn’t speak that much. = MODAL
*** You don’t need to speak that much. = VERB
NEEDN’T + HAVE + V3
‘Yapmama gerek yoktu, bosuna yaptım.’ anlamında. *** bosuna = in vain.
You needn’t have washed the dishes. The maid is coming tomorrow. (You washed them in vain.)
You needn’t have bought any eggs since there are lots of them in the fridge.
DIDN’T NEED TO
‘Yapmama gerek yoktu, ben de yapmadım zaten.’ anlamında. (didn’t have to anlamında)
She didn’t need to g oto work because it was a public holiday.
I didn’t need to buy the tickets because my cousin had already bought them.
BE SUPPOSED TO
Beklenti için kullanılır. ‘Bekleniyor, umuluyor’ diye çevrilir.
The match is supposed to start at 8 pm.
You aren’t supposed to be late for the classes.
WAS / WERE SUPPOSED TO
Yapılması gereken bir sey yapılmadıgında kullanılır.
They were supposed to meet at the airport.
Tarık İnce Dilko5
Gelecege iliskin plan ya da kararlastırılmıs bir is anlatır.
There is to be a meeting on Dec, 13th.
Bir görev ya da yasak bildirir.
You are to come to the classes on time. You are not to smoke here.