English

Gerunds and Infinitives

Okuma Süresi:177 Dakika, 47 Saniye

Gerunds and Infinitives

Gerunds Infinitives

 

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES                                                                    

Bir gerund ya da infinitive, cümlede isim gibi işlev gören fiildir. İsimlerin kullanıldığı özne, nesne vb. durumunda kullanılır. Gerund *, bir fiil köküne "-ing" takısının eklenmesiyle elde edilir: swimming, reading, playing football, having to get up early, etc.

Swimming is my favourite sport.

I like reading contemporary books.

Having to get up early won't bother me at all.

Infinitive ise fiilin başına to getirerek ya da fiili yalın haliyle kullanarak elde edilir: to learn English, to climb the mountain, to be able to speak English fluently, etc.

It isn't so difficult to learn English.
To climb to the top of the mountain won't be easy.
To be able to speak English fluently is desired by every learner.
I will let you go soon.

The film made everybody cry.

1-      GERUNDS

1-1    GERUND AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE

Gerund, bir cümlenin ya da bir yan cümlenin öznesi olarak kullanılır. Bu özne tek bir sözcükten (simple gerund: swimming, reading, etc.) ya da bir sözcük grubundan (gerund phrase: listening to the news, having the necessary qualifications, etc.) oluşabilir.

Reading is essential to broaden one's horizons.

Cooking is my mother's favourite work.

Teasing animals is cruel.

Having to work hard all the time can strain one's nerves.

Eating too much makes people fat.

I think that eating a balanced diet will help you to slim healthily.

After some time she realized that living in a foreign country was rather distressing.

Bir cümlenin öznesi gerund ise, yüklemi tekil bir fiilden oluşur (is, was, does etc.). Ancak, iki gerund and ile bağlanıyorsa, o öznenin içinde birden fazla öğe bulunduğu için, yüklem çoğul bir fiilden oluşur (are, were, do, etc.).

Being interested in books is a good quality.

Giving severe punishments to children is unfair.

Swimming and running are my favourite sports.

Ironing and washing the dishes are the most boring jobs for me.

*    Gerund ile present participle arasındaki ayrana dikkat ediniz.                                                Gerund "-ing" takısı ile bir fiil kökünden elde edilmiş isimdir.

Swimming can help you to slim.

Present participle ise fiilin, sürerlilik bildiren tense'lerle çekimlenirken "-ing" takısı almasıdır.

The children are swimming in the sea.

İki gerund but ya da or ile bağlanıyorsa, yine tekil fiil alır.

Living in the same house but not sharing the household duties shows her irresponsibility.

Walking but not running is advisable to those who are suffering from heart diseases.

Reading a book for a while or listening to slow music gives relaxation after a hard day's work.

Gerund'ı olumsuz yapmak için başına not getirilir.

Not being aware of the facts can't be regarded as an excuse.

His not wanting to come with us surprised us all.

The government’s not taking strict measures against the increasing interest rates will destroy our economy.

EXERCISE   1    :   Complete each of the following sentences with a simple gerund or gerund phrase as subject of the sentence.

Example:       Story telling is an ancient tradition.

Cycling is more environmentally friendly than driving a car.

1-  …………………………….. was the most exciting thing we did on our last holiday.

2-  …………………………….. is the worst thing about living with my parents.

3-  ……………………………… is the worst thing about travelling on a coach.

4-  …………………………….. loudly is not permitted in the library.

5-  …………………………….. too much tea and coffee can keep you awake.

6-  …………………………….. can strain your eyes.

7-  …………………………….. and …………………………. are difficult in a foreign language.

8-  …………………………….. uphill is difficult for grandmother now.

9-  …………………………….. might be difficult considering my low wages.

10-          …………………………….. helped them find a compromise.

1-2    GERUND AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT

Bir gerund be fiilinden sonra gelerek özneyi tanımlayan bir sözcük olabilir.

My biggest problem at work now is having to deal with too many people every day.

Their favourite pastime is watching television.

What he is most interested in is driving at high speed.

Her biggest dream is having a more affectionate mother.

The quality needed in this job is being polite all the time.

 

 

EXERCISE   2    :    a) Answer the following questions with a gerund or gerund phrase as subject complement.

Example:          What are the things you like to do most while travelling?

The things I like to do most while travelling are reading and sleeping.

< >What are the hardest things about driving a car?The hardest things about driving a car are ……………………….. and ……………………… .< >What do you consider your most important responsibilities for the future of our planet? My most important responsibilities for the future of our planet are ……………………….. and ……………………….. .< >Suppose that you were the head of a new charity to help old people. What would your main priorities be? My main priorities would be ……………………….. and …………………………… .< >What do you think is the hardest part of nursing?I think the hardest part of nursing is ………………………………………. .< >What is the worst side of living in your city?The worst side of living in my city is …………………………………….. .

b)    Complete the following sentences with a gerund or gerund phrase as subject complement.

< >My greatest achievement so far in life has been …………………………………The most likely thing to annoy me while I am sitting on a bus or train is …………………………………The greatest challenge for Turkey today is …………………. .The characteristic I most admire in a politician is ………… .The most important thing in life is ……………………………… .1-3 GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT

Bazı  fiiller,  kendilerinden  sonra gelen fiili gerund biçiminde alırlar.  Gerund bu cümlelerde nesne olarak işlev görür.

I'm afraid I have to delay going on holiday.

I enjoy walking by the sea very much.

You can go out when you've finished doing your homework.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller şunlardır:

admit                 delay             involve                         recollect (remember)

anticipate          deny              keep                             recommend

appreciate         detest             mean                            remember

avoid                 discuss           mention                        resent

can't help          dislike            mind                             resist

can't stand         enjoy             miss                              risk

complete           excuse *        postpone                      stop

consider            finish             practise                         suggest

contemplate      forgive           quit                               tolerate

defer                 imagine          recall (remember)         understand *

Examples :

He admitted stealing his mother's silver tray but denied selling it for drugs.

I appreciate being with friends.

He avoided looking at me while I was criticising him.

I can't help feeling sorry when I see small children in the street begging for money.

I excused her taking my dress without my permission.

I miss our gathering round my grandmother and listening to her war tales.

They had to postpone giving a party because of the car accident their son had.

In order to improve your English, you should practise speaking it whenever possible. 

You have to quit eating too much if you want to slim.

I don't recall meeting you before.

I resented not receiving an invitation to the party.

Though she is on a strict diet, she sometimes can't resist eating dessert.

You risk losing all your money in that business.

I suggest going for a walk instead of playing cards here.

My parents won't tolerate lying.

The Possessive + Gerund

Bir gerund'ın önünde iyelik sıfatı (possessive adjective : my, your, his, our, Ali's, my father's, my sisters', etc.) kullanılır. Ancak günlük dilde possessive yerine object pronoun da kullanılır (me, you, him, Ali, my father, my sisters, etc.).

Formal    :    I will never forgive Jack's scolding me in public.

I will never forgive his scolding me in public.
Informal  :    I will never forgive Jack scolding me in public.

I will never forgive him scolding me in public.

Bir gerund'm önünde possessive kullanıldığı zaman, genellikle anlamda bir değişme olur.

I admit being guilty.

Suçlu olduğumu kabul ediyorum.

(Suçlu olan ve kabul eden: ben)

I admit his being guilty.

Onun suçlu olduğunu kabul ediyorum.

(Kabul eden: ben, suçlu olan: o)

I dislike interrupting people working very hard.

Yoğun bir şekilde çalışan insanların işini bölmekten hoşlanmıyorum.

I dislike your interrupting people working very hard.

Yoğun bir şekilde çalışan insanların işini bölmenden hoşlanmıyorum.

*      Bu fiiller gerund'dan önce iyelik sıfatı kullanmayı gerektirirler,

I will excuse his coming late.

I don't understand your leaving so early.

1-4   GERUND AS   THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION

Bir preposition'dan sonra isim gelir. Bu nedenle bir preposition'dan sonra gelen fiil gerund biçimindedir.

I'm interested in music.

I'm interested in listening to music.

She is afraid of the dark.

She is afraid of going out in the dark.

I object to his proposal.  
I object to doing the job as he proposed.

I'm looking forward to my holiday.

I'm looking forward to having my holiday soon.           

be accustomed to                                I'm accustomed to Turkish coffee.

I'm accustomed to drinking Turkish coffee.

be used to                                           I'm not used to heavy clothes.

I'm not used to wearing heavy clothes.

look forward to                                  I look forward to your letter.

I look forward to receiving a letter from you.

be opposed to                                     I'm opposed to excessive cosmetics spending.

I'm opposed to spending excessively on cosmetics.

object to/have an objection to                        I have an objection to the plan.

I have an objection to carrying out the plan in this way.

prefer something to doing something             I prefer tennis to basketball.

I prefer playing tennis to playing basketball.

in addition to                                      In addition to jeans, she bought lots of things.

In addition to buying jeans, she bought lots of things.

Son iki örnekte, to dan sonra gerund kullanımına dikkat ediniz. Bu örneklerde to, infinitive'in bir bölümü değil, preposition'dur. Bu nedenle kendinden sonra gerund gelir.

1-         I want a book on pollution.

I want to read a book on pollution.

2-         I object to your offer.

I object to having the meeting at such a late hoar.

Yukarıdaki örneklerden birincisinde, "want"ın kendine ait bir preposition'ı yoktur. Bu nedenle kendinden sonra direk nesne alır (want a newspaper, want a job, etc.) Ancak "want"tan sonra fiile geçerken to ile geçilir, yani to + infinitive gelir, (want to buy, want to sleep, etc.)

İkinci örnekte ise to "object" fiiline bağlı bir preposition'dır. Bu nedenle, "object"den sonra bir nesneye geçerken de to kullanılır. Fiil ise gerund biçiminde gelir.

Preposition'ı to olan yaygın yapılar şunlardır:

 

 

 

Preposition + Gerund yapısını üç bölümde inceleyebiliriz.

a)        Verb + Preposition + Gerund

b)       Adjective -r Preposition + Gerund

c)       Nouıı + Preposition + Gerund

a)        Verb + Preposition + Gerund

Bir preposition ile birlikte kullanılan fiilleri iki gruba ayırabiliriz.

1-       Verb + Preposition + Gerund

abstain from

He now has to abstain

 

from

drinking alcohol.

 

apologise for            ^

 

I apologised

 

for

being late.

 

adjust to

 

You will have to adjust

 

to

eating English meals when you go there.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

approve/disapprove of  x

 

Do you approve

 

of

her staying out so late?

 

argue about

 

Last night, we argued

 

about

her staying out so late.

 

believe in

 

I really believe

 

in

working hard for World Peace.

 

care about

 

Do you care

 

about

being well-dressed?

 

care for

 

I don't care

 

for

going to that film.

 

comment on

 

I don't want to comment

 

on

his solving the problem.

 

complain about

 

He always complains

 

about

having too much work.

 

concentrate on

You have to concentrate

 

on

improving your vocabulary.

 

consist of

Being a good student consists

 

of

studying  regularly.

 

deal with

I want to deal  

with

redecorating the house first.

 

decide against

Seeing the cold weather, we decided

 

against

going on a day out.

 

depend on (upon)

To pass the exam depends

 

on

 

your studying hard.

 

dream of

He has always dreamed

 

of

 

being a famous actor someday.

 

feel like

I feel

 

like

having a short trip.

 

forget about

She is trying to forget

 

about

being deceived by him.

 

insist on

Do you still insist

 

on

wearing that funny tie?

 

look forward to

What are you looking forward

 

to

doing most?

 

object to

Why do you always object

 

to

my wearing jeans?

 

participate in

I want to participate

 

in

formulating the budget.

 

plan on

What do you plan

 

on

doing this weekend?

 

refer to

In his speech, the chairman referred

 

to

expanding the firm into the Middle East.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

take advantage of

We should take advantage

 

of

living in a big city.

 

talk about

Last night, we talked

 

about

economizing to keep up with the

increasing prices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

think about/of

She is thinking

 

about

spending a  year in England to

improve her English.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

succeed in

Are you sure you'll succeed

 

in

 

persuading your father?

 

worn' about

Don't worry

 

about

 

my working so hard

 

 

 

2-       Verb + Object + Preposition + Gerund

accuse someone of

 

They accused

 

the mail

of

robbing the bank.

 

apologise to someone for

 

She apologised

 

to me

for

being late.

 

arrest someone for

 

They arrested

 

the guard

for

helping the robbers.

 

blame someone for

 

I blamed

 

her

for

making me late.

 

charge someone with

 

Thev will charge

 

him

with

falsifying the accounts.

 

complain to someone about

 

1 complained

 

to the owner

about

hassling us for the rent.

 

congratulate someone on

 

I congratulated

 

him

on

being the top student.

 

deter someone from

 

The storm deterred

 

the climbers

from

going on their climb.

 

devote oneself to

 

She devoted

 

herself

to

bringing up her children.

 

discourage someone from

 

Someone discouraged

 

her

from

going in for the beauty contest.

 

forgive someone for

 

I can't forgive

 

him

for

lying to me.

 

involve someone in

 

They didn't involve

 

their father

in

fighting their rivals.

 

keep someone from

 

By speaking too

loudly they kept

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

me

from

studying.

 

prevent someone from             -•

 

What prevented

 

him

from

leaving on holiday?

 

punish someone for

 

You shouldn't punish

 

the child

for

stealing the candy.

 

stop someone from

 

Her cold attitude

stopped

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

me

from

making friends with her.

 

suspect someone of

 

They suspected

him

of

betraying his partners.

 

thank someone for

 

I want to thank

them

for

helping me to find

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

accommodation.

 

warn someone about/against

 

We warned

the children

against

going too near the lake.

 

 

 

We warned

the children

about

playing too near the lake.

 

Bu fuller passive durumda çok sık kullanılırlar.

They accused the man of robbing the bank.

The man was accused of robbing the bank.

The doctor warned me against smoking so heavily.

I was warned against smoking so heavily.

They discouraged her from going abroad for her education.

She was discouraged from going abroad for her education.

The customers blame me for delaying their orders.

I am blamed by the customers for delaying their orders.

They suspected the man at the corner of being a thief.

The man at the corner was suspected of being a thief.

The dense fog deterred me from driving my car to work.

I was deterred by the dense fog from driving my car to work.

Everybody in the firm congratulated the manager on his being promoted to accounts director.

The manager was congratulated by everybody in the firm on his being promoted to accounts director.

She devoted herself to providing even possible advantage for her children.

She was devoted to providing even' possible advantage for her children.

EXERCISE   3  :    Complete the following sentences with an appropriate preposition and the gerund of the given verb.

< >I don't know why you don't forget ………… (study) …………………… theatre studies at university as you won't get a very good job with a degree in an arts subject.I tried to discourage her ………… (take) …………………… the job as I knew she would be bored at the cigarette factory.My friend's mother punished her ………… (dye) …………………… her hair bright red without permission.I decided ………… (vote) ……………………. for him because of his policy on taxation.We complained to the airline …………. (charge) …………………… us too much for the excess weight.We hadn't planned ………… (move) …………………… to California, but we loved it so much there that we bought a house.I would like the accounts assistant to get involved ………… (monitor) …………………… expenditure.The young salesman blamed the manager ………… (provide) …………………… too little support.My sister cares ………… (look) …………………… after our planet and gets annoyed when she reads about large companies destroying the environment.The police tried to prevent the demonstrators ………… (destroy) …………………… the gardens at Westminster.Calais, which is an amateur football club, succeeded ………… (reach) …………………… the finals of the French Football Cup.The International Cricket Committee accused the South African captain ………… (accept) …………………… money from an Indian gambling gang.Several headmasters disapprove ………… children (swap) …………………… Pokemon cards in school and have banned them.The director congratulated the actress Glenda Jackson ………… (portray)…………………… Queen Elizabeth I masterfully.She is devoted ………… (look) …………………… after her garden, and thus, it always looks fabulous.The Prime Minister warned voters ………….. (support) …………………… Ken Livingstone for London Mayor as he thought he would be disastrous for London.Esin is thinking ………… (take) …………………… a job as a childminder in America for one year in order to improve her English.Some people are so worried about the possibility of an earthquake in Istanbul that they feel ………… (move) …………………… to another town or city.The radio station received lots of phone calls which commented ………… the rioters' (destroy) …………………… the national monuments.The company accepted that their packaging was incorrect and thanked the customer ………… (bring) …………………… the matter to their attention.I apologised ………… (forget) …………………… the milk and popped to the local shop for some. We talked ………… (economise) …………………… in order to save some money for a new car.At work at the moment, we are adjusting ………… (use) …………………… a new computer system, so everything is taking a little longer than usual.A mechanical breakdown prevented us ………… (finish) …………………… the order on time.In their last statement, the chairman referred ………… (close) …………………… the factory altogether.He is very rich, but he doesn't believe ………… (give) …………………… money to charity.Jenny never forgave her brother ………… (damage) …………………… her new car.The)' can't take advantage ………… (have) …………………… a holiday home in the mountains as often as they would like.The level of business you gain depends ………… your (make) …………………… plenty of appointments with prospective customers.When Vicki was young, she used to dream ………… (marry) …………………… Cliff Richard, but that was before Rob asked her to the graduation dance.Your younger son seems very good at drawing.

Are you interested in taking photographs?

Though I tried to comfort her, she remained concerned about not hearing from her son.

You are certainly capable of doing much better work.

After the resignation of the manager’s secretary, Mrs Brown became responsible for carrying out her duties.

Bu şeklide yaygın olarak kullanılan sıfatlar şunlardır:

accustomed to       different from           feel guilty for/about     sorry about

afraid of                essential to/for          be guilty of                  successful in

angry at                 excellent in/at           incapable of                 suitable for

appropriate for      excited about            interested in                 sure of (about)

ashamed of           exposed to                jealous of                     surprised at

aware of                famous for                keen on                        terrified of

bored with             fed up with               lazy about                    tired of (from)

capable of             fond of                     opposed to                   used to (accustomed to)

concerned about   generous about         proud of                      worried about

content with          good at                      responsible for             happy about

delighted at           grateful to sb. for      similar to

NOTES:

Tired of, bir şeyden bıkmak, sıkılmak anlamına gelir. (=bored with, fed up with) Tired from, bir

işten dolayı yorulmak anlamındadır.

I'm tired of waiting for the bus to come. Let's take a taxi.

I think I'm getting old. I'm beginning to feel tired from working so hard.

Good at kullanımına benzer şekilde bad at, hopeless at, brilliant at, quick at, slow at gibi yapılar da kullanabiliriz.

She is quite quick at writing compositions in English but rather slow at speaking.

You can rely on that carpenter. He is brilliant at doing his job.

Be/get used to doing (be/get accustomed to doing) ile geçmişteki alışkanlıklarımızı ifade ettiğimiz "used to do" kalıbı arasındaki ayrıma dikkat ediniz.

I'm used to drinking coffee as soon as I get up in the morning.                                 (Sabah kalkar kalkmaz kahve içmeye alışkınım.)

The job seemed rather difficult to me at first, but later I got used to working there.

(Önceleri iş bana oldukça zor geldi ama daha sonra orada  çalışmaya alıştım.)

You will have to get used to doing your chores on your own when you leave your family.

(Ailenizden ayrılınca işlerinizi kendi başınıza yapmaya alışmak zorunda kalacaksınız.)

She has been used to living alone since her husband's death.

My mother used to do my chores for me when I lived with them, but after I left my family, I had to do them by myself.                                                                     (Ailemle birlikte otururken işlerimi annem yapardı.)

I used to smoke more when I was at university, but now I smoke less. (Üniversitedeyken daha çok sigara içerdim ama…)

She used to be quite slim before she got married.                                                (Evlenmeden önce oldukça zayıftı.)

EXERCISE   4    : Complete the following sentences with an appropriate preposition and the gerund of the given verb.

< >While I was living in Istanbul, I had to get accustomed ………… (stand) ………………….. on crowded buses.I don't mind washing up, but I'm quite lazy ………… (put) ………………….. things back in the cupboard.I'm not sure ………… (study) ………………….. accounting any more. It's so boring.Jemma was not content………… (come) ………………….. second in the school race and ran to her mother in tears.She is really generous ………… (give) ………………….. advice to her colleagues, although she doesn't have much time to spare.The manager's incompetence is responsible ………… (lose) ………………….. the company lots of business.I wish I didn't have to go to work now as I'm still tired ………… (cycle) …………………..along the coast yesterday.I always take my mobile phone with me when I drive long distances as I'm afraid ………… (have) ………………….. a breakdown  a long way from home.He was angry ………… their (describe) ………………….. the hotel in the brochure as 'a stone's throw away' from the sea. After all, how far can one throw a stone?Do you think the novel The Great Gatsby' is appropriate ………… (include) ………………….. on a reading list for fifteen-year-old students?A spirit level is essential ………… (assure) ………………….. that the shelves are straight. He felt guilty ………… (have) ………. to ask his father for money again.She was surprised ………… (get) ………………….. the promotion as she had expected the other sales assistant to get it.Although in Nicaragua she had been a doctor, she wasn't ashamed ………… (work) ………………….. in a factory in Germany.I'm opposed ………… your (go) ………………….. out because you will be exposed ………… (get) ………………….. teased by the other children, who are older than you.   I find it hard to believe that he is incapable ………… (use) ………………….. a computer. After all, he's at university, isn't he?We felt sorry ………… (lose) ………………….. a respected colleague, but we knew that he was ideally suited to his new job.I didn't think Real Madrid were capable ………… (beat) ………………….. Barcelona.We are fed up ………… (make) ………………….. just enough money to live on without having any extra to enjoy ourselves with.Although they had been friends for four years, Jason was jealous ………… Malcolm (get) ………………….. accepted at the School of Economics in London, and so he didn't answer his letters.Are you happy ………… (move) ………………….. to Aberdeen?We were delighted ………… (receive) ………………….. a visit from our old friends from Turkey.When the children find out about the tickets, they are going to be really excited ………… (go) ………………….. to the tennis championship.Wightwick Manor is a lovely old country house to visit, especially if you are interested  ………… (see) ………………….. some original work by William Morris.A Citroen 2CV is great ………… (drive) ………………….. around town in, but not really suitable ………… (travel) ………………….. long distances.Students usually enjoy university life once they have got used ………… (live)………………….. away from home.The young journalist was grateful ………… the Editor of "The Independent' newspaper ………… (give) ………………….. him a job, which he knew he would enjoy.My cousin told me that their trip across the Channel on the hovercraft was similar ………… (travel) ………………….. on a bus.I bought a new suit because I was concerned ………… (not, look) ………………….. my best at the interview.Although he is good ………… (make) ………………….. appointments by telephone, he is terrified …………. (meet) ………………….. the customers face to face.

on account of

….. yüzünden

in case of

….. durumunda

  • difficulty in

….. sıkıntı çekmek

in addition to

….. ilaveten, yanı sıra

  • in charge of

….. ile yükümlü

  • in danger of

….. tehlikesiyle karşı karşıya

in exchange for

….. karşılık olarak

excuse for

….. mazereti olmak

in favour of

….. lehinde olmak, taraftar olmak

for fear of

….. korkusuyla

  • in the habit of

….. alışkanlığında olmak

in return for

….. karşılık olarak

instead of

…..yerine

interest in

….. ilgisi olmak

in the course of

….. sırasında, esnasında

in the middle of

….. ortasında

need for

….. olan gereksinim

reason for

….. nedeni

for the sake of

……hatırı için, ….. uğruna

in spite of

….. rağmen

  • technique for

….. nın tekniği

the point of

….. nın gereği, ….. nın anlamı (yok)

  • on the point of

….. yapmak üzere olmak

 

NOTES:

Bu yapılan kullanırken, gerund'un başında possessive adjective  (my,  your,  his,  etc.) yaygın olarak kullanılır. (Başında yıldız bulunan yapılarla possessive kullanılmaz.)

I'm not in favour of your going abroad for education.

In exchange for your taking the time to help me, I want to do something for you.

I have a great interest in his singing.

The point of, bir şeyi yapmanın gereği, anlamı demektir ve daha çok olumsuz biçimde kullanılır              (bir gereği/anlamı yok).

The road is winding. I don't understand the point of your driving so fast.

Bu yapı there is kalıbıyla, "there is no/isn't any point in doing" biçiminde de kullanılır.

There is no point in waiting for him any more. He won't come.                     (Onu daha fazla beklemenin bir anlamı yok.)

On the point of doing, "be about to do" (…yapmak üzere olmak) anlamındadır.

I was on the point of leaving home when the phone rang.                                I was about to leave home when the phone rang.

"Have difficulty in", preposition almadan da kullanılır ve yine, kendinden sonra gerund alır. Difficult'ın önünde no, little, less, much, more, great gibi sözcükler kullanarak, zorluğun derecesini azaltabilir ya da çoğaltabiliriz. Have difficulty ile aynı anlamda have trouble/have a hard time/have a difficult time doing something yapılarını da kullanabiliriz.

I had great difficulty (in) finding a flat at a price I could afford.

You will have no difficulty/won't have any difficulty (in) answering the questions about the prepositions if you learn all of them by heart.

EXAMPLES:

We were late for the concert on account of your taking too much time to get dressed.

I can only afford to look after myself now, but in case of my parents' needing any help, I'd go short myself.       

Do you think I'll have much difficulty (in) adjusting to British culture?

In addition to working in an office during the day, she is attending English courses in the evenings.

You are in charge of meeting the customers and making them feel comfortable.

You are in danger of losing all your money.

In exchange for borrowing this book from you, I can lend you one of mine.

Do you have a good excuse for being late?

I'm in favour of taking strict measures against drunken driving.

We went in quietly for fear of waking the others at home.

I'm not in the habit of going to bed very late.

Will you get anything in return for helping them?

Let's watch the film on TV instead of playing cards.

She has a great interest in learning about other cultures.

 

There was great chaos in the course of the minister's speaking to the public.

When they heard a sound like a bomb exploding, the professor stopped speaking right in the middle of giving his lecture.

Can you tell me what is the need for your working so hard?

The reason for his not being able to get up early is that he goes to bed too late.

Everybody must do whatever they can for the sake of realizing World Peace.

She has difficulty (in) making ends meet in spite of earning a big salary.

If you want to improve, your writing skills, you should learn the techniques for writing good paragraphs.

I don't see the point of buying a second car. We share the present one with no problems.

They were on the point of leaving the office when it started to rain heavily.

EXERCISE   5    :  Complete the following sentences with an appropriate preposition and the gerund of the given verb.

< >It was quite embarrassing. Sonia came into the room when we were in the middle …………. (discuss) ………………….. the surprise party for her. What's the point …………. (spend) ………………….. a lot of money on advertising when we have more than enough work for the next three months?They chose our service on account …………. our (offer) ………………….. them free delivery.Tie-dye' is a technique …………. (dye) ………………….. cloth, which has been developed into different styles in different cultures.In the case …………. her (have) ………………….. to sell her house, she could stay in our guest room for a while.For the sake …………. (avoid) ………………….. any argument, Janice never invites her parents and her husband's parents to the same function.Are you sure you won't have any difficulty …………. (get) ………………….. to the airport on your own?He believes that there is a need ………… (discuss) ………………….. the plans with residents before going ahead.As well as being responsible for the entire accounts department. Tony is also in charge …………. (acquire) ………………….. company vehicles.In the course …………. (learn) ………………….. German, I took a course in Hamburg one summer.You are in danger …………. (lose) ………………….. your friends if you don't keep in touch with them.Let's look at all the alternatives instead …………. (make) ………………….. a rash decision.In exchange …………. her (make) ………………….. a jacket for me. I did her accounts for her.She made a very unconvincing excuse …………. (not be) ………………….. ready on time.We decided against an expensive holiday in Egypt in favour …………. (relax) ………………….. at home.It's no use trying to conceal what you have just done. I saw you.

It's no good trying to persuade my father. He won't allow me to come with you.

There is no point in … (… bir anlamı yok)

There is no point in running for the train. It must have left by now.

There was no point in waiting for him in front of the cinema after the film had started, so I went in.

It's worth … / It's not worth … (… yapmaya değer / … yapmaya değmez)

I don't think it's worth mending this pullover. It's already worn-out.

–    Have you watched the film "Bodyguard"?

–    Yes, it's worth seeing. The music, especially, is wonderful.

This book isn't worth reading. Its plot is nonsense.

I think you should consider their offer. Their offer is worth considering.

A waste of time / money / energy … (… zaman / para / enerji kaybı)

It's a waste of money buying things more than you need.

It's a waste of time trying to do all this work by yourself. You can ask for help.

Spend / waste (time, money, energy) … (… yaparak vakit geçirmek / para, enerji harcamak / vaktini, enerjini, parayı boşa harcamak)

Yesterday, I spent the whole day cleaning the house.

He usually spends hours trying to repair things.

You waste a lot of time watching those ridiculous series on TV.

She wasted a large amount of money buying furniture last year, and now she is redecorating her house again.

Small nations waste a lot of money buying arms.

Without doing … (… yapmadan, … yapmaksızın)

Don't go out without putting on your coat. It's rather cold outside.

I got really surprised when she went past me without greeting me.

She never leaves home without kissing her parents.

By doing … (… yaparak)

By doing, temel cümledeki eylemi nasıl yaptığımızı açıklar.

She passed the university exam by studying very hard.                    (Çok çalışarak sınavı geçti.)

I'm very short of time. I can only catch the bus by running fast.

They are trying to stabilize the economy by increasing taxes, but I'm afraid it won't work.

Because it can't speak, a baby makes its needs known by crying.

 

Go + gerund

Pek çok aktivite, özellikle sportif olaylar için go + gerund kullanılır. Bunlardan yaygın olarak kullanılanlar şunlardır:

go shopping                               go hiking

go swimming (go for a swim)    go hunting

go running (go for a run)           go sightseeing

go camping                                go skating

go fishing                                   go skiing

I went shopping yesterday, so I wasn't at home in the afternoon.

My husband and my son are very fond of catching fish, so they often go fishing along the Bosphorus.

My favourite sport is running. I often go running along the seashore early in the morning.

Busy doing something (birşeyi yapmakla meşgul olmak)

The students were busy talking when I entered the classroom.

In this season, the peasants are very busy harvesting their crops.

Don't disturb her. She is busy compiling the information for her graduation thesis.

Busy'den sonra direk bir isim geliyorsa, isimden önce with kullanılır.

She is busy with her homework.

They are busy with their financial problems these days.

The students were busy with the experiment when the teacher came into the laboratory.

Have fun / have a good time doing

We had fun telling each other our childhood memories.

My sister in England says in her letter that she is having a good time there visiting interesting places and meeting people from various cultures.

Sit / stand / lie + expression of place + gerund

After the guests left, I lay in bed reading until I got sleepy.

I stood there, in front of the cinema, waiting in vain for him to come.

After breakfast, father usually sits in his armchair reading the newspaper.

 

 

 

EXERCISE   6    :    Answer the following questions using by + gerund.

Example:      How did he become a millionaire? (He invested in the stock market.)
He became a millionaire by investing in the stock market.

< >How do you find time to relax with three children and a part-time job? (I plan my time carefully) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How do you manage to make ends meet with such a small salary? (I don't spend anything on luxury items.) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How did they rescue the boy? (They threw him a rope from a helicopter.) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How does Durham City council intend to ease the traffic congestion in the city? (They'll charge motorists a £2 entrance fee.) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How will you find a new job? (I will read the advertisements in professional magazines.)Example:      She bought a dress. She didn't try it on.
She bought a dress without trying it on.< >Unlike my friend, I can't make a dress if I don't follow a pattern. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………My brother rides his bike and he doesn't hold onto the handle bars. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………He lived on the coast all his life. He wasn't, able to swim. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Polynesians crossed the Pacific Ocean. They didn't have any navigational devices. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………The doctor worked 15 hours. She didn't take a break. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Our German customers are here, so the manager is busy …………………….. them the production facilities. (show)I'm sorry, the manager is out of the office at the moment.  He is busy ……………….                   (our German guests)Since they bought the old mansion, they have been busy ……………. .   (the restoration)Since the building work was finished, they have been busy …………………….. the inside walls. (paint)She has chosen to write about Sappho, the ancient Greek poet, and is busy in the library …………………….. for some suitable books. (look)The thief admitted that he had stolen the car.

(Arabayı  çalmış  olması   (had  stolen),  yüklemden   (admitted) daha  önce gerçekleşmiştir.)

The thief admitted stealing / having stolen the car.

At the court, the headmaster denied hitting / having hit the child.

He was accused  of embezzling  /  having embezzled  a large sum  of money into his own account.

I appreciated your helping / having helped me.

Perfect gerund kullanımı admit ve deny fiilleri ile yaygındır. Diğer fiillerle simple gerund tercih edilir.

1-7   THE PASSIVE GERUND

Passive'in temel kuralı be + past participle (be done) olduğu için, kendinden sonra gerund alan fiiller, bu passive yapıyı being done biçiminde alır.

I have been invited to the party. I appreciate this.

I appreciate being invited to the party.

(Partiye davet edilmek hoşuma gitti.)

Bu kullanımlarda yüklemin active, gerund'ın passive olduğuna dikkat ediniz.

She insists on our telling her the truth whatever it is.

She insists on being told the truth whatever it is.

I don't enjoy being asked personal questions.

You can't go to a party without being invited.

Being the son of a very rich man, he is in danger of being kidnapped.

He is justly proud of being elected chairman.

For fear of being attacked, she avoids going out alone after dark.

I resented not being invited to the wedding.

I can't stand being told what to do.

I don't recall being informed about this case before.

Perfect gerund'ın passive biçimi için having been done kullanılır.

The man denied being involved/having been involved in the robbery.

She went to the party without being invited/having been invited.

I don't recall being told/having been told about this case before.

She doesn't seem interested in being given/having been given a reward for her work.

EXERCISE   9 :     Complete the sentences using active gerund (simple or perfect) or passive gerund (simple or perfect) of the verbs given in parentheses, and supply an appropriate preposition where needed.

< >I'm rather angry ………… (lie) …………………. to by one of my friends.She was having difficulty ………… (find) …………………. a job in spite ………… (have) …………………. a master's degree in economics.Before his book was published, he couldn't imagine (see) …………………. his name on the cover of a paperback.I'm incapable ………… (lift) …………………. anything heavy at the moment as I've strained a muscle.Professor Freeman is not in the habit ………… (advise) …………………. students unless they make an appointment to see him in advance.They were all given free tickets to the show in return ………… (set) …………………. up the community hall ready for the performance.I don't think it was fair for her to be transferred to the Izmir branch without (give) ………………… plenty of warning.After running her own business, she found it hard in her new job to get accustomed ………… (tell) …………………. what to do by a manager.The financial director was in favour ………… (hire) …………………. cars for the new sales representatives instead ………… (purchase) …………………. vehicles for them.In the course ………… (examine) …………………. by the doctor, she was told she would have to go into hospital immediately.He was on the point ………… (hand) …………………. in his notice when he was offered a promotion.They moved to the mountains on account ………… his (suffer) …………………. from breathing difficulties.In addition ………… (be) …………………. popular with her colleagues, she gets on well with the customers too.Good morning. I'm interested ………… (improve) …………………. my English and I've been thinking ………… (study) …………………. in the evenings. Do you have any suitable courses? I really appreciate your (take) …………………. the time yesterday to show me the procedure.The referee refused to tolerate (shout) …………………. at by the captain of the team and sent him off the pitch.We should take more advantage ………… (own) …………………. a video player and buy some good feature films.As a teacher, she prefers (give) …………………. lessons to (mark) …………………. tests and homework.The report referred ………… the rebel leader (capture) …………………. in Sierra Leone.I recall (visit) …………………. Ludlow once before, but it was such a long time ago that I don't remember where we ate dinner.There isn't any need ………… (memorise) …………………. dates as I am far more interested ………… (read) …………………. accurate, descriptive accounts of events in your exam answers.Working for yourself means (find) …………………. your own motivation.I object ………… your (imply) …………………. that I haven't contributed my fair share towards the project.If they want to make a contribution towards slowing down global warming, the government should concentrate ………… (encourage) …………………. industry to emit less carbon dioxide and people to drive cleaner cars.I warned her ………… (argue) …………………. with the manager and now she wonders why she didn't get the promotion.(work) …………………. for someone else is completely different ………… (run) …………………. your own business.The children were having fun (play) …………………. in the sand and were quite happy ………… (spend) …………………. the entire day on the beach.Every night for ten years, that man has stood on that corner (sell) …………………. newspapers.In the end, the manager admitted (involve) …………………. in the embezzlement case.Our sales manager can't bear customers (change) …………………. their minds at the last minute.

Infinitive tek bir sözcükten oluşabilir (simple infinitive: to succeed, to rest, etc.). ya da bir sözcük grubundan oluşabilir (infinitive phrase: to talk about economy, to study medicine at university, to drive dangerously, etc.)

She wants to study languages at university.

To be a student is really a difficult job.

They are planning to move into another house.

Her father doesn't let her go out alone at night.

His poor appearance made us feel sorry for him.

Infinitive’i olumsuz yapmak için başına not getirilir.

It's difficult for a mother not to feel concerned about her children.

I agreed not to invite too many people to the party.

She pretended not to see me.

Yüklemin olumsuz olmasıyla, infinitive'in olumsuz olmasının cümlenin anlamını değiştirdiğine dikkat ediniz.

I haven't decided yet to go to the cinema with you.

(Sizinle sinemaya gitmeye henüz karar vermedim.)

I have decided not to go to the cinema with you.

(Sizinle sinemaya gitmemeye karar verdim.)

Yukarıdaki cümlelerden birincisinde, karar verme eylemi henüz gerçekleşmemiş. Bu yüzden "decide" fiilinin kendisi olumsuz. İkinci cümlede ise karar verme eylemi gerçekleşmiş. Ancak olumsuz yönde bir karar verilmiş. Bu nedenle olumsuzluk "go" fiiline aittir (not to go).

She didn't agree to buy a small car.

(Küçük bir araba almayı kabul etmedi.)

She agreed not to buy a small car.

(Küçük bir araba almamayı kabul etti.)

2-1   INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE

Simple infinitive ya da infinitive phrase bir cümlenin öznesi olabilir. Ancak İngilizce'de, cümleye infinitive bir özne ile başlamak pek yaygın değildir. Bunun yerine cümleye "It" ile başlayıp, asıl özneyi yüklemden sonra kullanmak daha yaygındır.

To save money is impossible these days.

It is impossible to save money these days.

To chat is fun.

It is fun to chat.

To chat with a close friend is fun.

It is fun to chat with a close friend.

Bu cümlelerde "it" amamı etkilemez. Yani her iki. cümlenin de anlamı aynıdır.

To travel by minibus takes a lot of time.

It takes a lot of rime to travel by minibus.

(Minibüsle seyahat etmek çok zaman alıyor.)

To jump out of a plane with a parachute takes courage.

It takes courage to jump out of a plane with a parachute.

To become perfect in a foreign language takes years.

It takes years to become perfect in a foreign language.

Daha önce bir gerund'ın da cümlenin öznesi durumunda olabildiğini görmüştük. Pek çok cümlede, öznenin gerund ya da infinitive olması arasında bir fark yoktur. Ancak özne genel bir durumu ifade ediyorsa gerund, özel bir durumu ifade ediyorsa infinitive tercih edilir.

Swimming is my favourite sport.

Reading is very important for children.

Knowing English enables vou to communicate with foreigners.

To swim in that river isn't at all wise.

To read this book in just three days will be difficult.

To learn English will enable you to find a good job.

Cümleye "it" ile başlıyorsak, devamındaki asıl özne gerund değil, infinitive olabilir.

It isn't at all wise to swim in that river.

It is important for children to read.

Cümleye başlarken bir possessive (my, your, his, All's, Jane's, my mother's etc.) kullanıyorsak, özne olarak gerund kullanılır.

His coming late made us angry.

Her not wanting to come with us is quite surprising.

The employees' complaining too much about the pay rise made the management think it over.

EXERCISE   10 :    Rewrite  the  following sentences  using "it" as  the  subject of the sentence.

< >To talk problems over with a friend is good.It ………………………………………………………………………………………………< >To make a good wine takes a long time.It ……………………………………………………………………………………………….< >To conserve energy is everyone's responsibility.It……………………………………………………………………………………………… .< >To drive from one-side of America to the other would be fantastic.It ………………………………………………………………………………………….. .< >To save for the future takes discipline.It ……………………………………………………………………………………………… .

For + Noun/Pronoun + Infinitive

Özne olarak bir infinitive, gerund ya da it ile başlayan cümlelerde, eylemin kimin için zor, kolay vs. olduğunu belirtmek için for + noun/pronoun kullanılır.

Swimming is easy for me.          

To swim is easy for me. 

It is easy for me to swim.

Driving in heavy traffic isn't difficult for an experienced driver.

To drive in heavy traffic isn't difficult for an experienced driver.

It isn't difficult for an experienced driver to drive in heavy traffic.

Of + Noun/Pronoun + Infinitive

Özne olarak "if ile başlayan cümlelerde, bazı sıfatlardan sonra of + noun/pronoun yapısı kullanılır. Bu sıfatlar, eylemi değil de, eylemi yapan kişiyi tanımlayan sıfatlardır: polite, kind, rude, smart, clever, etc.

It's kind of you to help me.

(Bana yardım ettiğin için çok naziksin.)

It was very rude of him to treat you like that.

(Sana böyle davranması büyük kabalıktı.)

It was careless of me to leave the key in the house.

(Anahtarı evde unutmam büyük dikkatsizlikti.)

Of + noun/pronoun ile for + noun/pronoun arasındaki ayrıma dikkat ediniz. For + noun/ pronoun, "bu eylemi yapmak bu kişi için zor, kolay, vs." anlamını ifade ediyor. Of + noun/ pronoun ise, "Kişi bu eylemi yaptığı- için dikkatsiz, düşünceli, kaba, nazik, vs." anlamını ifade ediyor.

It's necessary for you to learn English very well.

(İngilizceyi çok iyi öğrenmek sizin için gerekli.)

It's clever of him to learn both English and computing.

(Onun hem İngilizce hem de bilgisayar öğrenmesi çok akıllıca.)

EXERCISE   11 :    Combine the two sentences using for + noun/pronoun + infinitive or                           of + noun/pronoun + infinitive and beginning your sentence with "it".

Examples:       He bought the children an ice cream. It was generous.

It was generous of him to buy the children an ice cream.

He won't convince her to move to Italy. It will be impossible.

If will be impossible for him to convince her to move to Rain.

< >She rescued him from the lake. She was brave. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..You will have a full medical check-up. It is necessary. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..He left his mobile phone on the passenger seat of his car. It was foolish. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..The students are going to make their first parachute jump. It will be exciting. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..They-gave us a lot of clothes for the baby. It was kind. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..I lay in the sun for an hour without any protection. It was stupid. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..He didn't give the clerk the afternoon off on the day his baby was born. It was miserly. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..We won't be going to the Tina Turner concert. It would be too expensive. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..She uses a computer to correspond with her brother in Australia. It is economical and convenient. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..He left his tablets at home. It was forgetful. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..She complained about the company to the new recruit. It was unprofessional. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..He didn't inform anyone about where he was going mountain climbing on his own. It wasn't sensible. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..They received death threats. It must have been frightening. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..My mother's neighbour offered to take her shopping. It was considerate. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..They should run a smaller car. It would be more economical. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..When I was a child, my ambition was to be an architect.

A government's policy should be to do whatever is needed to improve the standard of living.

After dinner tonight, my plan is to take a walk along the seashore.

What you need is to get some fresh air.

Daha önce gerund'ın bu kullanımını görmüştük. Ancak, gerund'ı genel ifadeler için tercih etmek

gerekir.

Her favourite sport is playing tennis. (general)

Her plan after work today is to play tennis. (specific)

A nationwide pastime is watching television. (general)

What I will do after dinner is to watch television. (specific)

EXERCISE   12:   Answer the following questions using infinitive as subject complement.

Example:          What's the board's decision about the wages?

The board's decision about the wages is to increase them bu 25 percent for the first half of the year.

< >What should a doctor's aim be?A doctor's aim should be ……………………………………………. .< >Suppose you were given a million pounds to spend on a charitable cause. What would your objective be? My objective would be ……………………………………………….. .< >What is your plan for tonight?My plan for tonight is …………………………………………………. .< >As far as your career is concerned, what is your worst fear? My worst fear is …………………………………………………………….< >If you were Prime Minister, what would your aim be?My aim would be ………………………………………………………..< >As a father, what should your responsibilities be?My responsibilities as a father should be ………………………….< >What should a court judge's duty be?A court judge's duty should be ……………………………………… .

2-3   INFINITIVE AS DIRECT OBJECT

Kendinden sonra infinitive alan fiilleri üç gruba ayırabiliriz.

< >Verb + infinitiveShe decided to move to another city.            < >Verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive         She persuaded me to go with her.< >Either verb + infinitive or verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive She expected to get home early.

She expected me to get home early.

< >Verb + Infinitiveafford                    consent                    hesitate                                       plan                          seem
agree                      decide                                                  hope                          prepare                                          struggle

appear                    demand                    learn                  pretend            swear     

arrange                   deserve                                                manage                     proceed                       tend

care                        endeavor                   mean                   promise            threaten

choose (prefer)      fail                                                       prove               volunteer

claim                      happen                      offer                  refuse                        wait

EXAMPLES:

They couldn't afford to go on holiday last summer.

I don't agree to work with him.

You appear to be pale today. Is there something wrong?

We arranged to meet in front of the cinema.

I don't care to live alone.

She chose to stay home while we went out.

Don't hesitate to contact me if you need any help.

She demanded in a firm voice to talk to me.

She endeavored to finish her homework, but she couldn't.

She hopes to pass the exam with a good grade.

He never seems to succeed.

She sometimes tends to speak too much.

Some of the students volunteered to bring some food from their home for the picnic.

He couldn't wait to see the manager.

Prove, kendinden sonra bir reflexive pronoun + infinitive alabilir.

The new headmaster proved to be successful.

The new headmaster proved himself to be successful.

I soon proved to be reliable.

I soon proved myself to be reliable.

Prove'dan sonra infinitive kullanmadan, direk sıfat kullanabiliriz.

The new project proved useless.

He soon proved successful.

b)        Verb + Noun / Pronoun + Infinitive

Bu gruptaki fiiller, kendilerinden sonra direk infinitive alamazlar. Fiil ile infinitive arasında me, you, him, them, Jane, our teacher, my parents, etc. gibi indirect object olması gerekir.

advise                 convince                instruct                            request

allow                   direct                     invite                              require

appoint               enable                    motivate                          how…how

cause                  encourage              oblige                              teach

caution                forbid                    order                               tell

challenge            force                      permit                             tempt

command            hire                        persuade                         urge

compel                implore                  remind                            warn

EXAMPLES:

I advised him to stop smoking.

Her father doesn't allow her to go out at night.

They appointed him to investigate.

The hard work caused me to feel depressed.

He challenged me to swim to the other side of the river.   .

They compelled me to tell the truth about her.

Owning a car enables you to travel without difficulty.

Last night, we hired a babysitter to look after our son.

Setting an aim motivates people to work harder.

I reminded him to buy some bread while coming back.

My niece requested me to help her with her English assignment.

Her job requires her to travel a lot.

He told me to be there on time.

His bad companions tempted him to drink heavily.

Bu fiiller passive durumda ise, kendilerinden sonra direk infinitive gelir. Çünkü active cümlenin nesnesi özne durumuna geçmiştir.

I was advised to stop smoking.

She isn't allowed to go out at night.

I was compelled to tell the truth about her.

He was reminded to buy some bread while coming back.

I was told to be there on time.

He was tempted by his bad companions to drink heavily.

c)        Verb + Infinitive or Verb + Noun /Pronoun + Infinitive

Bu gruptaki fiiller hem kendilerinden hemen sonra hem de bir dolaylı nesneden sonra infinitive alabilirler. Ancak iki cümlenin anlamı farklıdır. Şu iki cümleyi inceleyelim.

I want to study hard. (Çok çalışmak istiyorum.)

I want you to study hard. (Çok çalışmanı istiyorum.)

Yukarıdaki cümlelerden birincisinde, her iki evi emi de (want,study) özne yapıyor. İkincisinde ise, birinci eylemi yani yüklemi (want) özne, nesne durumundaki ikinci eylemi ise (to study) dolaylı nesne yapıyor.

Bu Gruptaki yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller şunlardır:

ask                dare                  prefer                     wish

beg                expect                                             promise                    would like

choose                                   need                       want

NOTES:

Bu fiillerin, "promise" dışında, hepsi dolaylı nesne ile kullanıldığında, yukarıdaki örnekte gördüğümüz anlam değişikliğine uğrarlar. Ancak promise nesne aldığında da, eylemi yapan kişi durumunda bir değişme olmaz.

I promised to quit smoking. (Söz veren ve sigarayı bırakacak olan "ben".)

I promised my mother to quit smoking. (Söz veren ve sigarayı bırakacak olan yine "ben", "promised my mother" sadece sözün kime verildiğini belirtiyor.)

Soruda ya da olumsuz cümlede, dare fiilinden sonra infinitive "to" ile ya da yalın olarak gelebilir.

–    Would you dare do/to do a parachute jump?

–    No, I wouldn't dare do/to do that.

Ancak, olumsuzluğu daren't biçiminde ifade ediyorsak, infinitive yalın olarak gelir.

I daren't do a parachute jump.

Dare, kendinden sonra dolaylı nesne alıyorsa, to + infinitive kullanılır.

My friend dared me to swim across the Bosphorus.

Do you dare me to talk back to my boss when I believe he is wrong?

EXAMPLES:

I asked to leave the classroom.

I asked the noisy students to leave the classroom.

My little sister begged to come with us.    .   .
My friends begged me to change my mind.

I chose to investigate the case.

I chose one of my colleagues to investigate the case.

I dared to go out alone in the dark.

I dared my sister to go out alone in the dark.

They expected to arrive home early.

They expected me to arrive home early.

She needs to clean die house.

She needs someone to clean the house.

I prefer to stay at home tonight.

I prefer you to stay at home tonight.

She promised not to be late.

She promised me not to be late. (Anlamda bir değişme yok.)

The client wished to see the manager.

The client wished me to inform the manager about the case.

She would like to study abroad.

Her parents would like her to study abroad.

EXERCISE   13:    Complete the following sentences with to do or doing.

 

 

He decided    to do     it.

She recalled   doing    it.

Did he pretend ……….. it?

He should have trained …….. it.

She won't tolerate ……… it.

He has kept ………… it.

We are waiting …… it.   

Do you deny ……. it?

I couldn't imagine …….. it.

She resisted ………….. it.

Do you fancy ……. it?

He was not prepared ……. it.

They were warned not ……… it.

Will they elect him …….. it?

What caused him ……….. it? 

Why have they delayed ……….. it?

He detests ……. it.

I miss …….. it.

I forbid you ……… it.

We encouraged her ..………it.

They should have discussed ………..it.

He didn't anticipate ……….it.

Were you tempted ………. it?

Who urged him ……….. it?

We all avoid ……… it.

Did you consider ………. it?

Nobody failed ………it.

I was struggling ………. it.

He is risking ……….. it.

They had threatened ………. it.

Someone happened …….. it.

Would you dare me ……….it?

I wish you would quit ……… it.

Do you agree ……… it?

Who showed you how ……… it ?

I can't stand ……. it.

What motivated you …….. it?

No one could resist …… it.

Can they afford ……. it?

They might postpone ……… it.

I hired him ……. it.

She didn't hesitate ……. it.

Please remind him ……. it.

They seemed …… it.

Did she mention ……… it?

He doesn't care …… it.

He claims …… it

Who suggested ……. it?

Do you challenge me …….. it?

He cautioned us not …….. it.

 

 

EXERCISE   14:    Complete the sentences using gerund or infinitive forms of the verbs given in parentheses.

Being in a really bad aircraft accident didn't stop David Coulthard from (compete) …………………… in the Grand Prix.

Her friend urged Jasmine (apply) …………………… for the job at the council.

I didn't get exactly what I wanted for Maria, but I managed (find) …………………… something suitable for her birthday.

Maria and Jenny volunteered (serve) …………………… tea and coffee during the  interval of the school play.

The captain ordered his men (aim) …………………… and they waited nervously for the next order.

When we returned from the theatre. I thanked Jenny for (look) …………………… after the baby and paid her.

At our last meeting, he didn't refer to (make) ………………. some of the staff redundant.

If it should happen (rain) …………………… on Sunday, we can move everything inside.

My friends called this afternoon, which kept me from (clean) …………………… the house properly.

We require an information technology specialist (introduce) …………………… a new computer system.

After the war, Hendrick proceeded (undertake) …………………… elaborate woodwork projects in England.

I think I will abstain from (vote) …………………… in the student elections as I don't like either of the candidates.

As he lay in a hospital bed, his wife implored him (give) …………………… up boxing.

The chef accused the butcher of (overcharge) …………………… him for the lamb.

He isn't really bus)' in a meeting. He is only avoiding (speak) …………………… to that customer.

I can speak German quite well now, but I tend (pronounce) …………………… the 'o' incorrectly.

If you are so unhappy studying accounting, you should consider (change) …………………… to a different department, where you can study something more interesting.

Our school has been invited (take part) …………………… in the Queen Mother's birthday concert.

Although she knew that Lizzy enjoyed nothing more than horse-riding, she tried to discourage her from (spend) …………………… too much time at the stables in case it interfered with her studies.

I don't really care for (picnic) …………………… even in really warm weather.

He promised not (go) …………………… to the Sunset Bar again on his way back from work.

They arrested Doctor Shipman for (murder) …………………… several of his elderly female patients.

If we are to meet our sales target this month, we should motivate our employees (work) …………………… harder.

When he visits, I'm going to take him to the lake because I've heard he's keen on  (row)

I have arranged (present) …………………… the plan to them on Wednesday afternoon.

He really wanted the job and didn't hesitate (accept) …………………… it, although the salary was not particularly good.

When Toby joined the gang of boys, he swore (keep) …………………… their hideout a secret.

After the ridiculous remarks of the guest star. I was compelled (write) ………………….. to the radio station.

Diana seems (get) …………………… bored easily. Does she have difficulty in (concentrate) …………………… on her studies?

All Louise's aims depend on her (marry) …………………… a very rich man.

2-4    GERUND or INFINITIVE

Bazı fiiller kendilerinden sonra hem gerund hem infinitive alabilirler. Bunların bir bölümünde, gerund ya da infinitive kullanılması anlam değişikliğine yol açmaz. Bir bölümünde ise anlam değişir.

a)         Gerund or infinitive with no or little change in meaning.   

advise         cannot bear         encourage                          intend              need                 prefer

allow           continue              forbid           like                                       neglect recommend

attempt        dislike                                      hate              love                 permit             start

begin           dread

NOTES:

Bu fiillerden attempt, begin, cannot bear, continue, dislike, dread, hate, intend, like, love, neglect ve start gerund ya da infinitive aldığında aralarında önemli bir fark yoktur.

I attempted doing/to do the job without getting any help.

Just as I left the office, it began raining/to rain.

I can't bear listening/to listen to that sort of music.

After a brief interval, we continued working/to work.

She dislikes being told/to be told what to do.

I hate washing/to wash the dishes.

They intend moving/to move into a bigger house.

I like walking/to walk.

She loves playing/to play with children.

He neglected informing/to inform us about the case.

I will start studying/to study as soon as the film is over.

Bu fiillerin kendileri sürerlilik bildiren tense'lerle kullanılmışsa, kendilerinden sonra infinitive alırlar.*  

It was beginning to rain when I left the office.

She was still continuing to work at the same company despite problems.

Bu fiillerden advise, allow, encourage, forbid, permit ve recommend, kendinden sonra indirect object (him, them, etc.) varsa infinitive, indirect object yoksa gerund alır.

I advise driving more slowly on this slippery road.

I advise you to drive more slowly on this slippery road.

I don't allow chewing gum during the class.

I don't allow my students to chew gum during the class.

1 encourage speaking freely in the class.

I encourage my students to speak freely in the class.

The law forbids travelling without wearing a seat belt.

The law forbids us to travel without wearing a seat belt.

My mother doesn't permit smoking in our house.

My mother doesn’t permit me to smoke in our house.

I recommended staying at an inexpensive hotel.

1 recommended my brother to stay at an inexpensive hotel.

Bu fiillerden sadece attempt, begin, continue ve start sürerlilik bildiren tense'lerle kullanılır.

Diğerleri kullanılmaz.

"Kendisi progressive bir tense ile kullanılmışsa devamında infinitive alır" kuralı da sadece bu fiiller için geçerlidir. Eğer bir fiil kendinden sonra sadece gerund alabiliyorsa progressive tense'le bile kullanılsa, gerund değişmez.

I'm considering staying at home tonight.

Bu kural (indirect object'den sonra infinitive gelmesi) sadece bu fiiller için geçerlidir.   Kendinden sonra sadece gerund alan fiiller, nesne olsa bile, yine gerund alır.

I suggested going to an Italian restaurant for a change.

I suggested their going to an Italian restaurant for a change.

I don't understand not wanting to come with us.

I don't understand him/his not wanting to come with us.

Need fiili active cümlede kendinden sonra infinitive alır. Passive cümlede ise passive infinitive             (to be done) ya da gerund (doing) alabilir.

I need to iron my shirt. (active)

My shirt needs to be ironed/needs ironing. (passive)

You need to repair the radio. (active)

The radio needs to be repaired/needs repairing. (passive)

Passive cümlenin öznesi insan ise, genellikle passive infinitive kullanılır.

You need to help her. (active)

She needs to be helped. (passive)

I need to tell them the truth. (active)

They need to be told the truth. (passive)

Prefer fiilinin gerund ya da infinitive alması, bir tercihten diğerine geçerken arada kullandığımız geçiş sözcüğüne bağlıdır. Eğer arada "to" kullanılıyorsa gerund, "than" ya da "rather than"

kullanılıyorsa infinitive alır.

I prefer walking to running.

I prefer to walk than (to) run.

Eğer sadece tercihi belirtip cümleyi bitiriyorsak, genel anlamdaki tercihlerimiz için "prefer doing", spesifik tercihlerimiz için "prefer to do" kullanımı daha yaygındır. Spesifik tercihlerimiz için "would prefer to do" daha yaygın kullanılır.

Do you watch television very often?

No, I prefer reading. (I prefer to read.) (general)

Will you come for a walk with us?

I would prefer to stay at home. (specific)

b)        Gerund or infinitive with a change in meaning

forget              mean (intend)                                                      regret                           try (make an effort)

remember        mean (result in, involve)    stop                           try (experiment)

Forget ve remember, geçmişte yaptığımız bir işi daha sonra unutmak, hatırlamak anlamındaysa gerund alır. Yapmayı planladığımız ya da düşündüğümüz bir işi yapmayı unutmak, hatırlamak anlamındaysa infinitive alır.

–    Do you remember our being stuck in the mud with the car last winter?

–    Yes, I also remember very clearly your losing your temper.

–    Really? What did I do?

–    You kicked the car, and its rear fender dented.

–    Oh, I'd completely forgotten doing that.

When I met him. I suddenly remembered lending him a large sum of money the previous month. When I asked for my money back he said he was sorry he had completely forgotten borrowing money from me. (Önce ona para verdim. Daha sonra ona rastlayınca, ona para verdiğimi hatırladım. O ise benden para aldığını unuttu.)

Please remember (don't forget) to tell him that I will be waiting at our usual cafe around 4 o'clock.

Okay. I promise you. I won't forget (will remember) to give him your message.

Because I left home in a hurry, I forgot to take my purse with me. (Cüzdanımı  yanıma almayı unuttum.Yani yapmam gereken bir işi yapmadım.)

I usually forget to lock the door, but this morning I remembered to lock it/I didn't forget to lock it.

(Kapıyı kilitlemeyi hatırladım/unutmadım. Yani yapmam gereken bir işi yaptım.)

Mean, eğer kastetmek, niyet etmek anlamındaysa infinitive alır.

I don't mean to hurt you by criticising so severely, but it's for your own sake.

He had meant to go on a camping holiday this year, but I think his wife didn't agree.

Mean, anlamına gelmek, demek anlamındaysa gerund alır.

Being a parent means having a lot of responsibilities.

If we can't reach an agreement soon about where to have lunch, I’m afraid it will mean wasting our lunch break here in the office.

Regret, geçmişte yaptığımız ya da yapmadığımız bir işten dolayı pişmanlık duymak anlamındaysa gerund alır. Gerund'ın ifade ettiği eylem, pişman olma eyleminden daha önce gerçekleşmiş olduğu için doing yerine having done kullanabiliriz.

He regrets that he didn't attend university.

He regrets not attending/not having attended university.

She regretted that she hadn't listened to her .mother's advice.

She regretted not listening/not having listened to her mother's advice.

She regrets that she bought an orange car.

She regrets buying/having bought an orange car.

Regret, yapmayı planladığımız bir işi yapamayacağımızı ifade ederken I’m sorry" anlamında kullanılıyorsa infinitive alır. Bu anlamda regret, tell, say, inform gibi fiillerle birlikte çok sık kullanılır.

I regret to tell you that I can't come with you.

(I'm sorry to tell you that ……………….. )

I regret to inform you that you couldn't get a pass grade.

Stop doing, yapmakta olduğumuz bir işi durdurmak anlamında kullanılır.

When I entered the classroom, the students stopped chatting among themselves. (They had been chatting before I came in.)

When some guests arrived after dinner. I stopped studying.

Stop to do, bir şey yapmak için durmak anlamında kullanılır. Burada "to" amaç bildirdiği için "stop to do" yerine "stop in order to do" da kullanabiliriz.

When the phone rang, I stopped my work to/in order to answer the phone.

When a loud noise was heard, everybody in the street stopped to/in order to see what had happened.

 

 

 

 

Bazen bu iki yapıyı bir arada kullanmamız gerekebilir:

Stop doing something to do something else

When the phone rang, I stopped studying to/in order to answer it.

When a student raised his hand, I stopped lecturing to/in order to listen to him.

Try, çabalamak, çalışmak anlamındaysa infinitive alır.

I tried hard to catch the train, but I couldn't.

She tried to persuade her father to let her go to the cinema.

I tried to warn you, but you were too busy to listen to me.

Try, bir yöntemin işe yarayıp yaramayacağını anlamak için denemek anlamında kullanılıyorsa,
geründ alır.

Because it was very hot last night, I couldn't get to sleep.

I tried opening the window, but it didn't work. Then I took a cold shower. It worked!

  •    Take a tablet if you have a headache.

–    I tried taking one, but it didn't help.

–    Then, try having a rest. It may work.

EXERCISE   15:      Complete the sentences with the gerund or infinitive forms of the verbs given in parentheses. In some sentences both are possible.

In addition to (drive) …………………… a company car. he owns a sports car, which he mainly uses at the weekend.

A: Do you remember (teach) …………………… at university how to build traditional stone walls?

B: How could I forget (heave) …………………… those heavy stones about?

We don't encourage (quote) ………………….. prices over the phone, but we permit sales­people (give) ……………………. a price this way if a customer insists.

John Brown intends (break) …………………… the land speed record, but he is experiencing difficulty (find) …………………… reliable tires.

A: Shall we have a coffee here?

B: I prefer (wait) …………………… until we get home.

As I get tired from (study) …………………… late at night, I've been trying (get) …………………… up early in the morning instead, and that seems (work) …………………… better.

I don't understand his (not, be) …………………… content at work because he's allowed (work) …………………… without much supervision.

If I accept this job, it'll mean (move) …………………… up to Aberdeen, won't it?

The students' progress needs (monitor) …………………… as we need (be) …………………… sure these new methods are working.

If he continues (not, turn) …………………… up to appointments, we'll have to start (monitor) …………………… his whereabouts.

The owners have decided (sell) …………………… the famous red slippers from the film ‘The Wizard of Oz', which are expected (fetch) …………………… a fortune at auction in New York.

We intend (spend) …………………… the day making sales appointments, which will enable us (meet) …………………… our target this month.

Luckily, we managed (survive) …………………… until our business started (make) …………………… money.

They stopped (gossip) … . ……………… when they heard the manager approaching the office.

Drew stopped (tie) …………………… his laces, which meant he dropped behind, so he sprinted to catch up with the other joggers.

A: The African violet is beginning (wilt) …………………… .

B: Try (move) …………………… it into a sunnier room.

It's believed that people who want (know) …………………… why they have to do the things that they are ordered (do) …………………… usually do not make good soldiers.

This is because such people don't do what they are told (do) …………………… without stopping for a moment (think) …………………… about it — something that is not favoured in military.

The manager was angry at the salesman because he had neglected (secure) …………………… the building properly when he left.

He tends (leave) …………………… making appointments until the end of the week because he dislikes (do) …………………… it, so on Friday afternoon, he is busy (telephone) …………………… customers to arrange meetings.

Do you think the national lottery encourages (gamble) …………………… in general?

She encourages her son (aim) …………………… for university and urges him (study) …………………… regularly.

A: I'm trying (find) …………………… a carpenter who is capable of (build) …………………… a spiral staircase.

B: You could try (ask) …………………… my cousin Jeff as he's an architect and  might know someone suitable.

You can choose (pay) …………………… for your furniture on delivery or, if you prefer (pay) …………………… in instalments, you can pay in twelve months.

We regret (inform) …………………… you that our largest customer has gone out of business and we may be forced (reduce) …………………… the work force.

She hates (have) …………………… tests in hospital, which unfortunately, she has to do regularly on account of her (have) …………………… diabetes.

When she heard that the other secretary had received a pay rise, she regretted (not, ask)  …………………… for one during her annual appraisal.

2-5   INFINITIVE AFTER CERTAIN NOUNS

Infinitive, bazı isimlerden sonra gelerek, o ismi tanımlayan bir sıfat işlevini üstlenir. Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan isimler şunlardır:

ability           demand          failure                       request

ambition       desire              offer                         right

anxiety         determination plan                          scheme

attempt         eagerness        promise                    willingness

decision       effort              refusal                      wish

Not every person has the ability to think logically. Some people lack it totally.

His ambition to become the top student in the class made him ill.

My determination to go on walking even in the rain surprised them all.

His eagerness to pass the exam is at its peak these days.

Genellikle önlerinde bir superlative ile birlikte time ve place* gibi isimler de bu yapıyla yaygın olarak kullanılır.

The best time to go on holiday is Spring.

Tomorrow, I will have a lot of time to deal with you.

My favourite time to walk is early in the morning.

The best place to fish is just under the Bosphorus Bridge.

 

 

*          Bu şekilde başka pek çok isim kullanılabilir: the best restaurant to eat at, the cheapest hotel to stay at,
the most difficult method to follow, etc.

 

The fırst, the second, the next, the last, etc. gibi sıra sayıları da infinitive alabilir.

Do you know who the first person to climb Mount Everest was?

The last person to leave home should lock the door.

(Evden en son çıkan kişinin kapıyı kilitlemesi gerekir.)

She is always the last (person) to come.

(Her zaman en son gelen kişi odur.)

2-6   INFINITIVE AFTER CERTAIN ADJECTIVES

Kişinin duygu  ya da tavrını ifade eden sıfatlardan sonra infinitive gelebilir.

I'm sorry to hear that your mother is ill.

I'm glad to see you here.

Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan sıfatlar şunlardır:

content               disgusted                                               determined                   reluctant

delighted            disturbed                 motivated               certain

glad                    sad                           prepared                likely

happy                 sorry                        ready                     amazed

pleased               upset                        willing                    astonished

relieved              proud                       afraid                     surprised

lucky                  ashamed                  carefully                shocked

fortunate            anxious                    hesitant                  stunned

disappointed       eager

She is hesitant to accept their job offer.

I'm reluctant to go with them.

I was surprised to see Jane at the party.

She was determined to have a university education.

I was  relieved to get  the news     that they didn't get injured  in  the accident.

She was disappointed not to pass the exam.

She was ashamed not to be able to pass the exam after so many private lessons.

Bu sıfatların bir bölümünü daha önce adjective + preposition biçiminde görmüştük. Eğer sıfattan sonra bir preposition kullanılmışsa, preposition'dan sonra gelen yapının gerund olmasına dikkat ediniz.

She was proud to be the top student in the class.

She was proud of being the top student in the class.

She was ashamed to have made such rude remarks.

She was ashamed of having made such rude remarks.

I was surprised to see him there.

I was surprised at his being there.

Adjective + infinitive, daha çok bir that-clause ya da when-clause'u kısaltarak ifade etmek biçiminde kullanılır.

She was disgusted when she saw the kitchen in such a mess.

She was disgusted to see the kitchen in such a mess.

(Mutfağı pislik içinde görünce iğrendi.)

She was disappointed that she didn't get the job.

She was disappointed not to get the job.

Bu kısaltmayı yaparken, temel cümle ile yan cümlenin öznesinin aynı olmasına dikkat ediniz. Eğer özneler aynı değil ise, passive infinitive kullanarak yine aynı anlamı verebiliriz.

She was disappointed that they didn't give her the job.

She was disappointed not to be given the job.

She was happy that they promoted her.

She was happy to be promoted.

EXERCISE   16:    Change the following statements as shown in the examples.

Examples:       She was relieved when she heard that her son had been rescued.

She was relieved to hear that her son had been rescued.

He was upset that he didn't get invited on the trip.

He was upset not to get invited on the trip.

They were astonished when they saw how quickly he recovered.

They were astonished ……………………………………………………………………….

I was shocked that they spoke to me so rudely.

I was shocked …………………………………………………………………………………

I am eager that I get settled in quickly.

I am eager ……………………………………………………………………………………. .

He was ashamed when he was asked about his brother's involvement in the scandal.

He was ashamed …………………………………………………………………………….

It's likely that the factory will close soon.

The factory is likely ………………………………………………………………………. .

They were sad that they had to say goodbye to a dear friend.

They were sad ……………………………………………………………………………….

Lucy was disappointed that she didn't get accepted onto the course.

Lucy was disappointed ……………………………………………………………………

She was determined that she wouldn't let his sarcastic remarks hurt her.

She was determined……………………………………………………………………….

It was fortunate that he recovered in time for the final.

He was fortunate ……………………………………………………………………………

We were proud that we were the best performing department.

We were proud ………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

2-7   PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND PAST INFINITIVE

Infinitive'in passive biçimi to be done şeklinde ifade edilir.

I don't want you to order me what to do.

I don't want to be ordered what to do.

I didn't expect she would invite me to her wedding.

I didn't expect to be invited to her wedding.

(Onun düğününe davet edileceğimi ummuyordum.)

Infinitive'in past biçimi to have done, passive past biçimi ise to have been done şeklinde ifade edilir. Infinitive'in ifade ettiği eylem yüklemden daha önce gerçekleşmişse, past infinitive kullanmamız gerekir.

Past infinitive özellikle seem, appear, pretend gibi fiillerle; lucky, fortunate, happy, pleased, content, likely gibi sıfatlarla çok sık kullanılır.

I'm happy that I passed the exam.

I'm happy to have passed the exam.

(I passed the exam sometime before now, and now I'm happy.)

She is fortunate that she received a good education.

She is fortunate to have received a good education.

It seems that you have passed the exam.

You seem to have passed the exam.

It appears that she told a lie.

She appears to have told a lie.

It seems that they were surprised at the news.

They seem to have been surprised at the news.

(Habere şaşırmış gibi görünüyorlar.)

To do/to be done ile to have done/to have been done arasındaki farkı görmek için şu cümleleri inceleyelim:

She is fortunate that she will study abroad.

She is fortunate to study abroad.

(Yurt dışında öğrenim göreceği için şanslı.)

She is fortunate that she studied abroad.

She is fortunate to have studied abroad.

(Yurt dışında öğrenim gördüğü için şanslı.)

She is lucky that she will be sent abroad.

She is lucky to be sent abroad.

She is lucky that she was sent abroad.

She is lucky to have been sent abroad.

It seems that he works very hard all the time.

He seems to work very hard all the time.

H seems that he worked very hard yesterday.

He seems to have worked very hard yesterday.

It's likely that she is at home now.

She is likely to be at home now.

It's likely that she was at home then.

She is likely to have been at home then.

It seems he is given pay rises regularly.

He seems to be given pay rises regularly.

It seems he was given a pay rise last month.

He seems to have been given a pay rise last month.

Seem, appear ve pretend fiillerini present progressive infinitive (to be doing) ve past progressive infinitive (to have been doing) ile de kullanabiliriz.

It seems that he is working hard these days.

He seems to be working hard these cays.

Let's not talk about it in front of Peter.

He pretends not to be listening to us but in fact he is.

It appears that they are waiting for us.

They appear to be waiting for us

It appears that they have been waiting for us for a long time.

They appear to have been waiting for us for a long time.

Tell, order, ask, request, etc. gibi pek çok fiilden sonra past infinitive kullanılamaz. Çünkü bu tür fiillerle infinitive, yüklemden sonra gerçekleşecek bir eylemi ifade eder.

I asked my friends not to make so much noise.

I told the children to be careful while crossing the street.

He told me to be there on time.

(Bana vaktinde orada olmamı söyledi.)  (Daha sonra yapacağım bir işi söyledi.)

EXERCISE   17:    Complete the sentences with simple infinitive (active or passive), past infinitive (active or passive) or progressive infinitive.

Mechanic: I'm suspicious about this car's mileage. Can you take a look?

Sales Manager: Yes, the speedometer appears (rewind) …………………….. . Look how the numbers are out of line.

Some people are not prepared (devote) …………………….. themselves to their job, and so they are usually reluctant (work) …………………….. overtime when they are asked to.

When I consider many people find their work tedious, I think I am lucky (find) …………………….. a job that I enjoy doing.

This street was really run-down when I lived near here, but it appears (renovate) …………………….. . It looks quite a pleasant area now.

Will you tell me what the problem is? You seem (make) …………………….. up excuses ever since we signed the order.

Look! A crowd seems (gather) …………………….. outside Mr Whiteford's house. I wonder what's happening.

She was pleased (win) …………………….. the prize and shocked because she hadn't expected her painting (choose) …………………….. for the exhibition.

The cricket board are considering a life ban for the player who appears (fix) …………………….. matches for several seasons now.

He can't stand having dinner with his wife's parents, but he pretends (enjoy) …………………….. himself whenever they come.

You were fortunate (not, injure) …………………….. as a result of the accident.

2-8   INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TO

Amaç bildiren bir yapı  olarak in order to  do yerine sadece to  do  kullanabiliriz.  Olumsuz ifadelerde "in order not to do" kullanılır.

I will go shopping because I want to buy some vegetables.

I will go shopping to buy/in order to buy some vegetables.

I get up early because I don't want to be late for work.

I get up early in order not to be late for work.

I went to the bookstore because I wanted to buy a book.

I went to the bookstore to buy/in order to buy a book.

To do/in order to do ile for doing'in kullanımı arasındaki aynma dikkat ediniz. Bir insanın bir eylemi yapmadaki amacını ifade etmek istiyorsak to do/in order to do kullanılır. Bir nesnenin (bir alet, makina vb.) ne işe yaradığını, ne amaçla kullanıldığını ifade etmek istiyorsak be used for doing ya da be used to do/in order to do kullanılır. Eğer bir nesnenin ne işe yaradığını ifade ediyor, ancak cümlede "be used" kullanmıyorsak, sadece "for doing" kullanılır.

You have to use an axe to chop/in order to chop wood.

An axe is used for chopping/to chop wood.

An axe is a tool for chopping wood.

You have to use a spanner to fasten/in order to fasten bolts.

A spanner is used for fastening/to fasten bolts.

A spanner is a tool for fastening bolts.

Ancak, belli bir olayda (specific) bir nesnenin ne amaçla kullanıldığını ifade ederken sadece to do kullanılır.

Detergent is used for cleaning/to clean dirty things. (general)

A lot of detergent was used to clean the house. (specific)

Wax is used for polishing/to polish surfaces.

A special kind of wax was used to polish the car.

İnsanın bir eylemi yapmadaki amacını ifade ederken fiil değil de isim kullanıyorsak, for + a noun kullanılır.

I went to the bookstore to buy a book.

I went to the bookstore for a book.

She usually goes to the library to do her homework.

She usually goes to the library for her homework.

He will go to Ankara to attend a conference.

He will go to Ankara for a conference.

EXERCISE    18:   Complete the sentences with to do, for doing or for + a noun using the words given in parentheses.  In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

A:  Congratulations on getting such a large order.

B: Thanks. We offered them a special service contract …………………………. their               business. (win)

Don't you know that your company mobile phone should only be used …………………………. and shouldn't be used …………………………. private telephone calls?  (essential company calls)   (make)

You can use my mobile phone …………………………. your parents, if you wish. (call)

These mobile phones are not the same as ordinary ones. You can use them ………………………… to the Internet. (connect)

Shall I use the Internet …………………………. some information on the National Exhibition Centre? (find)

We're planning to go to Tenerife …………………………. this summer, (a holiday)

Tenerife is a wonderful place for you …………………………. if you normally lead a stressful life. (relax)

We have employed an additional salesman …………………………. our company in the North. (expand)

You shouldn't spend all the money you earn. You should try to save some ………. …………………………. .   (the future)

The hydrometer is a device …………………………. such characteristics of a liquid as its density, or weight per unit volume. Hydrometers are also used …………………………. a liquid's specific gravity, or the weight of the liquid as compared to an equal volume of water.   (determine) (determine)

2-9   INFINITIVE WITH TOO AND ENOUGH

Too + adjective/adverb ve adjective/adverb + enough yapıları kendilerinden sonra infinitive alır.

This box is too heavy. Nobody can carry it.

This box is too heavy to carry.

(Bu kutu taşınamayacak kadar ağır.)

İkinci cümlenin sonunda yüklemin nesnesi durumunda olan "it" sözünün "too'Tu cümlede kullanılmadığına dikkat ediniz. Bu cümlede infinitive, passive yapıda bulunmadığı halde, cümlenin anlamı passive'dir. Bu nedenle iki cümleyi birleştirdiğimizde, yüklemin nesnesi özne durumuna geçmiştir (This box). Bu cümlede eylemi yapmanın kimin için zor, kolay, vb. olduğunu ifade etmek için for + noun/pronoun kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda cümleyi Türkçe'ye active olarak çeviririz.

This box is too heavy. I can't carry it.

This box is too heavy for me to carry.

(Bu kutu benim taşıyamayacağım kadar ağır.)

Too + adjective/adverb kalıbı yapı olarak olumlu olmasına rağmen anlamca olumsuzdur.

It's too late to go out.  

(Dışarı çıkılamayacak kadar geç oldu.)

She is too young to get married.

(Evlenemeyecek kadar küçük.)

He spoke too quietly to hear.

(Duyulamayacak kadar yavaş konuştu.)

She is too young to understand this situation.

(Bu durumu anlayamayacak kadar küçük.)

Adjective/adverb + enough, olumlu cümlede kullanıldığı zaman, eylemin yapabileceğimiz
ölçülerde olduğunu ifade eder.                

This box is light. Anyone can carry it.

This box is light enough to carry.

(Bu kulu taşınabilecek kadar halif.)

This box is light I can carry it.

This box is light enough for me to carry.

(Bu kutu benim taşıyabileceğim kadar hafif.)

This jug isn't big. It can't hold two litres of water.

This jug isn't big enough to hold two litres of water.

(Bu sürahi iki litre su alacak kadar büyük değil.)

The speaker didn't speak clearly. We couldn't understand him.

The speaker didn't speak clearly enough for us to understand.

(Konuşmacı bizim anlayabileceğimiz kadar net konuşmadı.)

Too ile ifade ettiğimiz bir cümleyi, kullanılan sıfatın ya da zarfın zıt anlamlısını kullanarak, olumsuz bir cümlede enough'la da verebiliriz.

She is too young to get married.

(Evlenemeyecek kadar küçük.)

She isn't old enough to get married.

(Evlenecek kadar büyük değil.)

The car is too small to take five people.

(Araba beş kişiyi alamayacak kadar küçük.)

The car isn't big enough to take five people.

(Araba beş kişiyi alacak kadar büyük değil.)

Enough, bir sıfat ya da zarftan sonra (strong enough, rich enough, etc.) bir isimden önce gelir:* (enough strength, enough money, etc.)

She is not experienced enough to do this job.

She doesn't have enough experience to do this job.

I'm courageous enough to talk back to him.

I have enough courage to talk back to him.

Yüklemin  nesnesinin  kendine  ait bir preposition'ı varsa,  too  ya  da  enough  ile  kurulmuş cümlenin sonunda o preposition kullanılır.

This knife is blunt. We can't cut this meat with it.

This knife is too blunt to cut this meat with.

Is this chair strong? Can I stand on it?

Is this chair strong enough for me to  stand on?

EXERCISE   19:    Combine the two sentences using too or enough.

The salary is tempting. I can't refuse the job.

The salary …………………………………………………………………………….

She doesn't get sufficient food. She won't stay healthy.

She ……………………………………………………………………………………..

The area is difficult to reach. It won't become spoilt by development.

The area ………………………………………………………………………………

He is fit. He can play for the national team on Saturday.

He …………………………………………………………………'………………..

 

*               Enough, bir isimden sonra da gelebilir ancak bu kullanım pek yaygın değildir.

 

He is disloyal. I can't tell him any company secrets.

He …………………………………………………………………………………………………

That shirt is dirty. You can't wear it to school again.

That shirt ……………………………………………………………………………………….

I don't think he has comprehended our service well. He can't visit the customer on his own yet.

I don't think he ……………………………………………………………………………….

That jumper isn't thick. You shouldn't go outside in it in this weather.

That jumper ……………………………………………………………………………………

The knitting pattern isn't simple. I can't follow the instructions.

The knitting pattern …………………………………………………………………………

The restaurant looks filthy. We can't eat here.

The restaurant ………………………………………………………………………………. .

EXERCISE   20:    Write synonymous sentences for the given ones.

Example: It's too cold to eat outside.

It's not warm enough to eat outside.

He's not old enough to be allowed to go out on his own.

He………………………………………………………………………………. .

The manager explained the procedure too quickly for us to understand.

The manager ……………………………………………………………….

The government's plan to bring the inflation down is too Utopian to come true.

The government's plan to bring the inflation down ……………………………………..

Josie is not strong enough to overcome this trouble without support.

Josie …………………………………………………………………..

Jeff is too selfish to think of lending us his rucksack.

Jeff …………………………………………………………………………….. .

2-10 VERBS OF PERCEPTION

See, hear, watch, feel, etc. gibi duyu fiilleri kendinden sonraki fiili iki şekilde alır: gerund ya da fiilin yalın hali.

Eğer bir eylemin olusunu baştan sona görmüşsek, izlemişsek, fiilin yalın hali kullanılır. Devam etmekte olan bir eylemi görmüşsek gerund kullanılır. Şimdi şu iki cümleyi inceleyelim.

Yesterday, I took my son to the park. There, I sat on a park bench and watched my son play with other children. (Oğlumun oyun oynamasını bastan sona izledim.)

When I looked out of the window, I saw some children playing in the street. (Çocukların oynama eylemi devam ediyordu. Ben onları bir an gördüm. Oynamaya başladıkları zamanı görmedim.)

He unlocked the safe and took some money. I saw this. I saw him unlock the safe and take some money.

(Kasayı açıp biraz para aldığını gördüm.)

see someone do something

 

 

 

When I entered the room, he was taking some money out of the safe. I saw this.

I saw him taking some money out of the safe.

(Onu, kasadan para alırken gördüm.)

  see someone doing something

 

Bu kullanımlar özellikle see, hear, watch, listen to, feel ve observe fiilleriyle yaygındır.  Çoğu zaman,  gerund ya da fiilin yalın halini kullanmak anlamı pek etkilemez.

When I suddenly woke up in the middle of the night, I felt the ground shake/shaking.

Yesterday, I saw him run/running down the street.

Smell, find ve catch fiilleriyle sadece gerund kullanılır.

When I entered the house, I could smell something burning.

When I got home, I found my son sleeping.

He had given up smoking, but last night, I caught him smoking on the balcony.

Passive cümlede gerund kullanımı aynı kalır. Ancak fiilin yalın hali, passive cümlede to+infinitive biçimine dönüşür.

Someone saw the missing child walking along the river.

The missing child was seen walking along the river.

They last saw him driving downtown late last night.

He was last seen driving downtown late last night.

Someone saw him leave the building hurriedly.

He was seen to leave the building hurriedly.

They clearly saw him steal the watch.       

He was clearly seen to steal the watch.

EXERCISE   21:    Supply the correct form of the verbs given in parentheses. In some sentences more than one answer is possible.

< >When the photographer entered the village, he witnessed frail children (lie) …………………….. on the ground.The teacher didn't actually see the boy (hurt) …………………….. the paper plane across the classroom.Isn't it wonderful to lie on a beach and listen to the waves (lap) …………………….. over the rocks and watch the sun (disappear) …………………….. into the horizon?I wondered where granddad had gone and then 1 found him in the garden (play) …………………….. football with the boys.As part of your teacher training, the instructor will observe you (give) …………………….. an actual lesson at a local school.When the villager stepped out to see what the fuss was about, she saw mud (slide) …………………….. towards them like a giant monster.I was afraid the hairdresser had the curling tongs too hot as I could smell my hair (singe) …………………….. by them.The worst thing about having a lift with my uncle is his dreadful driving. While going along, you can hear the gears (crunch) …………………….. and the other drivers (peep)…………………….. their horns.He was caught (try) …………………….. to cover up his incompetence by falsifying the accounts when the cleaner heard him (move) …………………….. around in the director's office late at night.One night during our camp, I was woken up when I felt something (crunch) …………………….. up my leg. Luckily, the creature was harmless.AFTER "LET" AND "HELP"

Let'den sonra infinitive "to" almadan gelir.

I will let you go when you have finished your work.

They didn't let me explain my excuse.

Don't let him start smoking at such an early age.

Will you let your daughter stay out so late?

Help'den sonra infinitive yalın haliyle ya da "to" alarak kullanılır.

Will you please help me lay/to lay the table?

I helped my mother clean/to clean the house.

Talking to a native English speaker will help you improve/to improve your English.

When I got lost in the country, a villager helped me find/to find my way.

2-12 CERTAIN VERBS + NOUN/PRONOUN + INFINITIVE

Bu gruptaki fiiller, daha çok kendilerinden sonra bir that-clause alırlar. Ancak bu fiilleri verb+noun/pronoun+infinitive kalıbıyla kullanmak da mümkündür. Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller şunlardır:

acknowledge    find                    believe              suppose        imagine

guess                calculate             know                 assume         judge

consider            maintain             declare              discover        proclaim

reckon              estimate              take (presume)  fancy            prove

see                    understand         think                  feel               show

I believe that he is the best of you all.       I consider that he has a lot of money.

I believe him to be the best of you all.          I consider him to have a lot of money.

We know that he is an honest man.

We know him to be an honest man.

Örneklerden de anlaşılacağı gibi, bu yapı ile kullanabileceğimiz infinitive genellikle to be ve to have fiilleridir. Bu fiillerin yanı sıra, "know, like, love, etc." gibi nonprogressive fiiller de kullanılabilir.

Think, estimate ve presume fiillerinin bu biçimde kullanılmaları çok enderdir. Ancak passive cümlede yaygın olarak kullanılırlar.*

They think that the new secretary is very able.          They estimate that the box weighs about 5 kg.

It is thought that the new secretary is very able.         It is estimated that the box weighs about 5 kg.

The new secretary is thought to be very able. The box is estimated to weigh about 5 kg.

 

 

*          Bu konuyu 4. sayımızda Passive konusunu işlerken ayrıntılı olarak görmüştük.

 

 

 

EXERCISE   22:    Change the clause into an infinitive phrase as shown in the example.

Examples:    We consider that she is the best actress for the role.

We consider her to be the best actress for the role.

It is known that mobile phones are potentially dangerous.

Mobile phones are known to be potentially dangerous.

< >I find that he is a better player than David Beckham.I find ……………………………………………………………………. .< >The staff at Oxford University consider that it is one of the best universities in the world. The staff at Oxford University consider …………………………..< >Some scientists believe that conditioned reflexes are fundamentally important in human development, especially in child training Some scientists believe ………………………………………………….< >Because of new evidence, the police declared that the suspect was guilty. Because of new evidence, the police declared ……………………………………… .< >This model of washing machine was recalled because it was shown that it had a serious design flaw. This model of washing machine was recalled because it was shown……………………………….< >From his voice on the phone, I imagined that your brother were older.  From his voice on the phone, I imagined ………………………………………. .< >Although he spoke perfect English, 1 took it that he was a foreigner because of his accent. Although he spoke perfect English, I took ………………………< >The interview panel judged that she had very little work experience. The interview panel judged ……………………………………………< >We found that the service offered by the express parcel service was totally unsatisfactory. We found …………………………………………………………………….< >It is assumed that this vineyard has existed since Roman times. This vineyard is assumed ………………………………………………

2-13 INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS

Soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether ile başlayan noun clause'ları belli koşulları göz önüne alan question word + infinitive biçiminde kısaltabiliriz.*

She can't decide what she should do.

She can't decide what to do.

Can you tell me where I can buy cheap but fresh fruit?

Can you tell me where to buy cheap but fresh fruit?

I don't know whether I should come with you or stay home.

I don't know whether to come with you or (to) stay home.

 

 

*             Bu konuyu 6. sayımızda ayrıntılı olarak işlemiştik.

 

 

2-14 CAUSATIVES

Türkçe karşılığı ettirgen çatı olan causative,  İngilizcede have, get ve make fiilleriyle elde edilir. Üçü de anlamca birbirine yakın olmalanna rağmen, aralarında küçük farklar vardır.

a)        Have:      Daha çok kişinin doğal görevi olan bir işi yaptırmak anlamında kullanılır:               tamirciye araba tamir ettirmek, terziye elbise diktirmek vb. gibi.

Yesterday, I had the mechanic repair my car.

I will have the plumber fix the leak tomorrow.

I have had my tailor make a wonderful dress.

(Terzime harika bir elbise diktirdim.)

have somebody do something

Ancak, bu tür cümlelerde genellikle işi yapan kişi değil, işin yapılması önemlidir. Bu durumda, işi yapan kişiyi belirtmeden direk yapılan işi ifade edebiliriz.

Yesterday, I had my car repaired (by the mechanic.)

I will have the leak fixed tomorrow (by the plumber.)

I have had a wonderful dress made (by my tailor.)

(Harika bir elbise diktirdim.)

have something done (by someone)

b)        Get:        Birini ikna ederek bir iş yaptırmak anlamını ifade eder.

My mother is a good tailor, but she doesn't sew any more.

I want to get her to make me a dress for my graduation ball.

Yesterday, I got my friend to write a composition for me.

She is rather lazy. She always gets her sister to clean their room.    

(Odalarını her zaman kızkardeşine temizletir.)

get somebody to do something

 

İşi yapan kişiyi belirtmeden, yapılan işi ifade ederken.

get something done (by someone)

                           kalıbı kullanılır.

 

Get something done ile have something done arasında bir fark yoktur ve birbirinin yerine kullanılabilirler.

I want to get a dress made for my graduation ball.

I got a composition written for me (by my friend.)

She always gets their room cleaned by her sister.

c)        Make:     Birine zorlama ile bir iş yaptırmak anlamını ifade eder.

I made my son do his homework before he went outside to play. (I forced him to do….)

The film made us laugh a lot.   (Film bizi çok güldürdü.)

His broken leg made him stay in bed for a month.

make somebody do something

 

 

Make'in passive biçimi, get ve have'in passive biçiminden (get/have something done) farklıdır. Passive anlam için make'in kendisi passive'e dönüştürülür.

The film made me cry. (active)

I was made to cry by the film. (passive)

His friends made him laugh during the class, (active)

He was made to laugh by his friends during the class. (passive)

be made to do something (by someone)

   

Make + noun/pronoun kalıbından sonra, fiil kullanmadan direk sıfat da gelebilir. Bu kullanım get ve have ile mümkün değildir.

His coming late made me feel angry.

His coming late made me angry.

Her strange behaviour makes everybody feel surprised.

Her strange behaviour makes everybody surprised. (surprised burada bir sıfattır.)

The good news made me feel relieved.

The good news made me relieved. (relieved burada bir sıfattır.)

d)        Have fiilini bazı passive cümlelerin ifade ettiği anlamı vermek için de kullanabiliriz.

He had his wallet stolen on the train on his way to Ankara.

(Ankara'ya giderken trende cüzdanını çaldırdı.)

His wallet was stolen on the train on his way to Ankara.

(Ankara'ya giderken trende cüzdanı çalındı.)

Bu iki cümle yapı olarak farklı olmalarına karşın, aynı anlamı ifade etmektedir.

They had their house broken into last week.

Their house was broken into last week.

You might have your hair harmed while getting it permed.

Your hair might be harmed while it is being permed.

EXERCISE   23:    Supply the correct form of the verb given in parentheses.

< >I tried to design a poster myself using my computer, but it looked very amateurish.                          I think I'll have to get one (design) ……………….. by a professional graphic designer.Could you get someone from the IT department (check) ……………….. my computer it seems to be switching itself off?Presenting my project to the whole sales team made me (feel) ……………….. very nervous.You ought to get your eyes (examine) ……………….. if you can't read the small print the newspapers.It's true that Cher has had her nose (straighten) ………………… but she was already attractive woman.Why don't you have a baker (make) ……………….. a cake for the party rather than bake one yourself?All the staff were made (stay) ……………….. behind in order to clear up the mess made by the hooligans.When she goes into Birmingham. I usually have my mum (pick) ……………….. up some biscuits from the famous bakery there.If we put something eye-catching on display in the window, it will make passers-by (look) ……………….. at our shop.Ouch! I've got my finger (stick) ……………….. in the drawer. It hurts a lot!

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS

   

 

 

 

 

It was his own fault, but I couldn't help ………………… sorry for him.

A) feel                      B) to feel

C) having felt            D) feeling

E) to have felt

(ÖYS 1989)

The medical authorities warned everyone ……………….. the water without first ………………… it.

A) had drunk/being boiled

B) to drink/having boiled

C) drank/having had to boil

D) drinking/having to boil

E) not to drink/boiling

(ÖYS 1990)

Most people talk too much and don't realize how important ……………… is.

A) have to listen         B) to be listened

C) have listened        D) listening

E) to be listening

(ÖYS 1991)

If you've finished …………………. the dictionary, I'd like ………………. it.

A) use/to have borrowed

B) to use/borrowing

C) to have used/having borrowed .

D) having used/borrow

E) using/to borrow

(ÖYS 1992)

Would you mind …………………….. ?

A) that I am reading aloud

B) what causes you a lot of trouble

C) explaining it once again, please

D) to bring the books back by tomorrow

E) how much you spent on accommodation

(ÖYS 1993)

She didn't mind ……….. her hair wet in the rain.

A) get                        B) to get

C) in getting              D) to have got

E) getting

(ÖYS 1995)

The child was naturally very upset when he saw his new ball …….. out to sea.

A) having carried      B) to have carried

C) being carried        D) to be carried

E)  carrying

(ÖYS 1996)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOUESELF 1

  

 

 

 

The terrorist group is known ……. an extensive supply of weapons.

A) to have                 B) having

C) having had             D) to be having

E) have had

Please play something else instead of Chris Rea. His music is too slow …….. at a party.

A) playing                 B) to play

C) played                  D) having played

E) being played

……. the cottages, we raised enough money to renovate the manor house.

A) For selling            B) By selling

C) To have sold           D) On being sold

E) Not being sold

As Sheila is moving house on Monday, she's asked me ……. her ……. up all her belongings.

A) helping/packing

B) help/having packed

C) to help/pack

D) to be helped/to pack

E) help/to be packing

My son has scribbled with a ballpoint pen on the kitchen wall. In an effort to remove it, I've tried ……. it, but that didn't work, so I intend ……. the kitchen at the weekend.

A) to clean/repaint

B) having cleaned/repainted

C) to have cleaned/repainting

D) cleaning/to repaint

E) clean/being repainted

The rebels in Sierra Leone try ……. the village people ……. them by cutting off some of the inhabitants' hands.

A) making/obeyed

B) to have made/to obey

C) having made/obeying

D) make/to be obeying

E) to make/obey

When you telephone Lisa ……. her of the departmental meeting, please make it clear that we don't blame her ……. the order.

A) to have informed/to lose

B) informing/to have lost

C) having informed/about losing

D) to be informed/on losing

E) to inform/for losing

I will be sorry ……. this company, but I was offered an opportunity ……. in a field which I really enjoy.

A) leaving/to have worked

B) to leave/to work

C) having left/about working

D) with leaving/for working

E) to have left/work

I was surprised at the low level of service offered by them as I had believed them ……. a respected company.

A) be                        B) being

C) to be                       D) having been

E) have been

There is no point in going ……. when you haven't got enough money …….anything.

A) to shop/on buying

B) to be shopping/for buying

C) shop/having bought

D) shopping/to buy

E) having shopped/to be buying

It will cost too much money ……. a full colour leaflet. The advertising agency has advised us to have one ……. in black and white.

A) producing/being produced

B) produced/to produce

C) to produce/produced

D) to be producing/producing

E) having produced/produce

 

Your willingness ……. new things resulted in your ……. this management training.

A) learning/to be offered

B) to have learnt/for offering

C) learn/to have offered

D) to learn/being offered

E) learnt/having been offered

I don't think it is a good time ……. Linda. She'll be busy ……. thirty exam papers this evening, which won't be easy.

A) visiting/to mark

B) to have visited/mark

C) for visiting/to be marked

D) to visit/marking

E) to be visiting/having marked

She was furious when she found her younger sister ……. on her clothes.

A) try                        B) being tried

C) to trying               D) on trying

E) trying

It is a lovely drawing, but I think it needs ……. to look its best.

A) to frame               B) to be framed

C) to have framed       D) being framed

E) framed

The new football stadium is said seating for 100,000 spectators.

A) to have                 B) having

C) had                       D) to have had

E) have

I managed ……. the tall bottle of cola into the refrigerator ……. the middle shelf.

A) fitting/to move

B) to fit/by moving

C) being fitted/to be moving     

D) by fitting/to have moved

E) for fitting/moving

The rebels are estimated ……. tens of thousands of civilians during the civil war which lasted six years.

A) killed                   B) to kill

C) to have killed         D) killing

E) being killed

Sonia got accustomed to her job at the private hospital quickly because, apart from ……. richer patients, it is quite similar to ……. for the health authority.

A) to have/work

B) have/be worked

C) to have had/worked

D) having/working

E) had/having worked

I know she isn't here at the moment because I saw her …… the building, but I don't know if she intends …. later today.

A) to leave/returning

B) leave/to have returned

C) leaving/to return

D) left/to be returned

E) to be leaving/return

I was worried about my sister's ……. divorced from her husband, and for days, I couldn't help ……. how she'd cope with it.

A) get/to wonder

B) getting/wondering

C) to get/wonder

D) to have got/having wondered

E) having got/wondered

 I was unable to help my friends ……. for 'Help the Aged' because my boss had asked me ……. that Saturday.

A) to campaign/work

B) campaigning/worked

C) campaign/to work

D) being campaigned/working

E) campaigned/to have worked

I started my journey without ……. at the map, but I soon regretted ……. so, as I drove a long way off the route.

A) looking/doing

B) to look/to do

C) look/to have done

D) having looked/do

E) looked/having done

Johnny, will you stop ……. your father so many questions? He's busy …… out his tax return.

A) to have asked/to fill

B) asked/to have filled

C) to be asked/fill

D) to ask/to be filling

E) asking/filling

Veronica is so vain that every time she passes a mirror, she stops ……. at her reflection.

A) looking                B) looked

C) having looked        D) to look

E) to have looked

The workers would be even willing …….. lower wages if it meant the factory ……… open.

A) accepting/stayed

B) to accept/staying

C) accept/to have stayed

D) accepted/having stayed

E) to have accepted/stay

My clearest memory of my childhood is of ……. with the street dogs and I also remember ……. to the beach, which was very close to our house.

A) to play/to have gone

B) play/having gone

C) playing/going

D) played/gone

E) having played/to go

……. when I don't feel well is the worst thing about acting in stage plays.

A) Perform               B) By performing

C) Performing             D) For performing

E) Performed

Innocent people deserve …….. from the gunmen and thieves in the area.

A) to be protected

B) to have protected

C) having protected

D) for protecting

E) to protect

Asbestos is thought ……. around the time of Aristotle, and during Roman times, it was used ……. fireproof clothing.

A) to have discovered /to making

B) being discovered/making

C) having been discovered/make

D) to discover/to have made

E) to have been discovered/to make

It was such an unruly class that the teacher struggled just ……. order, but she endeavoured ……. those students who were willing to learn.

A) keeping/teach

B) keep/teaching

C) to have kept/taught

D) to be kept/having taught

E) to keep/to teach

Some Third World countries spend so much of their annual budgets ……. interests on loans that there is little left over with which ……. social problems.

A) paying/to tackle

B) pay/to have tackled

C) to pay/tackling

D) paid/having tackled

E) to be paying/tackle

He regretted …… the contract without ……. the small print on the back of the form.

A) to sign/to read

B) signing/reading

C) having signed/read

D) sign/to have read

E) signed/having read

I think Julia dislikes ……. the documents although she claims ……. it willingly.

A) file/having done   B) filed/to be doing  

C) filing/to do           D) to file/doing

E) to be filed/done

The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhnaten, who worshipped only the Sun, is thought …….. the inspiration behind Moses, whose monotheism provided the basis for Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

A) to have been        B) had been

C) having been         D) about being

E) have been

 

 

 

TEST YOUESELF 2

  

 

 

 

There is no point in ……. the washing out because it keeps ……. with rain.

A) to hang/to shower

B) hanging/showering

C) hang/shower

D) hung/having showered

E) having hung/showered

I dislike spending my time …….., so I prefer ……. clothes made from synthetic fabrics.

A) to iron/to buy

B) ironed/bought

C) ironing/buying

D) iron/being bought

E) having ironed/buy

Don't you think the assistant deserves ……. a day off after working so hard at the exhibition?

A) to give                  B) giving

C) to be given           D) gave

E) having given

In my opinion, it's ridiculous ……. a computer as a present for a three-year-old child.

A) bought                 B) buy

C) having bought              D) being bought

E) to buy

I don't think I would enjoy ……. a cricket match as I don't understand the rules.

A) to watch               B) being watched

C) having watched    D) watching

E) watch

Because they both work at the family's flower shop, they have agreed …….about flowers at weekends.

A) not to talk            B) not talking

C) haven't talked      D) not talk

E) don't talk

……. the old hospital would cost £1 million, so the council are considering ……. the building to developers.

A) Demolishing/selling

B) To demolish/to sell

C) Demolished/to have sold

D) Having demolished /sell

E) Being demolished/having sold

Being able to think quickly and having an up-to-date knowledge of a language is essential ……. speakers simultaneously.

A) to be translated

B) having translated

C) for translating

D) being translated

E) translated

In order to save money and energy, we are going to have double glazed windows ……… .

A) having installed     B) install

C) to install               D) installed

E) installing

In his performance against Brazil, he proved himself ………. a skilled player.

A) was                      B) be

C) having been         D) being

E) to be

After the game, the players sat around ……. themselves on their performance.

A) being congratulated

B) congratulate

C) congratulating

D) to have congratulated

E) congratulated

The photographs he took of the products were too dark ……. on the company's web site, so he'll have to get some ……. professionally.

A) using/ to be taken

B) to be used/taken

C) to use/taking

D) use/to take

E) being used/take

The director of the play still hasn't decided whom ……. in the role of the hero.

A) casting                 B) to cast

C) cast                      D) having cast

E) being cast

Why don't you go and ask a chemist …….. something ……. dry skin?

A) recommending/soothed

B) having recommended/soothe

C) recommend/having soothed

D) to recommend/to soothe

E) recommended/soothing

The problem with Simon is that he thinks he can succeed ……. a degree without ……. any lectures.

A) gaining/having attended

B) to gain/to have attended

C) on gaining/attended

D) for gaining/to attend

E) in gaining/attending

We have decided ……. a new Ford Focus, but we are not certain about which colour ……. .

A) buying/choosing

B) bought/chosen

C) having bought/choose

D) to have bought/be chosen

E) to buy/to choose

Wearing high-healed shoes for long periods can result in women ……. too much pain from their feet …….. in active work.

A) to suffer/continuing

B) suffer/having continued

C) suffering/to continue

D) suffered/not to continue

E) having suffered/not continuing

His daughter persuaded him ……. his heart operation in a private hospital instead of waiting for one in a state hospital as she could see his condition ……. worse daily.

A) to have/getting

B) from having/to get

C) having had/get

D) to be having/to have got

E) have/having been getting

I knew the answer, but I didn't press the buzzer quickly enough ……. the prize.

A) winning                B) to wan

C) win                               D) won

E) being won

Robert didn't work as carefully last year as he does this year, and the boss had  even threatened …….. him if he didn't improve his work.

A) sacking                B) being sacked

C) to be sacked                 D) to sack

E) to have sacked

I'd love ……. on my own, but I simply can't afford ……. my own flat.

A) to live/to have

B) living/having

C) live/to be having

D) having lived/have

E) to have lived/having had

The receptionist never minds ……. with sending out the new catalogues.

A) to help                 B) to have helped

C) to be helping        D) have helped

E) helping

The manager likes………….. on all pricing decisions.

A) to have consulted

B) having consulted

C) to be consulting

D) to be consulted

E) having been consulting

I am hoping ……. for the school basketball team next week.

A) picking                 B) to be picked

C) to pick                  D) picked

E) pick

Your hair needs……………..before you go back to school.

A) to cut                   B) being cut

C) cutting                  D) having cut

E) to be cutting

The social worker gave the students a talk ……. them against ……. drugs.

A) to warn/taking

B) having warned/to take

C) warning/taken

D) to have warned/take

E) warn/having taken

He's not in the habit ……. lies, but he had to make up an excuse ……. the afternoon off for his job interview.

A) of telling/to take

B) to tell/to have taken

C) for telling/being taken

D) being told/taking

E) having told/to be taken

In the Middle Ages, surrounding a castle with a ditch filled with water proved ……. a successful technique ……. its security.

A) being/to be ensured

B) to have been/ensure

C) having been/of ensuring

D) have been/to ensure

E) to be/for ensuring

The most effective way ……. the destructiveness of earthquakes is ……. buildings and other structures capable of withstanding strong shaking.

A) reducing/being constructed

B) reduced /having constructed

C) to be reduced/constructing

D) to reduce/to construct

E) reduce/to be constructed

The children were ……. giving up hope when someone phoned to say their dog had been found.

A) in the habit of

B) in return for

C) on the point of

D) for the sake of

E) in exchange for

……. a doorman at a hotel consists ……. greeting guests and taking them to their rooms.

A) To be/in

B) To have been/for

C) Being/of

D) Having been/about

E) Be/from

She should have apologised to him  spilling coffee down his suit.

A) about                   B) with

C) of                         D) for

E) by

Sheep have been so changed by breeding that their wild ancestors are hard …… .

A) identifying           B) being identified

C) to identify                    D) identify

E) having identified

Shopping for fruit and vegetables makes me ……. hungry.

A) to feel                  B) feel

C) felt                       D) feeling

E) to be feeling

We haven't yet decided when …….. a meeting, so we'll let you …….. as soon as we've fixed a date.

A) to hold/know

B) holding/to know

C) held/to be known

D) to have held/knowing

E) having held/known

Tobacco, which we now know so harmful, was once thought …. medicinal value.

A) being/to be having

B) is/had had

C) has been/having had

D) to have been/haling

E) to be/to have

His ability ……. well makes him a great teacher.

A) being communicated

B) communicated

C) having communicated

D) to communicate

E) communicating

We should appreciate ……. in the 20th century, when we have so many appliances ……. the hardships of our lives.

A) to be living/easing

B) having lived/being eased

C) living/to ease

D) to live/having eased

E) live/to be easing

You don't appear ……. the formula. Do you want me ……. it once more?

A) having understood/explaining

B) understand/to have explained

C) to have understood/to explain

D) understood/to be explaining

E) understanding/having explained

My mother won't allow anyone …….. the living room until she finishes ……. .

A) enter/ to vacuum

B) to enter/vacuuming

C) entering/having vacuumed

D) entered/to be vacuuming

E) having entered/vacuum

 

TEST YOUESELF 3

 

1-40. sorularda, cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan kelime ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

That's strange. I saw him …….. his bike along the river this morning and he didn't mention anything about ……. his job.

A) riding/changing

B) having ridden/change

C) to be riding/to change

D) ride/to have changed

E) to ride/having changed

I imagine Sally was about ……. when I asked her……..a letter for me, as she looked rather reluctant.

A) leaving/to have typed

B) to be leaving/typing

C) to leave/to type

D) to have left/type

E) having left/typed

Don't you think we should consider……….. the chimney ……. before the winter?

A) to be getting/to sweep

B) to have got/sweep

C) having got/sweeping

D) to get/being swept

E) getting/swept

In an emergency, even a child can save a life if he or she knows what …… .

A) to do                    B) doing

C) being done          D) have done

E) having done  

Knowledge of nutrition helps you ……. proper eating habits …….. a healthy life.

A) to develop/having maintained

B) developing/maintaining

C) developed/maintained

D) develop/to maintain

E) having developed/maintain

Mankind first used indestructible materials to erect large structures in but ……. their gods from.

A) without living/being worshipped

B) to be living/having worshipped

C) having lived/to be worshipped

D) not to live/to worship

E) by not living/worshipped

I tried ……. careful ……. his feelings.

A) being/not hurting

B) to be/not to hurt

C) to have been/don't hurt

D) having been/didn't hurt

E) be/not to have hurt

……. at the details of the famous sculptor Rodin's works, we can see his ability …….. feeling through facial expression and through hands.

A) To look/being conveyed

B) By looking/to convey

C) Having looked/convey

D) To be looking/conveying

E) Being looked/to be conveying

Ludlow is considered ……. the most beautiful mediaeval street in England. Do you fancy ……. there for sightseeing tonight?

A) having/to go         B) had/go

C) to have/going        D) have/to go

E) having/go

The singer Nick Hucknall has decided ……. a two-year break, but he won't have any money problems. He has already made enough money ……. a lifetime.

A) to take/to last

B) taking/lasting

C) take/to be lasting

D) taken/to have lasted

E) having taken/lasted

Remember ……. off the washing machine before you leave home, will you?

A) switching

B) to have switched

C) having switched

D) switch

E) to switch

Both sides seem ……. on to their determination ……. a peaceful solution, don't they?

A) to be held/finding

B) to be holding/to find

C) holding/to be finding

D) having held/found

E) held/having found

It is sometimes difficult for parents …………. whether ……. their children for misbehaving.

A) to decide/to punish

B) deciding/to be punishing

C) being decided/punish

D) decided/having punished

E) having decided/punishing

A: Did you have difficulty ……. our office?

B: No, it was quite easy ……. here.

A) to find /to have got

B) having found/getting

C) finding/to get

D) to be finding/get

E) find/having got     

I never seem ……. enough time ………. everything I want.

A) having/doing

B) to be having/done

C) have/to be doing

D) to have/to do

E) to have had/do

A talented actress like Tracy shouldn't be wasting her talent ……. in a soap opera.

A) acting                   B) to act

C) act                        D) acted

E) to be acted

Money motivates most people ……. hard, even though it may cause them ……. a lot of stress.

A) working/undergoing

B) to be working/undergo

C) to work/to undergo

D) work/to have undergone

E) worked/having undergone

She caught her son and his friend ……. computer games when they were supposed ……. an assignment for school.

A) to play/to be prepared

B) playing/to be preparing

C) play/having prepared

D) to be playing/preparing

E) played/to prepare

I was against my daughter …….. to a late night party, but she got the permission in the end because she really knows how ……. people.

A) to go/to be persuading

B) gone/persuading

C) go/to have persuaded

D) going/to persuade

E) to be going/persuade

The actor is believed……… the TV drama because of an  illness.

A) to have left          B) leaving

C) to be left              D) leave

E) left

As trainees, we spent several days …….to presentations and lectures about how ……. the product.

A) to listen/selling

B) listen/to be selling

C) listened/to have sold

D) listening/to sell

E) having listened/sell

Her lifelong wish ……. the country of her parents came true when she visited the Ukraine last month.

A) having visited        B) visit

C) visited                  D) to visit

E) visiting

Before offering you the position, we need ……. if you are prepared ……. evenings and weekends when it is necessary.

A) knowing/working

B) know/to have worked

C) to know/to work

D) having known/worked

E) to have known/work

We had arranged ……. after work on Friday ……. our holiday plans.

A) to meet/to discuss

B) meeting/discussing  

C) to meet/discussing

D) meeting/to discuss

E) meet/having discussed

The florist was nervous about the wedding order ……. account ……. the customer being very hard to please.

A) on/of                    B) with/on

C) about/for              D) in/with

E) for/to

If I were you, I would forget ……. getting promoted there and look for more rewarding job somewhere else.

A) for                       B) about

C) of                         D) in

E) with

If you insist ……. having all this paperwork completed, how do you expect  your staff ……. any time with customers?

A) of/spending          B) on/to spend

C) about/spent                  D) for/spend

E) to/for spending

The manager wants us to concentrate ……. gaining new business and says that the head office will take care ……. looking after existing customers.

A) in/for                   B)to/in

C) on/of                    D) about/with

E) of/from

We've urged him ……. for the promotion, but he won't as he is afraid of ……. .

A) to apply/being rejected

B) for applying/rejecting

C) applying/to be rejected

D) to have applied/rejected

E) from applying/to reject

The first woman ……. as a foreign correspondent in the United States was Margaret Fuller, who was also a social reformer, critic and teacher whose words enriched the lives of many people.

A) be served             B) being served

C) has served              D) to serve

E) to be serving

The minister for defence thanked the soldiers ……. carrying out their mission successfully.

A) with                     B)of

C) in                         D) on

E) for

If she hadn't devoted herself ……. teaching her autistic son, she probably would have been a scientist.

A) to                         B) on

C) in                         D) about

E) for

In the article, the environmentalists warned consumers ……. purchasing genetically modified produce.

A) with                     B) against

C) on                        D) to

E) of

When I was a child, I would often ……. of living in a motor home and travelling around the world.

A) feel                      B) cream

C) imagine                D) plan

E) anticipate

I ……. to having to clear up somebody else's mess.

A) mind                    B) dislike

C) object                           D) can't stand

E) complain

After the murder of the prize-winning cameraman, the foreign office has ……. people against going to the region for any reason.

A) insisted                B) worried

C) deterred                  D) warned

E) stopped

They ……. him in Spain for murdering a van driver in England.

A) forbade                B) dealt

C) accused                        D) suspected

E) arrested

The airline ……. to me for losing my luggage, but I wasn't in the right frame of mind to forgive them.

A) thanked                B) complained

C) excused                D) denied

E) apologised

I was ……. from buying a house in that area by the high crime rate.

A) deterred               B) afraid

C) advised                D) compelled

E) obliged

Because of the protests from the local residents, the farmers ……. not to participate in growing genetically modified crops.

A) appreciated          B) failed

C) decided                D) considered

E) urged

41-50. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulunuz.

  

 

 

 

He's devoted his life to photographing the misery which war has brought to people's lives.

A) He was miserable for most of his life because his job was photographing people in war zones.

B) At times during his career, he was sent to war zones to concentrate on photographing people's suffering.

C) Throughout his life, he's been a dedicated photographer taking pictures of people who have suffered a lot through war.

D) He devoted his life to helping the people who had suffered in war, of whom he also took many photographs.

E) The subjects of his photographs have usually been victims of human catastrophes such as wars.

The French police consider the man to be the suspect for the murder of the English student.

A) He was arrested by the French police for murdering an English student.

B) The man is suspected by the French police of murdering the English student.

C) An English student was killed, and the French police suspect that the murderer was aman.

D) The French police have charged the man with committing a murder with an English student.

E) The French police are questioning a man about the murder of an English student.

Italy is believed to have a low rate of heart attacks because Italians use mainly pure olive oil for cooking.

A) The fact that Italians predominantly use pure olive oil in food preparation is assumed to be why Italy has a low incidence of heart attacks.

B) It has been discovered that the low incidence of heart attacks in Italy is a result of Italians' high consumption of cooking oil.

C) It's been found that Italians use more cooking oil, usually olive oil, than most people, which accounts for the small number of heart attacks reported in Italy.

D) Italians rarely die of heart attacks on account of their healthy diet and the cooking oil they use.

E) Pure olive oil has been proved to be healthier than other oils, which is considered to be the reason why Italians rarely suffer heart disease.

In addition to entertaining the public, many zoos are involved in preserving endangered species.

A) Conserving animals is a more important service zoos provide than entertaining people.

B) Many zoos which used to concentrate on entertaining their customers are now participating in conservation projects.

C) Instead of entertaining visitors, zoos should concentrate more on serving the needs of endangered animals.

D) Apart from providing entertainment for people, many zoos make efforts to conserve threatened species.

E) In using animals for entertainment purposes, many zoos are actually contributing to the risk of extinction for many species.

A quarter of all bird species in the world are acknowledged to have become extinct during the past two hundred years.

A) It is estimated that one fourth of all bird species will become extinct within the next two centuries.

B) It is known that two centuries ago there were twenty-five percent more birds than there are today.

C) We are likely to cause the extinction of one fourth of all bird species during the next two hundred years.

D) It is understood that one fourth of all bird species have ceased to exist over the last two centuries.

E) It is clear that we risk causing the extinction of twenty-five percent of all bird species by the twenty-third century.

At the present rate of deforestation, the last tropical evergreen tree will fall in 2045.

A) We will cut down the last tropical evergreen tree in 2045 if we continue to cut them down as quickly as we are now.

B) Unless we stop cutting down tropical evergreen trees, there will be very few left by 2045.

C) We are cutting down the rainforest so quickly that, in 2045, there will only be one tropical evergreen tree left.

D) It is estimated that, unless something is done, there will be no tropical forests left by 2045.

E) If we continue chopping down trees at the current rate, there will only be tropical evergreen trees left by 2045.

There is no evidence to prove that genetically modified crops pose a special threat to human health or to our planet.

A) There isn't enough evidence to support the assumption that genetically modified crops harm both the Earth and the health of its population.

B) Evidence exists to suggest that genetically modified crops pose a particular threat to our planet and to the health of its people.

C) There is a complete lack of evidence to show that genetically modified crops are harmful either to the Earth or to the health of its inhabitants.

D) Scientists have not yet proved genetically modified crops to be completely safe for human health or the environment.

E) Genetically modified crops are proven to pose no health risk or threat to the environment.

The asymmetric shape of the human heart enables the blood to be pumped more efficiently around the body.

A) It is known that the asymmetric shape of the human heart prevents the blood being sent around the body too quickly.

B) How efficiently the blood is sent around the body of an animal depends on the particular shape of its heart.

C) The human heart's irregular shape facilitates more efficient sending of the blood around the body.

D) A human heart is incapable of sending the blood around the body quickly because of its uneven shape.

E) Some people have irregular-shaped hearts, which can have difficulty in sending the blood around the body effectively.

You should choose a car suitable for driving long distances and carrying the whole family.

A) Have you considered buying a car capable of being driven long distances and with enough space for your family?

B) It's advisable for you to select a car capable of being driven long distances and roomy enough to seat your entire family.

C) When choosing a car, you should consider such things as whether it will be driven long distances or how many people it can hold.

D) I'm glad that you're considering buying a car which is suitable for driving long distances and which can fit your entire family in.

E) If you plan to drive your entire family a long distance, make sure you choose a suitable car for the trip.

King Charles II survived a narrow escape from Cromwell's men by hiding in an oak tree.

A) King Charles II concealed himself in an oak tree, and thus narrowly avoided being caught by Cromwell's men.

B) Cromwell's men found King Charles II sitting in a large oak tree.

C) King Charles II would have been found if he hadn't hidden himself in a large oak tree.

D) The tree is known as the Royal Oak because King Charles II reportedly hid from Cromwell's men in it.

E) The escape that King Charles II made from Cromwell's men by hiding in an oak tree was one of many narrow escapes he survived.

51-60. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümlenin, Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

   

My son's favourite subject at school is history, but he is considering studying medicine or engineering at university.

A) Oğlum okulda en çok tarih dersini seriyorsa da üniversitede tıp ya da mühendislik okumak istiyor.

B) Oğlumun okulda en başarılı olduğu ders tarih ama o, üniversitede tıp ya'da mühendislik okumayı tercih ediyor.

C) Tarih, okulda oğlumun en çok beğendiği ders olmasına rağmen üniversitede seçmeyi düşündüğü alan tıp veya mühendislik.

D) Oğlumun okulda en çok sevdiği ders tarih ama o, üniversitede tıp ya da mühendislik okumayı düşünüyor.

E) Oğlumun okulda en"çok ilgisini çeken ders tarihti ama o, üniversite için tercihlerini tıp ve mühendislik alanlarında yaptı.

In an effort to preserve the wilderness, many of the national parks in various parts of the world officially admit only scientists.

A) Vahşi doğanın korunması için kurulmuş olan milli parklara, dünyanın bir çok yerinde resmi olarak sadece bilim adamları kabul edilmektedir.

B) Vahşi doğayı korumak için dünyanın çeşitli bölgelerinde, sadece bilim adamlarının girmesine izin verilen milli parklar oluşturulmuştur.

C) Dünyanın çeşitli bölgelerindeki milli parklara sadece, vahşi doğayı korumak için çalışan bilim adamları girebiliyor.

D) Dünyanın çeşitli yerlerinde, vahşi doğayı korumak amacıyla, yalnızca bilim adamlarının girebildiği milli parklar oluşturulmuştur.

E) Vahşi doğayı korumak amacıyla, dünyanın çeşitli yerlerindeki pek çok milli park, resmi olarak sadece bilim adamlarını kabul eder.

By not bringing forth any suggestions throughout the meeting, he tried to make it obvious that he was unwilling to take part in the project.

A) Toplantı boyunca hiçbir öneri sunmayınca projede yer almak istemediği anlaşıldı.

B) Toplantı boyunca hiç öneri getirmeyerek, projede yer alma konusunda isteksiz olduğunu belli etmeye çalıştı.

C) Projede ver alma konusunda isteksiz olduğunu belli etmek için toplantı süresince hiç öneri getirmedi.

D) Bu projede yer alma konusunda isteksiz olduğunu toplantı boyunca tüm önerilere karşı çıkarak belli etti.

E) Bu projede yer almak islemediği belliydi çünkü toplantı boyunca tüm önerilere karşı çıktı.

Fortunately, the driver was able to throw himself out before the car went over the barriers and rolled down the slope.

A) Neyse ki sürücü, araba bariyerleri aşıp yamaçtan aşağı doğru yuvarlanmadan önce kendini dışarı atabildi.

B) Araba bariyerlere çarpıp yamaçtan aşağıya yuvarlandı ama neyse ki sürücü daha önceden kendini dışarı atmıştı.

C) Araba bariyeriere çarpınca kendini dışan atabildiği ve yamaçtan aşağıya yuvarlanmadığı için sürücü çok şanslıydı.

D) İyi ki sürücü, araba bariyerlere çarpınca kendini dışarı attı çünkü daha sonra araba yamaçtan aşağıya yuvarlandı.

E) Büyük bir şans eseri, arabanın, yamaçtan aşağıya yuvarlanmadan önce bariyerlere çarpmasıyla sürücü dışarr fırladı.

The "Sherlock Holmes" stories by Arthur Conan Doyle were first serialized in the Strand magazine before appearing in book form.

A) Kitap biçiminde yayınlanmadan önce dizi halinde ilk kez Strand dergisinde çıkan "Sherlock Holmes" hikayelerini Arthur Conan Doyle yazmıştır.

B) Arthur Conan Doyle'nin "Sherlock Holmes" hikayeleri, ilk kez Strand dergisinde dizi halinde yayınlandıktan sonra kitaba dönüştürülmüştür.

C) "Sherlock Holmes" un yazarı Arthur Conan Doyle,  hikayelerini önce dizi biçiminde Strand dergisinde yayınlamış, sonra kitap halinde çıkarmıştır.

D) "Sherlock Holmes" hikayelerini önce Strand dergisinde dizi biçiminde yayınlatan Arthur Conan Doyle, daha sonra onları bir kitapta toplamıştır.

E) Arthur Conan Doyle'nin "Sherlock Holmes" hikayeleri, kitap biçiminde çıkmadan önce ilk kez Strand dergisinde dizi halinde yayınlanmıştır.

Whether we can move into a larger house or not depends on my father's finding a better-paid job.

A) Babam yüksek maaşlı bir iş bulabilirse hemen daha büyük bir eve taşınacağız.

B) Büyük bir eve taşınıp taşınmayacağımız babamın yeni işinde alacağı maaş kesinleşince belli olacak.

C) Daha büyük bir eve taşınıp taşınamayacağımız babamın daha iyi maaşlı bir iş bulmasına bağlı.

D) Babam maaşı daha iyi olan bir iş bulduğuna göre artık daha büyük bir eve taşınabiliriz.

E) Babamın bu işte alacağı yüksek maaşa davanarak daha büyük bir ev bulup taşınmayı düşünüyoruz.

Sight is a rapidly occurring process resulting from a continuous interaction between the eye, the nervous system and the brain.

A) Sinir sistemi ve beyin arasındaki hızlı ve sürekli etkileşimin sonucunda göz, görrne işlemini gerçekleştirir.

B) Görme, gözün, sinir sistemi ve beyin arasındaki sürekli etkileşimin sonucunda çok hızlı gerçekleştirdiği bir işlemdir.

C) Görme işleminin çok hızlı gerçekleşmesinin nedeni, göz, sinir sistemi ve beyin arasında sürekli bir etkileşim olmasıdır.

D) Görme göz, sinir sistemi ve beyin arasında sürekli bir etkileşim sonucu çok hızlı gerçekleşen bir işlemdir.

E) Görme işlemi, göz, sinir sistemi ve beyin arasındaki etkileşimin sürekliliği sayesinde gerçekleşmektedir.

In my opinion, having your holiday on your own is a lot more enjoyable than joining a package-tour.

A) Bence, kendi başınıza tatil yapmak bir tura katılmaktan çok daha eğlencelidir.

B) Bana göre, bir tura katılmaktansa kendi başınıza tatil yapmanız size daha çok zevk verecektir.

C) Benim düşüncemi sorarsanız, bir tura katılmak yerine kendi zevkinize göre tatil yapınız.

D) Bana göre, tatile turla değil de kendi başınıza gitmeniz çok daha eğlenceli olabilir.

E) Bence, bir tura katılacağınıza kendi başınıza tatil yaparak daha çok eğlenirsiniz.

They spent so much money on the decoration of the house that, in the end, they had no money left to go on holiday.

A) Evin dekorasyonuna bu kadar çok para harcamasalardı, tatile gitmek için biraz paraları olurdu.

B) O kadar çok parayı evin dekorasyonuna harcamak yerine birazını tatil için ayırabilirlerdi.

C) Evin dekorasyonuna o kadar çok para harcadılar ki sonunda tatile gitmek için hiç paraları kalmadı.

D) Sonunda tatile gitmekten vazgeçip paranın tümünü evin dekorasyonuna harcamayı tercih ettiler.

E) Evin dekorasyonuna o kadar çok para harcayınca sonunda tatile gitmek için hiç para kalmayacağı belliydi.

As he lived on his own for many years, he is now having difficulty getting used to having someone else in his house.

A) Evde bir başkasının varlığına katlanamadığı için yıllardır tek başına yaşıyor.

B) Senelerce evinde tek başına yaşadığından şimdi bir başkasının varlığına alışması çok zor.

C) Bir başkasının varlığına alışmakta zorlandığı için senelerce evinde tek başına yaşamıştı.

D) Uzun yıllar yalnız yaşamaya alıştığı için şimdi evinde bir başkasının varlığı zoruna gidiyor.

E) Uzun yıllar yalnız yaşadığı için şimdi evinde bir başkasının varlığına alışmakta zorlanıyor.

61-70. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

   

 

 

Meslek seçimi, işin fiziksel gerekliliklerinin kişinin fiziksel özelliklerine uygunluğu konusunda, gerçekçi hir tavırla yapılmalıdır.

A) If you are choosing an active vocation, bear in mind, realistically, the physical fitness required in relation to your own.

B) Choosing a vocation should be done with a realistic- attitude toward its physical demands in relation to one's own physical attributes.

C) It's unrealistic to choose a physically demanding vocation if you aren't physically strong yourself.

D) In order to help you decide on a suitable vocation, it's useful to compare its physical demands with your level of fitness.

E) Only those who realistically, consider themselves physically fit enough to cope with the demands of this vocation should choose to follow it.

İskoçların milli kahramanı William Wallace, ülkesini İngiltere'nin boyunduruğundan kurtaramadı ama mücadeleyi sürdürmeleri konusunda başkalarına esin kaynağı oldu.

A) William Wallace, who tried but failed to free his country from English oppression, inspired many others and became a national hero in Scotland.

B) William Wallace, a Scottish hero who was defeated by the English, inspired many of his contemporaries to continue to resist English rule.

C) The Scots' national hero William Wallace  failed to free his country from the yoke of England, but he inspired others to cam' on the struggle.

D) After the Scots' national hero William Wallace was defeated, those whom he had inspired carried on the struggle to free their country from the yoke of England.

E) The struggle of the Scottish people to free themselves from the yoke of England was inspired by their national hero William Wallace.

Afrika, mineraller ve diğer ham maddeler bakımından zengin olmasına karşın, çoğu insan için tarım hayatın ekonomik temeli olmaya devam etmektedir.

A) Despite attempts to utilise Africa's wealth of minerals and raw materials, most Africans still earn a living farming the land.

B) Agriculture forms the basis of life for most African people although some African countries have large mineral deposits and ample supply of raw materials.

C) Africa is rich in minerals and has no shortage of raw materials, yet its economy has failed to move away from an agricultural one.

D) Most Africans make a living through agriculture of some kind because Africa lacks any abundance of minerals and is short of raw materials.

E) Even though Africa is rich in minerals and other raw materials, agriculture continues to be the economic base of life for most people.

Karda mahsur kalan yolcuların tümünü birkaç saat içinde kurtarmayı başardılar.

A) The rescue operation to free all the passengers from where they were stranded in the snow lasted a few hours.

B) It took them several hours before they had rescued all the passengers stranded in tlıe snow.

C) In just a few hours, all the passengers were safe, having been dug out of the snow by a rescue learn.

D) They managed to rescue all the passengers stranded in the snow in a few hours.

E) It took a few hours for the rescue team to reach the spot where all the passengers were trapped in the snow.

Yöneticinin yüksek standart konusundaki ısrarı, çalışanların mükemmel bir iş çıkarmasıyla sonuçlandı.

A) The manager's insistence on high standards resulted in employees producing excellent work.

B) The excellent work by the employees met the high standards which the manager insisted on.

C) The manager insisted on high standards so that the work his employees produced would be above average.

D) If the manager had insisted on higher standards, the employees' work would have produced better results.

E) The manager insisted that his employees should produce work which met his high standard of excellence.

Saatimi onarmak için istedikleri fiyat, kabul edilemeyecek kadar yüksekti.

A) I asked for the price in case the charge for mending my watch was too high.

B) The charge they asked for mending my watch was too high to accept.

C) They overcharged me for mending my watch, which, of course, I didn't accept.

D) I couldn't agree to them mending my watch as they wanted to charge too much.

E) It cost a lot to have my watch repaired, but I had no alternative but to accept the charges.

Malikanenin fiyatı ilk anda oldukça makul görünüyor ama restorasyon giderlerini düşündüğümüzde hiç de öyle değil.

A) The price of the mansion was quite reasonable, but at first sight, we found the cost of restoration surprisingly high.

B) The cost of the mansion sounds quite reasonable at first, but it isn't so at all when we consider the restoration expenses.

C) The mansion sounds quite reasonably priced, but it may not be so when the restoration expenses are considered.

D) It's not the cost of the mansion but the considerable restoration expenses that make the mansion unreasonably priced.

E) The mansion itself doesn't cost that much, bul the final cost including the considerable restoration expenses is high.

Bahçe işiyle ilgilenmek babamın, yoğun bir iş gününden sonra en iyi rahatlama yöntemidir.

A) My father deals with some of the jobs in the garden and finds it relaxing after a hard day's work.

B) My father prefers doing the gardening, which he does in the evening after work, to his stressful job.

C) According to my father, tackling jobs in the garden is a great way to relax after a stressful day at the office.

D) Dealing with the gardening is my father's best way of relaxing after a hard day's work.

E) The best way of relaxing after a hard day's work is to tackle a job in the garden, which my father does ver}' often.

Kalp sorunu olanların koşmaları tavsiye edilmiyor ama düzenli: yürüyüş yapmaları şart.

A) Too much walking or running is not advisable if the person suffers from a heart condition.

B) Walking regularly is actually better than running for those who have heart problems.

C) For the sufferers of heart problems, getting some exercise by running, or even better, walking regularly is essential.

D) Running is not always the best exercise for those who have heart conditions, but an acceptable alternative is walking regularly.

E) Running is not advisable for those who have heart problems, but it is essential for them to have regular walks.

Fiyatlardaki son artışlardan bu yana bazı insanlar, en gerekli şeylerin dışında hiçbir şey alamaz oldular.

A) Some people haven't even been able to afford the most essential things since the recent rise in prices.

B) Because of continually rising prices, more and more people are unable to buy anything apart from the most essential items.

C) Since the recent rise in prices, some people have been unable to buy anything but the most essential things.

D) Since the last price rise, only some people have been able to buy anything other than life's essential commodities.

E)  It is becoming more and more difficult to afford everything necessary in life with prices that are rising all the time.

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

  

 

 

 

The two sides are so far apart that they will never agree. The only solution will have to be a/an   ……… .

A) harmony              B) compromise

C) definition             D) confirmation

E) proportion

I didn't …….. my son for skipping school, but I gave him a stern warning.

A) accuse                  B) suspect

C) punish                  D) forgive

E) complain

As he looked across at the police officer, he wondered why he had ever got …….. in selling stolen cars.

A) involved              B) contributed

C) accustomed            D) charged

E) blamed

Since Jennifer's operation two days ago, the nursing staff have been carefully …….. her heart beat and pulse.

A) calculating           B) estimating

C) guessing               D) monitoring

E) falsifying

They …….. the train driver for causing the accident as he had run a red light.

A) forced                  B) convinced

C) approved              D) tolerated

E) blamed

 

 

She placed some ant powder behind the refrigerator to try …….. any more ants from coming into the kitchen.

A) to prevent            B) to warn

C) to threaten                    D) to object

E) to dread

The police eventually …….. in catching the TV presenter's murderer.

A) intended               B) attempted

C) succeeded               D) planned

E) commented

I …….. of our son riding a motorcycle as I don't find it very safe.

A) object                   B) disapprove

C) worry                   D) discourage

E) warn

"I very much …….. the closure of Hatley railway station," said the mayor sadly as he announced the news at the press conference.

A) proceed                B) regret

C) appreciate               D) desire

E) admit

She enjoyed the wedding, but she ………. on being left behind at the church, which she found frustrating.

A) commented          B) observed

C) referred                   D) forgave

E) complained

 

Labels in the shops must now show the price in kilograms instead of in pounds, so English consumers will have to …….. to the new units of weight.

A) adjust                   B) prefer

C) continue                  D) allow

E) learn

In our discussion, he …….. to the possibility of changing the name of the company.

A) involved              B) planned

C) talked                   D) apologised

E) referred

Whether we place another order …….. on how popular your product proves to be with our customers.

A) tempts                  B) advises

C) relies                    D)depends

E) compels

David is quite …….. to work on his own farm even though he's got a university degree in engineering.

A) upset                    B) hesitant

C) content                 D) fed up

E) jealous

Johnny, do you think your brand new trousers are …….. for climbing trees in?

A) famous                B) appropriate

C) similar                          D) incapable

E) opposed

 

 

 

Having a good pair of lungs is …….. for playing the trumpet as the instrument requires very strong breath.

A) successful            B) keen

C) interested                     D) essential

E) capable

The children were …….. of having virtually no furniture at all and rarely invited their friends to their home.

A) ashamed              B) accustomed

C) proud                           D) fond

E) grateful

We've had a lot of bills this month. I'm …….. about us running out of money before pay day.

A) concerned            B) excited

C) incapable                D) lazy

E) generous

Some observers consider people who make bungee jumps ……… while others think they are simply stupid.

A) generous              B) miserly

C) shy                               D) cowardly

E) brave

It was …….. of me to board the train without checking it was the right one. I wasted hours trying to get back home.

A) considerate          B) brave

C) foolish                         D) fortunate

E) responsible

 

 

 

The sales assistant considers people …….. who get a penny change and don't put it in the Air Ambulance box on the counter.

A) generous              B) brave

C) cowardly              D) miserly

E) honest

My washing machine is very ………  It uses lower temperatures and less water so it saves both energy and water.

A) interesting            B) costly

C) economical             D) sensible

E) old-fashioned

Juliet's mother was horrified when she …….. her hair bright red.

A) dyed                    B) combed

C) brushed                D) washed

E) painted

As he lives in Üsküdar, his new job in Kadıköy is much more ……. for him to travel to. At least, he no longer has to commute from one side of the Bosphorus to the other.

A) essential               B) convenient

C) sensible                D) delighted

E) capable

It was …….. of him to let the Red Cross use the grounds of his mansion for their summer fair.

A) greedy                  B) charitable

C) foolish                 D) concerned

E) honest

 

 

Our business didn't make a profit in its first year, but at least, we …….. to cover our costs.

A) claimed                B) consented

C) managed                      D) dreaded

E) wasted

If we should …….. to be robbed during our holiday, we have adequate insurance.

A) consider               B) succeed

C) permit                  D) happen

E) require

After he had insulted my aunt, he ……. to make some very hurtful remarks to my cousin.

A) agreed                  B) hoped

C) proved                         D) forgave

E) proceeded

The cricketer …….. the manager not to agree to transfer him to the Leicestershire team as he felt loyal to Worcestershire.

A) implored              B) prepared

C) chose                   D) hoped

E) refused

They speak German in Austria, but they …….. the vowels differently than Germans do.

A) talk                      B) pronounce

C) gossip                   D) swear

E) offer

 

 

My manager respects punctuality, so I try to …….. being late.

A) manage                B) neglect

C) miss                     D) risk

E) avoid

The brother of the victim…….. to take revenge from the murderer.

A) learnt                   B) argued

C) requested                     D) challenged

E) swore

The Ottoman carpet …….. 1 million pounds at the auction.

A) sold                      B) fetched

C) bought                  D) bumped

E) appealed

Although he is paralysed from the waist down, a specially modified car …….. him to travel.

A) teaches                 B) compels

C) persuades                     D) enables

E) requires

If they had spent as much time discussing the project as they did …….about the private lives of members of staff, we would have finished the work by now.

A) arranging              B) evaluating

C) gossiping                D) swearing

E) congratulating

 

 

I forgot to put the flowers which Diana bought me into water straightaway, so they have …….. and don't look as nice as they did.

A) wilted                   B) blossomed

C) grown                   D) regretted

E) wrinkled

I …….. to get more work done in the mornings than in the afternoons.

A) resist                    B) indicate

C) motivate               D) avoid

E) tend

…….. is illegal in India and Pakistan, but in practice it is quite common, especially over cricket games.

A) Suggesting            B) Judging

C) Gambling                     D) Calculating

E) Estimating

They ………him to confess by torturing him.

A) suggested             B) permitted

C) encouraged                  D) forced

E) recommended

During his speech, the director …….. us that the name of the company was changing from 'R G Springer & Co Alloys Limited' to 'Special Metals'.

A) agreed                  B) requested

C) commanded         D) informed

E) claimed

Yazar Hakkında

Erdem OVAT

1985-1988 Dörtler Köyü İlköğretim Okulu 1988- 1993 Sakıp Sabancı İlköğretim Okulu 1993-1996 Orhan Çobanoğlu Lisesi 1997-2000 Almanya'da Turist 2001-2002 Vatani Görev Isparta Muş'ta yaptım 2002-2004 Açiköğretim Lisesinden Üstün Başarı 2005-2010 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Alman Dili Öğretmenliğinde Mezun Oldum 2010-2011 Halk Eğitim Merkezinde Almanca Öğretmenliğine Başladım 2011-2013 Çeşitli Özel Dersane ve Okullarda çalıştım 2013- .... Milli Eğitimde Almanca Öğretmeni olarak çalışmaya devam ediyorum
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