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Ingilizce Kısa Dilbilgisi

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İngilizce Kısa Dilbilgisi

İngilizce Kısa Dilbilgisi

 

 

Practising  English Grammar

ELEMENTS OF BASIC ENGLISH

 

Hello                          Good morning!

Have a nice day            Good afternoon!

Thank you                   Good day!

That’s all right            Good evening!

Not at all                     Good night!

How are you?               Fine, thank you.

Don’t mention it.          I’m OK. Bye.

See you later.               Goodbye!

 

LANGUAGE  IN  USE

 

Please sit down!                                Listen and repeat!

Come in! Close the door!                 Stand up!

Put your hand up!                           Open your book!

Look at page ……..                          Look at the picture!

Pay attention!                                   Don’t talk!

Stop talking!                                     Answer!

Open the door!                                 What’s your name?

Close the window!                            What is this in English?

What’s this called?                           What does  ………………. mean?

Sit down!                                           How do you say …………. in English?

Stand up!                                          How do you pronounce ………………?

Come here!                                       How do you spell………………………..?

Go there!                                           Write your name on the board!

 

 

We can say:

 

Mr John Brown   Mrs Mary Brown   Miss Jane Brown      Ms Jenny Brown

Mr         Brown    Mrs          Brown   Miss         Brown      Ms           Brown

 

We can not say:

Mr John                Mrs Mary              Miss Jane             Ms Jenny         

 

THE ALPHABET 

a          h          j           k                                                                    /eı/

b          c          d          e          g          p          t           v                      /i:/

f          l           m         n          s          x          z*                                /e/

i           y                                                                                            /aı/

o                                                                                                        //

q          u          w                                                                               /u:/

r                                                                                                        /a:/

 

*Americans say "zee", not "zed"

 

 1. Complete the following chart;

GRAMMAR WORD

MEANING

EXAMPLE

IN

TURKISH

noun

a person or thing

book, girl ,pencil

……………..

verb

something we do

read, write

……………..

adjective

describes a person or thing

good, happy, tall

……………..

adverb

describes a verb

slowly, badly

……………..

preposition

a little  word used before a noun or pronoun

in, on, by, at

……………..

singular

just one

pencil, house

 tekil

plural

more than one

pencils, houses

……………..

phrase

a group of words             (not a complete sentence)

in a house, a young man

……………..

sentence

a complete idea in writing, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop

The girl went into the room and closed the door.

 

……………..

paragraph

a short part of a text(one or more sentences)beginning on  a new line

This book has 440 pages. It is a good book.

 

……………..

dialogue

a conversation between two people

 

Ali:     How is every-

          thing?

Ayşe: Everything is

          OK.

 

……………..

question

a set of words that begin with a capital letter and end with a question mark

Are you Turkish?

Do you speak Turkish?

soru

answer

reply to a question

Yes, I am.

No, I don’t.

………………

 

2. Grammar Words  Match the grammar words and  examples    :

 

1.         nouns                          o                    a.         does, did

2.         adjectives                   o                    b.         co ffee

3.         adverbs                       o                    c.         in, for

4.         (main) verbs                o                    d.         a, e, i, o, u

5.         auxiliary verbs            o                    e.         chair, money  

6.         prepositions                o                    f.         go, work

7.         vowels                        o                    g.         b, c, d, f

8.         consonants                  o                    h.         big, cheap

9.         syllables                      o                    i.          quickly, sometimes

 

. 3. Are  these phrases, sentences, questions, answers, nouns, verbs,

adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, singular, plural  or  paragraphs?

 

1.on the  table                                                                       ……………………

2.I like English.                                                                    ……………………

3.What’s your name?                                                            ……………………

4.He’s writing a book.                                                          ……………………

5.a black cat                                                                          ……………………

6.book                                                                                   ……………………

7.read                                                                                    ……………………

8.in                                                                                        ……………………

9.The boy went into the room and asked for a cup of tea.   ……………………

10.Are you German?                                                             ……………………

11.Yes,I am.                                                                          ……………………

12.This is a good book. I wrote it  in six months.                 ……………………

      And this is my first experience. I hope it is OK.                       

13.A.How are you?                                                               ……………………

     B.I am fine, thanks.                                                        

14.slowly                                                                               ……………………

15.pencils                                                                              ……………………

 

CARDINAL NUMBERS

0 oh

1-one                          11-eleven                                21-twenty-one           

2-two                          12-twelve                               22-twenty-two

3-three                        13-thirteen                              30-thirty

4-four                         14-fourteen                            40-forty

5-five                          15-fifteen                               50-fifty

6-six                            16-sixteen                               60-sixty

7-seven                       17-seventeen                          70-seventy

8-eight                        18-eighteen                            80-eighty

9-nine                         19-nineteen                            90-ninety

10-ten                         20-twenty                               100-one hundred

 

ORDINAL NUMBERS

1st–   first                     11th– eleventh                         21st– twenty- first

2nd–  second                12th– twelfth                           22nd-twenty -second

3rd–  third                    13th– thirteenth                       23rd– twenty-third

4th–  fourth                  14th– fourteenth                      30th– thirtieth

5th–  fifth                     15th– fifteenth                         40th– fortieth

6th–  sixth                    16th– sixteenth                        50th– fiftieth

7th–  seventh                17th– seventeenth                    60th– sixtieth

8th–  eighth                  18th– eighteenth                      70th– seventieth

9th–  ninth                    19th– nineteenth                      80th– eightieth

10th-tenth                    20th– twentieth                                   90th– ninetieth

                                                                                  100th-hundredth

 

(not: one time,)          once

(not: two times,)        twice

                                   three times

           four times

 

I usually eat three times a day.

She telephones her boyfriend five times a day.

Students go to school five days a week.

Students go to school five times a week.

 

 

. 4. Write the words for these numbers            :

13…………….          23 …………….         71…………….

27…………….          44 …………….         91…………….

15…………….          90 …………….         55…………….

42…………….          99 …………….         10…………….

89…………….          39 …………….         53…………….

 

5. Write numbers for these      :

seventeen………………        seven………………….         ninety……….

twenty-one…………….        thirty-two…………….          forty…..…….

eighty-nine…………….        sixty-six………………          fifty………….

 

6. Write the words for the  numbers   :

 

3rd………………….  17th………………….            27th………………….

11th………………….42nd………………….71st………………….

43rd………………… 89th…………………. 26th………………….

 

7. Write the numbers    :

twenty-first                ……………………………. 

sixty-third                   ……………………………. 

ninety-seventh                        …………………………….

thirty-third                  …………………………….

fifth                            …………………………….

seventy-second           …………………………….

eighty-ninth                …………………………….

first                             …………………………….

fourth                         …………………………….

 

8. Match the dates  with the words     :

1919                eighteen eighty-one

1881                nineteen oh and three

1213                nineteen sixty-one

2001                nineteen nineteen

1961                twenty oh and one

  1. twelve thirteen

 

TELEPHONE NUMBERS

 

A: What’s your telephone number?

B: My telephone number is 418 16 66

     It is 418 16 66. ( four one eight one six double six)

A: Who is that, please?

B: This is Ayşe.

***

A: Is that Ayşe?

B: Yes, this is Ayşe.

     Yes, speaking.

 

A typical phone conversation

 

Erdal   :           Three two three eight one eight five.

Sue      :           Hello. It’s Sue here. Can I speak to Serdal, please?

Erdal   :           I’m sorry, he isn’t here at the moment. Can I take a message?

Sue      :           Thanks. Could you just tell him Sue called. I’ll call back later.

Erdal   :           OK. I’ll tell him. Goodbye.

Sue      :           Bye.

 

 

TELLING THE TIME

 

a. What time is it?

b. What is the time?

c. Have you got the time? (mostly used by Americans, colloquial)

 

7.00 : It is 7 o’clock.

          It’s ……………

7.10 :  It’s 10 minutes past 7.

            It’s 7.10.

            It’s seven ten.

7.15  :  It’s a quarter past 7.

            It’s quarter past seven.

            It’s seven fifteen.

7.30 :   It’s seven- thirty.

            It’s half past seven.

7.45 :  It’s (a) quarter  to eight.

7.50 :  It’s ten (minutes)to eight.

            It’s seven-fifty.

  1. What time do you get up?
  2.  I get up at 6.30.
  1. What time is it now?
  2. It’s  6.30.

A.   O. K.  Get up now, then !!!

9. Exercise:

1.

 

What is the time?

…………………..

2.

 

What is the time?

 

…………………..

3.

 

What time is it?

 

…………………..

4.

 

What time is it?

 

…………………..

 

DAYS, MONTHS, SEASONS

 

DAYS OF THE WEEK

 

Monday          (Mon.)

Tuesday          (Tues.)

Wednesday     (Wed.)

Thursday         (Thurs.)

Friday             (Fri.)

Saturday         (Sat.)

Sunday           (Sun.)

 

MONTHS OF THE YEAR

 

January           (Jan.)

February         (Feb.)

March             (Mar.)

April               (Apr.)

May

June

July

August                        (Aug.)

September       (Sept.)

October           (Oct.)

November       (Nov.)

December       (Dec.)

 

. 10. Answer these questions:

A: Is  January the first month?

B: Yes,  it is. (Yes, January is the first month of the year.)

1.Is  February the second month?

………………………………………………………

2.What is the fourth month?

………………………………………………………

3.September is the ninth month, what is the next month?

………………………………………………………

4.Is August the eight month?

 ………………………………………………………

5.Is May the third month?

………………………………………………………

 

11. Complete the table  :

We write

We say

20 June

1 September

……………

12 September

……………

29 May

……………

26 July

……………

11 August

 the twentieth of June

 ………………………

 the fourteenth of March

 ………………………

 the sixth of May

 ………………………

 the eleventh of May

 ………………………

 the twenty-third of April

 ………………………

 

 

May 15                       15   May                     15th of May

May 15th                     15th May                     May the 15th

 

 

Years before Christ                            =          BC (Before Christ)

 

Years dating from the Christian era  =          AD (Anno Domini)

 

 

SEASONS

 

Spring             (March-April-May)     – in Turkey

Summer          (June-July-August)

Autumn*        (September-October-November)

Winter             (December-January-February)

 

*fall                 in Canada and some other English speaking countrie

 

NOUNS

SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS:

 

*s ending

 

one cat                        two cats

one dog           two dogs

one boy           two boys

one apple        two apples

one girl            two girls

 

12. Make these singular nouns plural:

pencil ………..    camera ………….  telephone …………..book ……………

bird …………..    newspaper ……… banana …………….. chair …………..

spoon ……….     cup …………         

 

 

* ies ending :

 

 Words ending in consonant  +y: y changes into   i + es

 

one baby           two babies

one fly              two flies

one city            two cities

 

13. Make these singular nouns plural:

 

lorry …………..  family …………..  dictionary ……………

 

*es ending  :

 

Words ending  in: ch, x, sh, ss, s

 

a match        two matches

a bus            two buses

a glass          two glasses

a box            two boxes

 

 

*We add es to  a few words ending in o :

 

a potato        two potatoes

a tomato       two tomatoes

 

 

14. Make these singular nouns plural.

address …………….      waitress ………………….           dish ……………..

watch ………………       sandwich ……………….            dress ……………

church ……………..       beach ……………………

 

*Irregular plurals:

a tooth            two teeth                    a foot              two feet

a man              two men                     a mouse           four mice

a woman         two women                an ox               two oxen

a child             two children               a louse             two lice

a person          two people     

 

15. Make these singular nouns plural.

a foot …………….         a fish ……………

a goose ………….

 

*If the word finishes with  –f, -fe ;we omit -f ,-fe  and add  -ves :

thief                thieves

wolf                wolves

 

 

16. Make these singular nouns  plural :

wife                ………………..                  life    ……………….. 

leaf                 ………………..                  calf   ………………..

hoof                ………………..                  half   ………………..

handkerchief  ………………..

 

17. Write the plurals     :

a cup of tea                 two cups of tea           a glass of milk……………………

a pair of socks            ……………………   a slice of bread……………………

a bottle of milk           ……………………  

 

* Some nouns have the same form in singular and the plural;

a)    some kinds of animals;

       (sheep, deer) and fish; (trout, cod, salmon, etc)

b)   the words aircraft, spacecraft, hovercraft, etc.

e.g. One hovercraft was approaching the port.

      Two hovercraft were approaching the port.

c)    Some nouns ending in -s:

       Crossroads, means, series, works, etc.

       e.g. A car is a means of transport.

 Cars are a means of transport.

 

 

THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE

8. Fill in the blanks with this, that, these, those.

  1. ………… is a book.
  2. ………… are newspapers.
  3. ………… are photos.
  4. ………… are notebooks.
  5. ………… is an umbrella.
  6. Look at ……. girls!
  7. Come and  see ……………. boys over there!
  8. ……….. shirt is expensive.
  9. ……….. boys over there are students.

 

19. Answer these questions      :

1.Is this a book? (+)                           Yes, it is a book.

2.Is that a pencil? ()                         …………………………….

3.Is that a girl or a boy? (boy)                       …………………………….

4.Are these nurses or teachers?          …………………………….

5.Are those  newspapers or books?   …………………………….

 

20. Answer these questions      :

1.What is this? (desk)

 …………………………………………..

2.What’s your mother’s job? (nurse)

 …………………………………………..

3.What are those? (radios)

 …………………………………………..

4.What are these? (houses)

 …………………………………………..

5.What are those? (apples)

 …………………………………………..

 

 21. Write questions for these    :

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

It’s an apple.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

They are  cars.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

It is a radio.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

They are maps.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

They are computers.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

They are shirts.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

It is a donkey.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

They are buses.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

They are keys.

  1. ………………………………………………………………?

It is an orange.

 

 

UNCOUNTABLE  NOUNS

abstract nouns          :

advice-beauty-hope-hunger-information-intelligence-love-poverty-freedom-honesty-justice-business-work-time-news-knowledge

 

activities and sports  :

badminton-football-gardening-running-swimming-shopping

 

collective nouns         :

equipment-furniture-luggage-traffic

 

languages       :

English-French-German-Russian-Spanish

 

subjects          :

art-geography-history-law- mathematics-music

 

substances      (gases, liquids, materials)

air-bread-coffee-flour-leather-metal-meat-silver

 

Common uncountable nouns

absence, advice, age, agriculture, anger, atmosphere, baggage, beauty, behaviour, bread, childhood, comfort, company, concern, confidence, countryside, courage, damage, death, democracy, depression, design, duty, earth, education, electricity, energy, environment, equipment, evil, evidence, existence, experience, failure, faith, fear, flesh, food, freedom, fun, furniture, ground, growth, hair, happiness, health, help, homework, ice, industry, information, intelligence, justice, knowledge, love, luck, luggage, machinery, means, money, music, nature, news, nonsense, paper, peace, permission, poverty, pride, progress, reality, research, rubbish, seaside, spaghetti, traffic, training, transport, travel, weather, work.

 

If we refer to o specific amount with certain uncountable nouns we can use; a bit of, a blob of, bunch of, a cup of, a drop of, a glass of, a loaf a of, a lump of, a piece of, a pile of, a pool of, a portion of, a slice of, a spot of, a touch of.

 

COMPOUND NOUNS

 

Compound Nouns consist of two parts. Sometimes second part becomes plural, sometimes first part becomes plural, and sometimes both of them become plural :

 

e.g.     

Noun + noun

reception hall                          ®        reception halls

            woman driver                         ®        women drivers

 

            –ing + noun

            dining room                            ®        dining rooms

           

            Adjective + noun

greenhouse                             ®        greenhouses

           

            Noun + preposition + noun

sister-in-law                            ®        sisters-in-law

 

            Noun + preposition

            passer-by                                ®        passers-by

 

            No noun (e.g. verb + preposition)

            a take-off                               ®        take-offs

 

. 22. What kind of compound nouns are these?

 

 
 

Noun + noun

 

 

hall door                     ……………               hitch-hiker                  ……………

river bank                   ……………                weight-lifting             ……………

coal-mining                 ……………               surf-riding                  ……………

waiting list                  ……………               dining-room                ……………

driving licence            ……………               shop window              ……………

garden gate                 ……………               college library             ……………

a piece of cake            ……………              summer holiday          ……………

Sunday paper             ……………               Steel door                   ……………

Tower Bridge             ……………               A golden handshake  ……………

lorry driving               ……………

 

 

Article + noun

 

Things seen as            : General         Indefinite        Very definite

 

Singular noun             (1) Ø               (2) a, an          (4) The

Plural noun                  —                   (3)     Ø           (5) The

 

 

Ø         :  no article

 

(1) Ø Patience is a useful thing.

      Ø Bread is cheaper than a meal. 

 

(2) A nurse is useful in hospital.

      An actor  is well paid.

 

(3) Ø Nurses are useful in hospital.

      Ø Actors are well paid.

 

(4) The patience that she showed surprised me.

     The nurse who lives there is English.

     The actor who is speaking to her is Turkish.

     The bread that I bought was very good.

 

(5) The nurses who live there are English.

      The actors who are speaking to them are Turkish.

 

 

Attention :     * Something is definite when some particular details are added.

 

                        e.g.

                                   that  she showed/who lives there/who’s speaking (4)

 

                                   who live there/who are speaking (5)

 

 

 

  • Something is indefinite when it is a  member of a group with no particular relation with the speaker.

    

 

                        e.g.

a nurse Þ means any nurse

an actorÞmeans any actor (2)

nurses Þ  any nurses

actors   Þ any actors

 

 

*Abstract nouns can be seen as general or as definite.

            e.g.

                         patience

 

*Concrete nouns can be seen as general  or definite.

            e.g.

                         bread

 

Additional cases        :

 

1.

            a. They called inspector Jones.          They called an inspector.

            b. They visited Turkey.                      They visited the U.S.A.

            c. I play cards with friends.               The cards are on the table.

            d. She went to hospital.                     The hospital is over there.

2.

            e. The rich are lucky.                         Rich people are lucky.

            f. I play the piano.                             There is a piano at home.

3.        g. That is such a nice lady.                That lady is very nice.

h. They cost one million a dozen.      The dozen cost one million T.L.

i.  He is an engineer.                          The engineer is here.

 

 

 

 

            Ø

 

            Ø

 

            A

 

. 23. Complete the following sentences with   Ø (no article) , a, an or  the:

1. …………….. cigarette is made of …………….. tobacco and ………….. paper.

2. The salesman took ………………. fish to the market.

3. What ……….. good idea you have!

4. She has such ………. lovely eyes.

5. It’s a very effective medicine. However I hate …… taste.

6. When he was seven his parents made him learn ……… violin.

7. Why don’t you lend him ………… book you bought last week.

8. ………… people say he is …………….. very devoted son.

9. I can’t  stand ……….. people my sister goes out with.

10. Children like playing ………. cowboys.

 

Indefinite article  a, an :

 

*We use ‘ a ‘  before the words which start with these letters :

b  c  d  f  g  h  j  k  l  m

n  p  q  r  s  t  v  w  x  y  z

 

e.g. :    a book             a  cat               dog             a  horse  etc.

 

*We use ‘ an ‘   before the words which start with these letters:

a  e  i  o  u

e.g. :  an apple                        an elephant                 an umbrella  etc.

 

EXCEPTIONS

 

* a    university (we pronounce as yuniversity)

* a    UFO

*an   hour  (we don’t pronounce ‘h’)

*an   MP

*an   herb

*an   L.A. minute

 

. 24. Write  these sentences with  a  or  an :

 

 

an

 

1.I’m …… English teacher.

2.Are you ….. student?

3.It’s ….. apple.

4.Hacettepe is …. good university.

5.She’s ….. waitress.

6.David is…. mechanic.

7.Gültekin is…….. handsome man.

8.Opel is ……….. economical car.

9.An apple is ….. fruit.

10.Sezen Aksu is …… famous singer.

11.French is ….. difficult language.

12.Is it ……… good newspaper?

13.This is ……… computer.

14.Is that ……… leather bag?

15.Is he …… driver?

16.Is  METU ……. university?

17.Am I ………. engineer?

18.Is  that  ….. useful book?

19.Are you ….. ugly girl?

20.She is …… beautiful girl.

 

 

 

Use of ‘the’

 

We don’t use ‘the’  with school, work, bed, town and home when we are talking about a person's OWN school, bed, etc. This is because each person usually has only one.

 

 

           

walk

 

 

 

to university

go

to church

 

 

to sea

come

to school

 

 

to prison

get

to work

 

go

to bed

travel

to market

 

 

to hospital

drive

    home

 

 

 

cycle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

go to university          :           to study

and we say;

 

go to the university    :           to visit

 

go to prison                :           a criminal

go to the prison          :           go to the prison  for a visit

 

                       

 

be

in prison, in bed

in hospital

stay

at school, at work,

at home, at church,

at the sea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                       

 

We use  ‘a, an

 

*Before a singular

 noun:

 I need a visa.

*Before a singular

 countable noun:

 A child needs

 love.

*With a noun

 complement:

 He is an actor.

*In certain

 expressions

 of  quantity:

 a lot of

*With certain

 numbers:

 a hundred

*In expressions

 of  price, speed, ratio:

 5p a kilo

*In exclamations,

 before singular,

 countable nouns:

 whatpretty   girl!

*Before Mr, Mrs,

 Miss:

 a Mr Brown

 

 

We don’t use ‘a, an

 

*Before plural

 nouns:

 an egg-eggs

*Before uncountable nouns:

 advice, beauty

*Before names of

 meals, except when they are

 preceded by an

 adjective:

 We have

 breakfast at eight

*Before the name of a lake, a school, college, church, prison, hospital, university, country, county, state, a mountain, continent, a street, road, a disease, ilness, a meal, a church, cathedral, a shop or bank named after people, an airport or train station and adjective (Unless the adj. is followed by a noun), the name of a language

 

 

We use ‘the

 

*When the object

 or group of

 objects is unique:

 the earth

*Before a noun 

 which has become

 definite:

 His car struck a

 tree;  you can

 still see the mark

 on the tree.

*Before a noun

 made definite

 by the addition

 of a phrase or

 clause:

  the girl in blue

*Before a noun  which by reason  of locality can  represent only  one particular  thing:

 Pınar is in the garden.

*Before superlatives  and first, second:  the first,

*the + singular noun:

 The whale is in danger of

 becoming  extinct.

*the + adj:

 the old = old

 people in  general

*Before certain  proper names of

 seas, rivers, groups

 of islands, chains of

 mountains, plural

 names of countries:

the USA, the UK, the Philippines, the Netherlands,

 deserts, regions

 the Atlantic,

 the Kızılırmak,

*Before adjectives:

 the east, the west

 

We don’t use ‘the

 

*Before:

 home, church,

 hospital, prison,

 school, work, sea,

 town

*Before:

 bed, church, court,

 hospital, school,

 college, university

 (when they are

 visited or used for

 their primary

 purpose.)

*Before the name of a lake, a school, college, church, prison, hospital, university, country, county, state, a mountain, continent, a street, road, a disease, ilness, a meal, a church, cathedral, a shop or bank named after people, an airport or train station and adjective (Unless the adj. is followed by a noun), the name of a language

 

 

. 25. Put ‘ the ‘ where  it is necessary     :

 

 
 

the

 

 

1. We are travelling  to ……………. north.

2.She always cycles  to ……………… church.

3.My nephew   left  …………….. school last year.

4.Yesterday  he was at ………………. office all day.

5.I usually go to …………….. bed at about 11 p.m.

6.She likes …………………. tennis, but I prefer …………….. swimming.

7.Mr Coşkun teaches ……………….. geography.

8………….. Belgians  speak  French and Flemish.

9. Were you at …………… work when you heard the explosion?

10. We drive to  ……………. market  because there is so much to carry.

 

 

a

 

. 26. Put a / an / the in the banks:

1. I’ve just seen ……………. car coming up the drive.

2. There’s ……………. spider in the bath.

3. I’ve got two cats, ……. black one is called Bob, …….white one is called Rosie.

4. Which is ……………. tallest building in the world?

5. London is ……………. capital of Britain.

6. He buys ……………. newspaper everyday.

7. ……………. power enjoyed by politicians doesn’t interest him.

8. I want to be ……………. teacher.

9. ……………. United States

10. ……………. Alps and ……… Aegean Sea.

11. She’s gone to ……………. doctor.

12. Is ……………. spider ……………. insect?

13. ……………. few weeks from now I’ll be in Venice.

14. We drove through ……………. night.

15. This area produces ……………. fine cheese.

16. There’s  ……………. Mr Wilkins to see you.

17. Ella’s always complaining about ……………. traffic.

18. He punched him on ……………. nose.

19. ……………. rich never help ……………. poor.

20. He stayed at ……………. Hilton.

 

HAVE / HAS GOT  

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I  have got

I have not got

Have I got?

You have got

You haven’t got

Have you got?

He has got

He has not got

Has he got?

She has got

She hasn’t got

Has she got?

It has got

It hasn’t got

Has it got?

We have got

We haven’t got

Have we got?

They have got

They haven’t got

Have they got?

 

 

. 27. Fill in the blanks using have got  or  has got           :

We use  have got / has got  to talk about possession.  It is not used in formal written English.

Have got (has got) means the same as  have (has)

 

 

have got

 

e.g.      :           He’s got (has got) a car. = He has a car.

1.We ……………………….. a table and twelve desks in the classroom.

2.I ……………………………. a bag in my desk.

3.She ……………………….. two pens in her pencil case. 

4.He ………………………… a lot of sheep on his farm.

5.They ……………………….two new cars.

6.It …………………………….its food on the dish.

7.My friend ……………………….. twelve suits.

8. ………… he ……….. a sports car?

9. ………. we ……………. a small classroom or a big classroom?

10.Why …………….. you ……………. any money in your wallet?

11. What …………. you …………. in your school bag?

12. What …………. your friend ……………. on her desk?

13. ………….. she got a message for him?

14. …………. they got messages for her?

15. We  ……….. the time to dream.

 

. 28. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences;

e.g. she’s / hair / blonde / got

      She has got blonde hair.

 

Tony’s got a red ball.

 

1. a / got / Tony’s / red / ball

    ……………………………………

2. goldfish / seven / got / She’s

    ……………………………………

3. a/it’s/kite/yellow/got.

    ……………………………………

4.a/got / they’ve/car/new

    ……………………………………

5. big/a / it’s / house/got.

   ……………………………………

 

BEWARE !

Americans use the pattern below  instead of  have got / has got when speaking as WELL as writing:

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I  have

I  don’t have

Do I  have?

You have

You don’t have

Do you have?

He has

He  doesn’t have

Does he have?

She has

She  doesn’t have

Does she have?

It has

It  doesn’t have

Does it have?

We have

We don’t have 

Do we have?

They have

They don’t have

Do they have?

 

 

 

Examples:

 

* Tony has a red ball.

 

* She has seven gold fish.

 

* They have a new car.

 

* It has a big house.

 

* I don’t have a big flat.

 

* She doesn’t have a new car.

 

* We don’t have the time to dream.

 

 

 

 

 

*THERE IS (THERE’S), THERE ARE

 

There’s  a dog in the garden.

There are thirty-six students in the class.

Is there a hospital near here?

Are there a lot of teachers in your school?

 

 

. 29. Complete  the sentences with  there is, there are, is there  or  are there:

*There is a book on the table.

*There is a book, a notebook and two pens on my  desk.

*There are  two books and a pen on your desk.

 

 

Is there

 

1. ……………….. a bus to Istanbul?

2. ……………….  a television in  the class?

3. ……………….  two books in the bag.

4. ……………….  a girl in the garden.

5. ……………….  four teachers in the class?

6. ………………   five cars in the car park.

7. ………………   thirty days in April.

8. ………………   fifty-two weeks in a year.

9. ………………   a kitchen  in the flat?

10. …………….   a computer in the room .

 

 

 

. 30. Answer these questions       :

 

 

Yes, there is / No, there isn’t.

 

1.Is there a  doctor  in the ambulance?

…………………………………………………………..

2.Are there three books in your bag?

…………………………………………………………..

3.Is there a nurse in the emergency room?

…………………………………………………………..

4.Is  there a good film on the Metropol?

…………………………………………………………..

5.Are there 26 letters in the English alphabet?

…………………………………………………………..

 

. 31. Make sentences        :

 

 

There are twenty teachers in the school.

 

1.twenty teachers in the school

…………………………………………………………..

2.a bottle of milk on the counter

…………………………………………………………..

3.a lot of bookstores in  Ankara

…………………………………………………………..

4.sixty  universities in Turkey

…………………………………………………………..

5.five apples in the basket

…………………………………………………………..

 

 

. 32. Correct these statements     :

 

There are twentysix letters in the English alphabet.

 

1.There are thirty-one letters in the English alphabet.

……………………………………………………………

2.There is only one lake in Turkey. ……………………………………………………………

3.There are 13 universities in Ankara. ……………………………………………………………

4.There is a  long river in Konya. ……………………………………………………………

5.There were millions of people in Ankara one thousand years ago. ……………………………………………………………

6.There was a big meeting  in Kızılay on July 24, 1999. ……………………………………………………………

7.There was a conference at school last Friday. ……………………………………………………………

8.There are thirty students in this classroom.

……………………………………………………………

9.There was a war between Turkey and Greece in 1974.

……………………………………………………………

10.There are a lot of trees in Ankara.

……………………………………………………………

 

 

PRONOUNS

 

Subject pronouns

Object

 pronouns

 Possessive

 adjective

Possessive pronouns

Reflexive

 pronouns

      I                                 

        me    

          my

        mine

  myself

     You

        you

          your

        yours

  yourself

      He

        him

          his

        his

  himself

      She

        her

          her

        hers

  herself

      It

        it

          its

        —-

  itself

      We     

        us

          our

        ours

  ourselves

      You

        you

          your

        yours

  yourselves

      They

        them

          their

        theirs

  themselves

      One

        one

          one’s

         —-

  oneself

 

Possessive adjectives  and  possessive pronouns      :

 

e.g.

            This is my bag.                       ®  my is a possessive adjective.

            This bag is mine.         ®  mine is a possessive pronoun

 

*Possessive adjectives are followed  by  the noun they qualify.

*3rd  person singular    :

                                               If the thing belongs to  a woman/girl it will be her

                                                   thing,

                                               If the thing belongs to a man/boy it will be his thing

                                               If the thing belongs to a thing(object or animal)

                                               it will be its thing.

 

 

*Possessive pronoun

:     possessive  adjective  noun

 

 

                                               This is mine = This is my + jacket.

 

 

 

. 33. Complete with possessive adjectives or pronouns  :

 

  1. A: Is this bag Jane’s?

 

er

 

ers

 

B: No, it isn’t h_______. H_______ bag’s brown.

2. Are these o______ coats? Yes, they’re o________.

3. Those aren’t y_______ keys, they’re m_________.

    Y________ are on the table.

4. I don’t know h________ wife. Have you met h________?

5. I invited them to m_______ party, but they didn’t invite me to th_______.

6. O______ flat’s bigger  than th______, but th______ flat is more modern.

 

 

 

. 34. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate  possessive  adjective

 

mine

 

          or possessive pronoun:

1.Whose car is that? It’s  ………… . I bought it last year.

2.I didn’t know you were married ; you’ve finally made up  ……….

   mind; haven’t you?

3.We’d better leave ………. car and take  …….; you’re a better driver.

4.They had a lot of luggage, so did we. But …. was not as heavy  as …………. .

   We should have helped him.

5.Where’s ……… pen? I can’t use ………. pen (Ayşe). She would not like it.

6.He was surprised she got the job instead of him. He was sure …………………..

   qualifications were better than ………… .

  

 

 

 

THE POSSESSIVE

 

Possessive case :

 

 Possessor + s + thing (object possessed)

 

 

1.a. This is the school of my sister.

b. This is my sister’s school.

2.a. The film of last year was better.

   b. Last year’s film was better.

3.a. That is the beautiful garden of my neighbours.

   b. That is my neighbours’ beautiful garden.

 

  • of ’  is replaced by ‘ ‘s’ 
  • when the possessor is plural only () is added (e.g. 3)

     except with the irregular plurals (people, children,  …)

 

 

. 35. Put the following sentences into normal English using

         the possessive case :     

 

 

Tom’s old books are on the shelves.

 

1.The old books of Tom  are on the shelves.

………………………………………………………

2.The problems of last week haven’t all been solved. ………………………………………………………

3.The toys of the children are all broken. ………………………………………………………

4.The clothes of your friends are all  over there. ………………………………………………………

 

 

*To indicate possessive case for people and animals :

 

a) when the noun is singular :

            Ayşe’s  mother

            The cat’s  food

 

b) when the noun is plural :

            The girls  father

            Her parents  flat

 

c) when the noun is an irregular plural :

            The men’s   attitude

            The women’s   clothes

 

*Other possessives :

a) use     of  :

            The smell of  cooking

            The end of the road

b) for  common nouns (house ,car, school, table,  etc.)   of   may not be used:

Car keys

            The kitchen door

            A bus driver

c) with the words like   front, top, bottom ,back ,end   you must use of  :

            The bottom of the box

            The back of the house

d) for expressions of time  we use   ‘s   or   s’   :

            A fortnight’s  holiday

            Two weeks holiday

            a year’s break  (=a break of a year)

 

 

. 36. Fill in the blanks with a suitable pronoun:

 

 

yours

 

my

 

1.That is ………. book. It isn’t ……. .

 

2.This is my uncle. ……. car is a Renault Broadway.

 

3.Pınar and I are in the classroom.  …………… books are in the bags.

 

4.He is my uncle. ………. name is Mehmet.

 

5.These are Mr and Mrs  Kartal. That’s …………. car.

 

6.Look at that dog. ………  tail is colourful.

 

7.Your mother and you are sad today. What’s …………. problem?

 

8.A.What’s ………..  job?

 

B. I’m a  driver.

 

9.Erdal is going to school. …………..  is in Incesu.

 

10.A.What does your mother do?

     B. ……………….. is a doctor.

 

 

 

. 37. Read and  complete the family tree           :

 

 

BAKİ

 

 

1.Hediye is Erdal’s grandmother.

2.Ümit is Hüseyin’s grandson.

3.Mehmet is Erdal’s uncle.

4.Sevil is Abidin’s niece.

5.Fadime is Sevil’s mother.

6.Serdal is Senem’s nephew.

7.Ümit is Baki’s son.

8.Meryem is Serdal’s mother.

9.Serdal is Mehmet’s nephew.

10.Abidin is Meryem’s husband.

 

 

. 38. Write the correct relative         :

 

 
 

niece

 

 

1.My sister is my aunt’s …………………………….

2.My brother is my uncle’s …………………………

3.My aunt’s son is my ………………………………

4.My uncle’s  daughter is my ………………………

5.My mother’s mother is my ……………………………..

6.My father’s father is my …………………………

7.My mother’s brother is my ………………………

8.My father’s sister is my ………………………….

 

 

 

. 39. Replace the words in italics by personal pronouns, s or o        :

 

 

O

 

S

 

1.Demet and Yusuf work in the same school with  Mostafa.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

2.My cat can’t stand mice.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

3.Emrah invited Mr Kartal to his home.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

4.My brother and I gave our small sister a toy.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

5.Did you know Cemal has moved to the new house?

…………………………………………………………………………………..

6.The postman delivered that letter a few minutes ago.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

7.Can Erdal teach my friend John Turkish?

…………………………………………………………………………………..

8.Zeynep played cards with Şahin and me.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

. 40. Rewrite these sentences using  I,me,my,mine,you,your,yours,he,him,his,she,her,hers,it,its,

           we,us,our,ours,they,them,their,theirs.

 

 

1.Pınar’s  mother is  very thin.

 

 
 

She is very thin.

 

 

……………………………………………………………….

2.Women’s sweaters are very expensive.

 

 ……………………………………………………………….

3.Mary’s  skirt is very short.

 

 ……………………………………………………………….

4.My father and I are from  Turkey.

 

 ……………………………………………………………….

5.Mr  Clinton’s daughter is a  student at a college.

 

……………………………………………………………….

6.The students’ parents are at school today.

 

 ……………………………………………………………….

7.This is Ali’s shirt.

……………………………………………………………….

8.I think these are your notebooks. My notebooks are in my bag.

 

……………………………………………………………….

9.A.Look  at these pencils! Are they your pencils?

 

……………………………………………………………….

   B. No,  they are not our pencils. They are your sister’s pencils.

 

……………………………………………………………….

10.Is your sister an artist?

 

 ……………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

. 41. Fill in the sentences with Possessive pronouns  :

           mine,yours,his,hers,its,ours and theirs:

 

mine

 

1. A. Whose camera is this?

   B. It’s  ……………………. .( I )

2. Is this your suitcase or ………..? (he)

3. The decision  is ……… .(they)

4. My brother hasn’t got a phone, so he uses …………. .( we)

5. Our house is smaller than …………….. .( they)

6. Have the dog  eaten its food? The cat has already eaten  ……….. .(it)

7. The police asked me for my address, I gave them. ………  .(you)

8. Have you got your pen, or would you like to borrow ……? (I)

9. Her parents say the decision is ……….. .(she)

10. The cat wants its food. It doesn’t want ……….. (I)

 

 

her

 

. 42. Write the correct adjectives:

1.I’ve got …… watch.(she)

2.Is this ……… car? (you)

3.Do we like ……… new teacher? (he)

4.We changed …………… computer. (we)

5.I like ………….. colour. (it)

6.What colour is ………….. T-shirt? (I)

7.They’re having a party in ………….. garden.(they)

8.There’s something wrong with ………… car. (she)

9.Has he got …………. passport? (he)

10.Where’s ……………. house? (they)

 

 

me

 

. 43. Fill in the blanks with : me, you, him, her, it, us, them

1.He gave…………..a present for my birthday .(I)

2.My grand mother used to tell ….. stories when we were small children.(we)

3.Did he phone ……. last night?(you)

4.She let ………. go  at last but it was too late.(they)

5.He  loves  …….. very much.(she)

6.That will  cost ……….. a lot.(he)

7.The wall is too dirty. Let’s paint ………. .(it)

 

 

WHOSE

A: Whose car is this?

B: It’s my car.

 

A: Whose is this car?

B: It’s mine.

 

A: Whose cars are these?

B: They’re his cars.

 

A: Whose are those cars?

B: They’re hers.

 

 

DOUBLE POSSESIVE

 

Some friends of mine are buying that car.

Is he a friend of yours?

 

. 44. Use of one, ones :

We use one with singular countable nouns,

We use ones with plural form.

 

 
 

one

 

 

1.A.There are a lot of boys in the playground. Which …… is your boyfriend?

   B. The tall ……….. .

2.A.Whose are all these   story books?

   B. This thick …… is mine, that  thin …….. is hers and   the  old ……………

       is   Serdal’s.

3.A.What kind of skirt  would you like to buy?

   B.I   wanted to buy that ……. at first but I have changed my mind. I will buy

      this …… .

4.My father grows red roses. The yellow ………… are the neighbour’s.

5.I  have loved  the green ………… for all my life. So all his work has gone to

   the others.

*THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

 

some                 

any

no

every

somebody

anybody

nobody

everybody

something

anything

nothing

everything

somewhere

anywhere

nowhere

everywhere

someone

anyone

no one

everyone

 

. 45. Fill in the blanks with  one of these           : some,any,a,an,one,ones,somebody,something,somewhere,anybody,

anything,anywhere,nobody, nowhere,everybody,everything,

everywhere,someone,anyone,no one,everyone.

e.g. I don’t have any apples.

      He doesn’t have any oranges.

      

       I know something.

       Do you know anything?

       (=You know nothing.)

      

1.A.Which of these books would you like?

   B.I would like this …….. .

2.A.Which of  these washing machines do you like?

   B.I like the front-loading …….. .

3.There are …….. boys in the garden but there aren’t ……. girls at the moment.

4.A.Have you got …….. waste paper in your pocket?

   B. I’m afraid I haven’t got …… .

5.I lost my umbrella yesterday. I  asked ………. but  nobody  knows

   where it is.

6.We prepared for the party. …………….  is ready.

7.Their parents must  ask …………… . They  may find …………. to help them.

8.You did not know ……….. about this school when you first came here.

   Now you know  almost  ………….. .

9.There was ……… bigger than me when I was at primary school,  but   they      were all taller than me.

10……………  is perfect.

11……..’s duty in life is to help others.

12.A.Have you bought ………………..?

     B. No,  I haven’t bought ……………..

13.Was there ………… in the waiting-room?

14.Do you know ………… to ask to come and mend the door?

15.A.Is there ………. here who can tell you the time?

     B. …………. can tell the time.

16.There was ……………. for him to drink so he left the house to find  ………….

     to drink.

17.They were looking for ……………. to stay but  …………. was  good  enough .

18.There’s ………….. in the big room but  there’s …………… in the small ……….. .

19. ………………… must have told you the story  because you have given correct  answers   to all  the  questions.

20. ……… is in the taxi. They must have left before we came here.

 

Any / Some / No  ………… + body/one/thing/where

 

a. Can you hear anybody?       ®   any in (?) sentences

b. Yes, I can hear somebody   ®   some in (+) sentences

c. No,  I can’t hear anybody.   ®   any in    (-) sentences

                                                       when  the verb is in negative

    No, I can hear nobody.        ®   no in (-) sentences

                                                       when the verb is affirmative

 

Meaning

Form

+

 

    e.g. I have no money.

           I don’t have any money.

 

 

*The same rule applies to ; 

 

-anyone      / someone    / no one     (talking about people)

-anything    / something  / nothing  (talking  about things)

-any where / somewhere / nowhere (talking about places)

 

 

. 46. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate  some/any/no  form            :

 

 
 

somewhere

 

 

1.  I don’t remember where I left it but it must be …………….

2. …… told me that you had been ill.

3. I don’t want ………. from him.

4. Did ……………… phone him?

5. They did not go ………… after supper .They stayed at home.

6. There was ………. for us to sleep. We had to spend the night in the bus.

7. ………… had seen that before. We are all greatly surprised.

8. Did you see ………… you knew by sight?

9. I thought I heard a noise but there was …………….. in the garden.

10. Come here. I   have ………….. to tell you.

11. I was really thirsty but they gave me ………. to drink.

12. She’s never seen  ………… like me.

13. Is there ………… I can do for you? You look worried.

14. …………… but you can do it. You’re the greatest.

15. The man sitting in front of me was too big. I couldn’t see ……………….. .

 

 

.  47. Fill in the blanks with either some and any:

 

       
 

some

 

 

any

 

 

1.There is …………. tea in this glass but there isn’t …………… in that one.

 

2.A. Is there ………… coffee in that cup?

 

   B. Yes, there’s …………… coffee in it.

 

3.Have you got  …… orange juice in the fridge?

 

4.There are ………… letters on the floor.

 

5.I’d like ……… soup but I don’t want ………. potatoes.

 

6.She gave me ………. tea but she didn’t put …….. sugar in it.

 

7.There are ………… trees in the garden but there aren’t  ………….. flowers.

 

8.There is ………….  salt  in the soup.

 

9.There are ……… boys in the class but there aren’t ……….. girls today.

 

10.I’m very hungry.  Can I have ………… fish, please?

 

 

 

. 48. Answer these questions:

 

1.Is there any tea  in the cup?

 

 
 

Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t.

 

 

……………………………………………………………………

2.Are there any eggs in the fridge?

 

……………………………………………………………………

3.Is there any water in the jug?

 

……………………………………………………………………

4.Are there any books in his bag?

 

……………………………………………………………………

5.Are  there any lemons on the table?

 

…………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

. 49. Put in  some, any, a, an

 

 
 

some

 

 

1.There is ……… honey in the jar.

 

2.There isn’t ……… butter on the plate.

 

3.There is ……… teacher in the classroom.

 

4.There ‘s ………. dog in the garden.

 

5.There are  ……….. desks in the classroom but there aren’t ……….. chairs.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Much, many, a lot of, lots of, few, a few, little, a little, only a few,

  only a little

*How many? How much?

 

  many + countable plural nouns                

 much + uncountable nouns

 

 many apples , many books

 

 

  much butter , much money

 

Much:        We use much with a big quantity of the uncountable nouns.

 

           e.g.: Is there much coffee in your cup?

                   There isn’t much bread for dinner.

 

Many:        We use many for large  numbers of countable nouns.

 

          e.g.:  Are there many eggs for  breakfast?

                   There aren’t many glasses for the guests.

 

A lot :        We use  a lot both  with countable and uncountable nouns.

 

e.g.: Are there a lot of tomatoes in the basket?

                    There are a lot of students in my classroom.

 

                    These cars use a lot of petrol.

                    A lot of time was wasted.

                       

Few :        We use  few  for a small number of countable nouns,

                  but  ‘ a few ‘ for a bit more than  ‘ few’.

                

           e.g.: There are few girls who haven’t attended the classes.

                   There were a few the week before and only a few three weeks ago.

 

 

A couple:        We use a couple to mean 'two', but in the USA it sometimes

                         means 'a few'.

 

          e.g.:  Are there a couple seats left on the bus?

                   There were a couple of bullets missing in the gun.

 

 

only a few =not many

 

Little :      We use little for a small number  of uncountable nouns, but

                  a little  for a bit more of them .

 

e.g.: I drink little milk in the mornings.

                   My son drank a little milk this morning.

                   My wife has drunk only a little.

 

only a little = not much

           

How many : We use how many to ask about countable nouns.

               e.g.: How many  cassettes  have you borrowed from my sister?

 

 

How much :  We use how much to ask about the amount of uncountable

                       nouns.

               e.g.: How much money did you spend for that car?

 

 

 

Quantifiers

 

Countable

Mass

 

few                      little

a few                    a little

not many              not much

some                    some

many                    much

plenty (of)            plenty (of)

a lot (of)               a lot (of)

lots (of)                lots (of)

 

The English make the distinction between  :

 

*What’s countable ?  1 man  –  12 chairs (countable words)

 

*What is  uncountable?  water – time – money

 

 

Countable nouns take  “ s “ in the plural form.

  e.g.

          few books-a few friends – a lot of students – years of war –

          miles of road – tons of trash

 

But be careful! Some countable words have an irregular plural  

(with no “s”) .

 

e.g.

            one child   /two children

one person /two people

            one man    /two men

one foot    /two feet

 

 

*Mass words are always singular.

 

e.g.

            Little time  / a little money  / plenty of information

 

 

. 50. Complete the following sentences with quantifiers expressing

           the notion  of amount  :

 

 
 

some

 

 

1.Will you have ………… more tea?

2.He hasn’t got ……. money left.

3.There’s ……… milk in the bottle. You can have it.

4.There really is ……………. choice in this shop. I can’t find anything.

5.She didn’t want many books. She only needed ………. .

6.He’s very popular. He’s got ……….. friends.

7.There weren’t ……….. cars in the car park.

8.Very …….. of her friends came to the party yesterday.

   She was really disappointed.

9.Not everybody agreed but …………… people thought it was terrific.

10.We only have ………….. time left. Hurry up or we’ll miss the train.

 

. 51. Put much or many into the blanks :

 

 
 

many

 

 

1.She smokes ………… cigarettes.

2.There were …………. students absent from class yesterday.

3.There is still ………… snow on the ground.

4.How ……….. times a week do you go to the cinema?

5.How ……….. time do you spend on your English every day?

6.He has …….. friends in this school.

7.How ……….. windows are there in your classroom?

8.There isn’t ………….. milk in the glass.

9.There is ……………… oil in Iraq.

10.You make …………  mistakes in spelling.

 

 

 

. 52. Fill in the blanks with  few, little, how much  and  how many:

 

 
 

How many

 

 

1. …………………. books have you got?

2. ……………..  butter did you buy?

3. A: How many books has she got?

    B: …………………………….. .

4. A: How much money have you got on you?

    B: ……………………………… .

5. A: …………………………… friends have you got in Ankara?

B: ………………………….

6. A: How much milk does the baby drink in the mornings?

    B: ……………………………

7. Mike had ………………..  milk and ………………. slices of  bread  for breakfast.

    (only a few/only a little)

8. I have got …………………. money in my wallet.(only a little/only a few)

9. There were ……….. lawyers   attending the trials.

10.A: How much olive oil did you need for the meal?

     B: ………………………. .

 

 

 

. 53. Fill in the blanks with How many, How much   :

 

 

How many

 

1. ………………………. men are there in the room?

2. ………………………. boys are there in the classroom?

3. ………………………. computers are there in the laboratory?

4. ……………………….cups are there on  the  table?

5. ……………………….flour do you need?

6. ……………………….potatoes  do you eat?

7. ……………………….water is there in the glass?

8. ……………………….cheese does she eat for breakfast?

9. ……………………….milk does he drink every day?

10. ………………………subjects have you got at school?

 

 

 

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

 

A. ADJECTIVES

 

*We use adjectives before nouns:

 

a clever girl      ………………..  clever girls

an expensive restaurant …….  expensive restaurants

a young teacher  ………………  young teachers

 

 

*We use adjectives after some verbs:

 

be, become, feel, get, look, seem, smell, sound, appear

 

e.g.

 

The story is long.                             Life is difficult.                      

He looked tired after all  that.         She feels happy.

 

 

 

  • What  is  the  order of the adjectives ?

 

DETERMINER

opinion

size

age

shape

colour

origin

material

purpose

NOUN

A

An

The

 

 

lovely

terrible

 

big

wide

 

old

new

 

round

flat

 

brown

green

 

Turkish

African

 

copper

leather

 

dinner

riding

 

plate

saddle

 

 

 

e.g.

a shiny new coin

an unpleasant little old man

a sour green apple

the biggest wild animal

an old stained glass church window

 

. 54.Put the adjectives in the right order :

 

 

A round wooden table

 

1.a/wooden/round/table.

……………………………………………………………………………..

 

2.a/smart/American/blue/sports /car.

…………………………………………………………………………….

 

3.a/paper/small/new/black / bag.

……………………………………………………………………………..

 

4.five/plastic/French/armchair.

……………………………………………………………………………..

 

5.sparkling/fine/Turkish/wine.

……………………………………………………………………………..

 

As you can see the sentences sounds nonsense, but this is to show you only the adjective order. Most of the time  only  two or three  adjectives are used before the noun.

 

e.g.                     A            lovely         Turkish      copper         plate 

                  determiner     opinion       origin       material     NOUN         

 

 
. 55. Are these True or False?

 

T

 

                                                                       T                                   F      

  1. an expensive Swiss watch           ………………..             ………………..
  2. that small round table                  ………………..             ………………..
  3. Erdal’s red woollen sweater        ………………..             ………………..
  4. a  brave young Dutch hero          ………………..             ………………..
  5. some big grey buildings               ………………..             ………………..
  6. old French wine                           ………………..             ………………..
  7. an ugly square wooden box         ………………..             ………………..
  8. his huge old black American car  ………………..             ………………..
  9. lovely blue  English pottery         ………………..             ………………..
  10. a rectangular plastic tray              ………………..             ………………..

 

 

GAME

(choose a letter and write words starting with this letter.)

 

I  know a …………………………. (adj) man whose name is ………………………… (man’s name). He lives in …………………….. (country).He is a …………………. (job). He likes ………….. ing. (verb) He eats ………………….. (food) and drinks ……………… (drink). He has a (an)……………. . (animal)

 

 

. 56. Put the following categories of adjectives in the order they are usually placed  before a noun  and then write down four adjectives for each         :

 

Origin        Quality         Material       Colour       Purpose        Opinion

 

………..      ………..        ………..        ………..      ………..        ………..

………..      ………..        ………..        ………..      ………..        ………..

………..      ………..        ………..        ………..      ………..        ………..

………..      ………..        ………..        ………..      ………..        ………..

………..      ………..        ………..        ………..      ………..        ………..

 

 

BEWARE !

 

We do not put ‘ very ’  before some adjectives.

(In other words some adjectives are non-gradable)

 

amazing(not : very amazing)

starving                       terrible

wonderful                   vital

filthy                            exhausted       

devastated                   perfect

delicious                     terrified

enormous                    impossible

furious                        hideous

dead                            dying

 

 

B.ADVERBS      

 

We usually use  ‘adverbs’  after verbs.

 

*Many adverbs  are formed from adjectives by adding   -ly :

 

(some adjectives end in  -ly, too)

 

clever              cleverly           clear  clearly       quick  quickly          sad  sadly

 

beautiful          beautifully

 

 

*Some adverbs have the same form as the adjectives:

 

 

Adjective                   Adverb

 

fast                              fast

hard                            hard

late                              late

early                           early

 

*good                         well (good is irregular)

back                            back

far                               far

enough                       enough

ill                                 ill

kindly                         kindly

little                             little

long                            long

low                              low

still                              still

straight                       straight

 

 

 

In spoken English good and bad are sometimes used as adverbs:

 

e.g.

How is she doing? Not good.

Do you still feel bad about that time you said he was a monkey in a suit?

 

 

 

PARTICIPAL ADJECTIVES  :  -ED vs. –ING

 

The past participle (-ed) and the present participle (-ing)

can be used as adjectives.

 

e.g.

         I’m bored.   ® I think there is nothing that interests me at the moment.

         I’m boring. ® I am a very uninteresting person.

 

 

. 57. Circle the correct form       :

 

1.Don’t bother to read that book. It’s boring, bored.

2.I read an interesting, interested article in the newspaper  this morning.

3.Pınar bores me. She is a boring, bored girl.

4.I don’t understand the explanations. I’m confusing, confused.

5.Have you heard the latest news?  It’s really exciting, excited.

 

ORDER OF ADVERBS

 

Adverbs  describe  *   how         an action is done :

                                 *   where

                                 *   when

 

how     :           gently

where :           here, at the end of the road

when   :           yesterday, at two o’clock

 

If there are more than  one adverb, they are usually put in this order  :

           

 

                                    ( how)        (where)             (when)

                                    manner      place                  time

            She  worked    hard          at the office    yesterday.

 

 

 

. 58. State the correct word:

 

1.David is a careful/carefully driver. He drives careful/carefully.

2.Our English teacher teaches good/well.

3.Arif isn’t a slow/slowly footballer.

4.It’s dangerous/dangerously to swim in The Kızılırmak .

5.Erdal speaks English good/well.

6.The learners asked intelligent/intelligently questions.

7.They waited  patient/patiently for the doctors to tell them about their  mother’s health.

8.Please don’t  be angry/angrily with the pupils during the class hours.

9.Galatasaray played bad/badly versus Beşiktaş and lost the 1998 Cup.

10.The music was too loud/loudly and the people could not listen to the     teacher.

 

 

 

. 59. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets :

 

       
 

careless

 

 

carelessly

 

 

 

bad

 

1.I’m  a very  ………………. driver. I drive ………………… and  every day often

   have  ………… accidents. (careless/carelessly/bad/badly)

2.It was a ……………… day  for her and she did ……………….. on the exam.

   (good/well)

3.She always does her homework ……………………. . (careful/carefully)

4.Jane is a ………………… girl and she also plays the guitar ………………… (beautiful/beautifully)

5.My pillow is very ……………….. .(soft/softly)

6.We agree with them ………………… on  that matter.(complete/completely)

7.This is a very ……………. exercise. I can do all of the sentences ……………….. .

   (easy/easily)

8.You must drive more ……………………… along this road.(slow/slowly)

9.We are very ……………….. .. girls. (beautiful/beautifully)

10.They are …………………. students and they study English     …………………..

     (serious/seriously)

 

. 60. Use the proper form-adjective or adverb-in the following :

 

carefully

 

1.She always does her homework ………………. (careful).

2.He is a very ………………….. (careful) student.

3.Come …………………. (quick) .We need your help.

4.The old  man walks very …………….. (slow) .

5.Jane is a very …………….. (slow) student.

6.Her brother, on the other hand, learns ……………. (rapid).

7.Mrs Krueger has a  …………… (permanent) visa.

8.She hopes to stay in Turkey ………………..(permanent).

9.She acted very ………… (foolish) in that matter.

10.He always speaks …………….. (soft) to the child.

 

 

COMPARATIVE  ADJECTIVES

 

We form comparative adjectives in two ways ;

        

a. by adding   -er than to the positive degree :

   

e.g. cold          colder  than

       tall            taller  than

       bright       brighter  than

 

b. if the adjective has more than two syllables, by using more than   and  

    less than.

 

e.g. difficult               more  difficult   than                                   

       beautiful              more  beautiful  than

       handsome                        more  handsome  than

 

       difficult               less difficult  than

       expensive             less expensive than

 

c. if the adjective has two syllables   :

           

     ends in  y                           doesn’t end in y         

 

     lazy-lazier                         upset-more upset

     crazy-crazier

     silly-sillier 

 

Note : The adjectives good , bad and far have special comparative forms :

 

            good    better than

            bad      worse than

            far       farther than

 

e.g.

            They said they had fixed the car, but it’s now running even

            worse than before.

 

d. if the adjective has a negative prefix        :

 

            unhappy-(even) less happy

 

            unbelievable-(even) less believable

 

MAKING COMPARISON

 

· Complete the chart;

. Comparative adj. + than

Ankara is cheaper than London

. more / less + comp.adj. + than

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. more + countable / noun + than

             uncountable

Tokyo has more inhabitants than Madrid.

. fewer + countable noun + than

Madrid has fewer tourists than Rome.

. less + uncountable noun + than

Paris has less industry than Milan

. as many + countable noun + as

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. as much + uncountable noun + as

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. as + adjective + as

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 

To show equality we use :

 

as  adjective  as :  for positive sentences

 

so  adjective  as : when the verb is negative

 

e.g.: It is  -25 °C in Erzurum. It is -25 °C in Kars.

        Erzurum  is as cold as Kars.

 

        Erdal is 16 years old. Serdal is 15 years old.

        Serdal isn’t so old as Erdal.

 

 

We use  the same as  with nouns.

 

We use  different from  to state that two things or persons are not equal.

 

e.g. : My T-shirt is blue. Your T-shirt is blue. Erdal’s T-shirt is white.

         Your T-shirt is the same as my T-shirt. Erdal’s T-shirt is different from

          ours.

 

DOUBLE COMPARATIVE

The more you  earn the more you save.

The more you  spend the less you save.

The more they cry the more they are paid.

The more you work the more you are liked.

The more she loved the less she was loved.

 

 

The harder

 

. 61. Complete the following  sentences :

1………….….(hard) you study, the more you will learn.

2……….(old) she got, ………….(quiet) she became.

3……….(warm) the weather, ….(good) I like it.

4.The more you worked, ………. you are paid in Turkey.

 

 

 

 

SUPERLATIVE  ADJECTIVES

 

Remember that we add –er than  or more +adjective + than  to an adjective to  form the comparative :

 

 

                        COMPARATIVE                            SUPERLATIVE

 

big                   bigger  than                                        the biggest

 

small               smaller  than                                       the  smallest

 

and

 

beautiful         more  beautiful  than                         the most  beautiful

 

handsome       more  handsome  than                       the most  handsome

 

 

As you see above :    -er                                                -est

                                more                                               the most

 

 

                       

Note : The adjectives good , bad and far also have special superlative forms :

 

            good      better than       the       best

            bad        worse than       the       worst

            far          farther than     the       farthest

 

 

Adjectives which are mostly used to explain personality :

 

adaptable           artistic             creative              careless            emotional  

sensitive             brave               enthusiastic        dynamic          honest       

serious               bossy               calm                   pessimistic       independent          

hardworking      practical          reliable               stubborn          changeable

impatient            intelligent        lively                 selfish              talkative

affectionate       anxious           careful               moody             romantic    

thoughtful          generous          happy                intolerant         fussy         

meticulous         organized        shy                     tidy                  easy going

friendly              greedy             lazy                    optimistic         clever

imaginative        jealous             passionate          violent             active

relaxed               sincere             ambitious           kind                 patient

loyal                                          short-tempered

 

 

. 62. Write down  adjectives to match these descriptions        :

 

someone who:

adjectives

 

friendly

 

1.is very unhappy

2.likes to work with other people

3.always likes to win

4.doesn’t trust people

5.worries a lot

6.always expects the best

7.doesn’t get excited easily

8.is easily embarrassed

9.talks a lot

10.likes to be with other people

………………………..……

…………………..…………

……………..………………

………..……………………

………………………..……

…………………..…………

……………..………………

………..……………………

…..…………………………

……………………………..

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise         :

 

Write the character of  three members of your family  using above adjectives           ;

 

 

  1.  

My father is talkative

 

your father :

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

  1. your mother :

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

  1. your brother  or sister :

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

AS-LIKE

 

He works as a teacher.(He is a teacher)

He works like a teacher.(He isn’t a teacher)

 

 

as

 

Complete with   as   or  like  :

1.I worked ………….a waiter during my holidays.

2.She’s hoping to get a job ………….. a taxi driver.

3.My best friend drinks water ………….. a horse.

4.Serdal eats bread …………….. a cat.

5.Erdal  tries to solve the problems …………. a scientist.

[2. as  3. like  4. like  5. like]

 

ADJECTIVES

           

. 63. Fill in the chart with the suitable form of the adjectives :

 

Base form

Comparative

Superlative

astonished

 

 

bad

 

 

big

bigger

biggest

boiling

 

 

brave

 

                                                

careful

 

 

clean

 

                                                 

clever

 

 

cold

colder

coldest

confusing

 

 

crowded

 

 

difficult

 

 

disappointing

 

 

embarrassing

 

 

enormous

 

most enormous

 

 

 

easy

easier

 

exciting

 

 

exhausted

 

 

expensive

 

most expensive

fascinating

more fascinating

 

fat

fatter

fattest

freezing

 

 

frightened

 

 

frightening

 

 

good

 

 

great

 

 

hot

 

 

huge

 

 

hungry

 

 

interesting

 

most interesting

large

 

largest

long

longer

 

packed

 

 

poor

poorer

 

pretty

 

prettiest                                                 

rich

richer

 

short

 

shortest

small

smaller

 

starving

 

 

surprised

 

 

tall

 

 

terrified

 

 

tiny

 

 

tired

more tired

most tired

tiring

 

most tiring

warm

warmer

 

wide

 

widest

young

younger

youngest

 

 

 

. 64. Complete the sentences by supplying the comparative form of

           the adjectives :

 

       
 

younger

 

   

than

 

 

 

1.She is ………………….(young)…………. I am.

2.Mrs White is much …………… (old)………….. I expected.

3.Istanbul is ……………. (big) …………….. Ankara.

4.The weather this spring is …………..(good) …………… the weather last spring.

5.This exercise  is ……………. (easy) …………… the last one.

6.Bo  Derek is ………………(attractive) …………… Hülya Avşar.

7.My friend’s car is …………….. (expensive) ……………. my car.

8.This grammar book isn’t  ……………. (difficult) ……………. the other books.

9.I am ……………. (young) …………… my sister.

10.The climate of Adana is ………………. (good) …………….. that of İzmir.

 

. 65. Complete the sentences using the superlative  form of the adjectives :

 

 
 

the biggest

 

 

1.Istanbul is …………………………….. city in Turkey. (big)

2.My father is ………………………….. person in our family.(old)

3.January is …………………………….. month of the year. (cold)

4.The pacific is ………………………… ocean in the world. (large)

5.This chair  is …………………………. chair in the world. (comfortable)

6.He is …………………………………….. person that I know. (intelligent)

7.My sister  was…………………………girl at the party. (attractive)

8.She also wore ………………………… dress. (pretty)

9.The Kızılırmak is …………………… river in Turkey. (long)

10.Lake Van is …………………………. lake in our country. (large)

 

 

 

 

. 66. Use comparative adverbs to complete these sentences :

 

 
 

better than

 

 

1.I speak English …………………………….. I speak German. (good)

2.He returned …………………………………. I expected. (soon)

3.I get up every morning ………………….. you. (early)

4.We go to the cinema  …………………….. you. (frequently)

5.Our troops fought …………………………. anyone  expected. (brave)

 

Check these sentences with superlative adverbs :

 

the most             the least

 

I work the most of all.

My sister works the least of us all.

 

 

. 67. Complete these sentences either with  adjectives or with adverbs :

 

 
 

more generously

 

 

1.The  government has acted …………………………….. than people had

   expected.(generous)

2.Teachers aren’t ……………………. as they used to be.(thoughtful).

3.Your school is ………………… than mine.(modern)

4.She doesn’t dance …………….. as her brother.(good)

5.Do you think ladies drive …………….. than gentlemen?(slow)

6.Arif Sağ plays the saz ………………. than anyone else in Turkey.(beautiful)

7.This computer is ………………. than mine.(expensive)

8.Hagi hits the ball very ……………. .(hard)

9.My father is ………………. person in our village.(old)

10.Jack is ……………… driver in the company.(fast)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – II

 

VERB TENSES

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Tenses in English

*Verb ‘ be ‘

*Interrogative Words

*The Simple Present Tense

*Future with Simple Present

     *The Present Continuous Tense    

     Non-Continuous Verbs

       Future with Present Continuous

*The Simple Past Tense

*The Past Continuous Tense

*Going to Future

*The Simple Future Tense

*The Future Continuous Tense

*The Present Perfect Tense

       Gone-Been

*The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

*The Past Perfect Tense

*The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

*The Future Perfect Tense

*The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

*The Imperative

 

PREPOSITIONS

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TENSES IN ENGLISH

 

a. the simple present tense                           h. the past perfect continuous tense

 

b. the present continuous tense                   i. the simple future tense

 

c. the simple past tense                                j. the future continuous tense

 

d. the past continuous tense                        k. the future perfect tense

 

e. the present perfect tense                          l. the future perfect continuous tense

 

f. the present perfect continuous tense        m. going to  future

 

g. the past perfect tense

 

 

*These are the main tenses in English. But   h  and   l   are not very common.

 

 

be’   is  used  to express different situations and actions in English :

 

VERB’be’

 

e.g. :                We  are here now.

                        We  were  on holiday last August.

                        We have been to Antalya on holiday.

                        There  had  been a lot of tourists before we went there.

                        My son will be an engineer.

                        We will have been living in Ankara for thirteen years by

 next April.

 

. 68. Fill in the  blanks using the suitable form of the verb  ‘ be ‘ :

 

 
 

is

 

 

1.What ……. your name?

2.Where ……. you from?

3.I ……… from China.

4.My name ………. Pat.

5.Hello, I …… Johann.

6.Where ……….. she from?

7.Pınar and Ali ……….. students.

8.My father’s  name ……….  Hüseyin.

9. …………….. they engineers?

10.Mary ……. a housewife.

11.Jack ……. American.

12.Today ……….. Thursday.

13.They ………….. new  doctors.

14.It ……….. midnight.

15.Mary …. at the hairdresser’s.

16.Ankara and İstanbul ………. cities.

17.Switzerland …………. small.

18. ……………. Bill Clinton American?

19.We …….. happy.

20.I ………. not a teacher.

 

. 69. Answer  the following questions    :

 

1.Who is the Prime Minister of Turkey now?

………………………………………………………….

 

Atatürk was the first president of Turkish Republic.

 

2.Who was the first President of Turkish Republic? ………………………………………………………………………..

3.Who was the first man who landed on the moon? ………………………………………………………………………..

4.Where were your parents born? ………………………………………………………………………..

5.Who were you with yesterday afternoon? ………………………………………………………………………..

 

. 70. Make sentences        :

 

 

I am not a doctor

 

1.I/not/doctor/a

………………………………………..

2.they/cats/are/(?)

………………………………………..

3.Ayşe/from/Ankara/not

………………………………………..

4.you/a/nurse/are/(?)

………………………………………..

5.she/happy/is/(?)

………………………………………..

6.he/from/Germany/is/(+)

………………………………………..

7.they/here/are/(+)

………………………………………..

8.they/bananas/are/(+)

………………………………………..

9.it/ruler/is/not/(?)

………………………………………..

10.we/not/students

………………………………………..

 

. 71. Answer these questions       :

 

1.Are you a  student?

……………………………………

2.Are you 14?            

……………………………………

3.Is it a  donkey?        Ö

……………………………………

4.Is this a book?         ´

 ……………………………………

5.Is he British?           Ö

……………………………………

6.Are they Turkish?    Ö

 ……………………………………

7.Are you fat?

 ……………………………………

8.Is he fifteen?           ´

 ……………………………………

9.Is snow black?

 ……………………………………

10.Is today Thursday?

 ……………………………………

 

COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES

Complete the chart with countries and nationalities:

                       

Country

Nationality

Brazil

Brazilian

Britain

British

China

     a

France

     b

     c

Greek

India

      e

     d

Italian

     f

Japanese

Poland

     g

Portugual

Portuguese

     h

Spanish

Turkey

     i

The United States

     j

 

A: Where are you from?

B: I am from Turkey.

 

A: What nationality are you?

B: I am Turkish.

 

KEY

a. Chinese

b. French

c. Greece

d. Italy

e. Indian

f. Japan

g. Polish

h. Spain

i. Turkish

j. American

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. WH- Interrogative words  are used to express

interrogation on:

 

 

What              1.a selection from an indefinite number.

            e.g.

                        What have you read recently?

What              2.a selection from an indefinite number of precise things.

            e.g.

                        What time did he arrive?

Which             3.a selection from a limited possibility.

            e.g.

                        Which do you want?

Which             4.a selection from a limited possibility of precise things.

            e.g.

                        Which  book do you want?

                        Which of them do you want?

Who               5.a person –identity.

            e.g.

                        Who likes music?

                        Who are you speaking to?

When              6.time, occasion

            e.g.

                        When can you come?

                        When did that happen?

 

 

Where                        7.a place, position, direction

            e.g.

                        Where does he live?

                        Where are you going?

Whose                        8.The identity of the owner of a thing.

            e.g.

                        Whose is it?

Whose                        9.The identity of the owner of a precise thing.

            e.g.

                        Whose car is it?

How                10.a way, a manner.

            e.g.

                        How did you escape?

                       

How +(…..)     11.Extent, degree.

            e.g.

                        How old are you?

                        How often                  How often do you visit them?

                        How many                 How many books did you lend him?

                        How much                 How much did you pay for that?

                        How far                     How far is it from here?

                        How long                   How long will you stay?

 

Why                12.Reason, purpose.

            e.g.

                        Why was he late?

 

B. Interrogative phrases used to express interrogation      

 

How (be) sb                1.somebody’s health

            e.g.

                        Hows Jane?  She’s fine.

What …. for               2.somebody’s intention

            e.g.

                        A. What did he need the spoon for?

                        B. To stir the soup with.

 

What (be) sb like?     3.somebody’s personality

            e.g.

                        A. What’s she like?

                        B. She’s quite nice.

What (do) sb look like?        4.somebody’s physical appearance

            e.g.

                        A.What does he look like?

                        B. He’s very tall.

 

72. Find the interrogative words to which the words  in italics

        are the answers :

 

 

Who finds it impossible to stop the fighting?

 

1.They find it impossible to stop the fighting.

………………………………………………………………………………

2.I am fine.

………………………………………………………………………………

3.I met the manager this morning. ………………………………………………………………………………

4.Terry advised John to give up the whole idea. ………………………………………………………………………………

5.They have been studying English for four years now. ………………………………………………………………………………

6.They agreed to meet at the station at 5 sharp. ………………………………………………………………………………

7.I think I’ll take the red one. ………………………………………………………………………………

8.My sister is six.

 ………………………………………………………………………………

9.I watch  television twice a week. ………………………………………………………………………………

10.She’s quite short, with long hair. ………………………………………………………………………………

11.I paid  10 dollars for that. ………………………………………………………………………………

12.She said she would bring four or five records. ………………………………………………………………………………

13.It’s five miles away from the station. ………………………………………………………………………………

14.My parents met her yesterday in the street. ………………………………………………………………………………

15.The result depends on them. ………………………………………………………………………………

16.He was late because he had missed his train. ………………………………………………………………………………

17.They are quite easy-going and cheerful. ………………………………………………………………………………

18.To cut his meat with.

 ………………………………………………………………………………

19.She preferred the green dress. ………………………………………………………………………………

20.It’s my mother’s bag.

………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

Key:

1 – Who finds it impossible to stop fighting?

2 – How are you?

3 – When did you meet the manager?

4 – What did Terry advise John to give up?

5 – How long have they been studying English?

6 – What time did they agree to meet at the station?

7 – Which one do you think they will take?

8 – How old is your sister?

9 – How often do you watch television?

10 – What does she look like?

11 – How much did you pay for that?

12 – How many records did she say?

13 – How far is it from the station?

14 – Where did your parents meet her yesterday?

15 – Who does the result depend on?

16 – Why was he late?

17 – What are they like?

18 – What did he need it for?

19 – Which dress did she prefer?

20 – Whose bag is it?

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 73. Match the items from columns A  and  B.

 

A

B

1.Have you ever

2.Do you

3.How long

4.Who

5.Did you

6.Where

7.What kind of

8.How many

9.Have you got

10.Can you

11.Why

12.What

13.Would you

14.When

 a.would you most like to live?

 b.type?

 c.food do you like best?

 d.are you doing this evening?

 e.have you known your best friend?

 f.an e-mail address?

 g.broken your leg?

 h.did you get up this morning?

 i.enjoy primary school?

 j.brothers have you got?

 k.like to work abroad?

 l.like classical music?

 m.do you want to learn English?

 n.phones you most often?

 

 

 

 

 

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

 

            Present Simple:

                        Study the tense in the following examples, all dealing with

present time.

a. The sun rises in the east  (universal truth)

b. I often travel abroad  (habit)

c. They live in a large house   (permanent)

       This tense is called the present simple.

In the 3rd person singular: verb + -s, -es, -ies

e.g. : live: I live, you live, she lives, we live.

           go: I go, you go, she goes, we go.

       carry: I carry, you carry, she carries, we carry.

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

 I work

 I  don’t work

Do I work?

You work

 You  don’t work

Do you work?

He works

 He doesn’t work

Does he work?

She works

 She doesn’t work

Does she work?

It works

 It doesn’t work

Does it work?

We work

 We don’t work

Do we work?

They work

 They don’t work

Do they work?

 

 

We use the simple  present  tense *  to describe an action which goes on every day or in general.

 

* to talk about a general truth such as a fact.

  Half a million people pass through the station daily.

* to talk about something that stays same for a long time such as a state.;

  – He lives in Queens.

* to talk about something that is regular such as routines, customs and habits:

  – They usually spend Christmas in New York.

 

 

 

Time expressions are :

 

Monday         

ü

 

Monday         

ü

 

Tuesday

ü

 

Tuesday

ü

 

Wednesday

ü

 

Wednesday

ü

 

Thursday        

ü

every day

Thursday        

ü

on weekdays

Friday

ü

 

Friday

ü

 

Saturday

ü

 

Saturday

 

 

Sunday          

ü

 

Sunday          

 

 

 

 

Always, usually, generally, often, occasionally, sometimes, rarely, seldom, hardly ever,never

constantly, forever

 

 

 

. 74. Write the correct form, present tense , of the verbs in parentheses :

 

 
 

read

 

 

1.We often…………… (read) the newspaper in class.

2.My father ………….(speak) two foreign languages.

3.They …………..(attend) the same course every Sunday.

4.I always…………………(travel) to school by bus.

5.Some girls …………..(use) too much make-up.

6.Pınar usually ………….(sit) at this desk.

7.My uncle ……………..(work) for Turkish Airlines.

8.She always ……………….(prepare) her homework carefully.

9.I never …………………(watch) TV  in the evenings.

10.We sometimes …………….. (have) lunch outside.

 

 

 

carries

 

. 75. Write the third person singular form of these verbs       :

carry   : ……………..    come   : …………………….        do        : …………………….

dress   : ……………..    finish  : …………………….        fly       : …………………….

get       : ……………..    go        : …………………….        have    : …………………….

hurry  : ……………..    join     : …………………..        leave   : …………………….

live      : ……………..    make   : ………….……….        meet    : ………………..….

say      : ……………..    stop     : …………..………        take     : …………..……..

teach   : ………………   try       : …………………..        wake   : ……………………

walk    : ………………   wash   : …………………..        watch  : …………………….

work   : ………………

 

. 76. Make sentences according to the information     :

 

You

Pınar

Jane

go to the cinema

 ü

û

ü

go to a club

û

ü

ü

listen to the radio

û

û

ü

do some sport

ü

û

û

read a novel

û

 ü

û

see friends

ü

ü

ü

play music

û

ü

û

watch television

û

ü

û

learn a language

ü

û

ü

 

 

Pınar doesn’t go to the cinema in her free time.

 

e.g.      :   I  go to the cinema in my free time.

1…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

11……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

12……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

13…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

15……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

. 77. Make sentences using the words below :

 

1. wake up  : I wake up at seven o’clock every morning.

2. get up     :………………………………………………………………………..

3. wash/my face :………………………………………………………………..

4. have breakfast :………………………………………………………………

5. brush/my teeth :……………………………………………………………..

6. leave home :…………………………………………………………………….

7. catch the bus :…………………………………………………………………

8. buy a newspaper :……………………………………………………………

9. arrive at work :……………………………………………………………….

10. sing songs :……………………………………………………………………. 

11. have lunch :…………………………………………………………………..

12. finish work :………………………………………………………………….

13. return home :…………………………………………………………………

14. have dinner :………………………………………………………………….

15. watch TV :………………………………………………………………………

16. drink tea :……………………………………………………………………..

17. talk to/my family :………………………………………………………….

18.have a shower  : ……………………………………………………………..

19. put on/my pyjamas :………………………………………………………     

20. go to bed :……………………………………………………………………..

 

. 78. Make these sentences negative :

 

 

I don’t work at Ankara Anatolian High School.

 

1.I work at Ankara Anatolian High School.

……………………………………………………………………………..

2.My son likes to study English.

……………………………………………………………………………..

3.They speak German well.

……………………………………………………………………………..

4.The bus leaves at ten o’clock every morning.

………………………………………………………………………………

5.I make many mistakes in spelling.

………………………………………………………………………………

6.She knows Turkish perfectly.

………………………………………………………………………………

7.The child plays in the park every afternoon.

………………………………………………………………………………

8.We use many books for prep classes.

………………………………………………………………………………

9.My father wants to visit his hometown.

………………………………………………………………………………

10.We need some fun in this school.

………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

. 79. Make questions :

 

1.

Does she live in Ankara?

 

She lives in Ankara.

……………………………………………………………………………..

2. The students meet in front of the school.

……………………………………………………………………………..

3. He smokes a lot.

……………………………………………………………………………..

4. They sell newspapers there.

……………………………………………………………………………..

5. This book belongs to him.

……………………………………………………………………………..

6. You speak English well.

……………………………………………………………………………..

7. I always take the red bus to school.

……………………………………………………………………………..

8. We go to the cinema once a month.

……………………………………………………………………………..

9. The shop closes at eight o’clock in the evening.

……………………………………………………………………………..

10.It looks like snow.

……………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

 

. 80.Change these sentences according to the sign :

 

 

My father doesn’t go to bed at 10 o’clock.

 

1.My father goes to bed at ten o’clock.

(-)……………………………………………………………….

(?)………………………………………………………………

2.Do you study English at weekends?

(-)……………………………………………………………….

(+)………………………………………………………………

3.Does your mother cook at home?

(+)………………………………………………………………

(-)……………………………………………………………….

4.Does your English teacher speak Turkish in class?

(-)…………………………………………………………………………

(+)………………………………………………………………………..

5.My brother drinks tea for breakfast.

(-)…………………………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………………………..

6.The teachers do not smoke cigarettes at school.

(+)………………………………………………………………………..

(?)………………………………………………………………………..

7.We do our homework at weekend.

(-)………………………………………………………………………..

(?)………………………………………………………………………..

8.The boys play football in the playground.

(-)…………………………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………………………..

9.My father reads the newspaper in the evening.

(-)…………………………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………………………..

 

10.We listen to English songs in class.

(-)…………………………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………………………..

 

. 81. Answer these questions :

 

 

I usually get up at 7 o’clock.

 

1.What time do you  usually get up?

……………………………………………………………….

2.When do the students start school in the morning?

……………………………………………………………….

3.Do you always clean your teeth every  morning?

………………………………………………………………..

4.When do you have lunch?

………………………………………………………………..

5.Does your brother ever wash his face?

………………………………………………………………..

6.Do you often go to the theatre?

………………………………………………………………..

7.When do you go home after school?

………………………………………………………………..

8.How much money do you spend every week?

…………………………………………………………………

9.What time do you go to bed on weekdays?

…………………………………………………………………

10.When does your mother wash up?

…………………………………………………………………

11.How do you usually get to school?

…………………………………………………………………

12.How long does it take you to get to school?

………………………………………………………………….

13.When does your father get up every day?

………………………………………………………………….

14.What do you do in your free time?

………………………………………………………………….

15.Do you ever walk to school?

………………………………………………………………….

16.How often do you go to the theatre?

…………………………………………………………………..

17.How often do you have English lessons?

…………………………………………………………………..

18.How often do you eat ?

…………………………………………………………………..

19.What language do  people speak in  Turkey?

……………………………………………………………………

20.Do you ever read a newspaper?

……………………………………………………………………

21.What do you often have for breakfast?

……………………………………………………………………

22.How many pages do you read every day?

……………………………………………………………………

23.When do  lessons finish on Fridays?

……………………………………………………………………

24.What does your best friend do at weekends?

…………………………………………………………………….

25.Which languages do you speak?

…………………………………………………………………….

26.Do you usually have a rest?

…………………………………………………………………….

27.When does your father have a rest?

…………………………………………………………………….

28.What kind of books do you read?

……………………………………………………………………..

29.How often do you listen to music?

……………………………………………………………………..

30.Which drink do you  drink?

………………………………………………………………………

 

. 82. Complete the sentences using the words in brackets :

 

 
 

has

 

 

1.She usually ……………………………………      (have) dinner at 8 p.m.

2.On Saturdays my son ……………………..      (go) to the theatre.

3.Ice always …………………………………….       (melt) in warm weather.

4.I always ……………………………………….       (eat) an egg for breakfast.

5.My cousin ……………………………………        (live) in London.

6.The school …………………………………..        (close) at  five every day.

7.He ………………………………………………        (visit) his parents once a week.

8.My father always…………………………..        (come) home early in the evening.

9.I never………………………………………….       (do) my homework at night.

10.They often ………………………………….       (prefer) coffee after a meal.

11.He always ………………………………….        (choose) the best  one.

12.She ……………………………………………        (smoke) a lot.

13.I occasionally …………………………….         (speak) English in the classroom.

14.She never …………………………………..        (obey) the rules.

15.People always …………………………….        (complain) about their lives.

 

. 83. Correct  the mistakes in these sentences if  there are any :

 

 

I never do my homework in the evening.

 

1.I never don’t  do my homework in the evening. 

…………………………………………………………………………

2.She always read novels in her free time.

…………………………………………………………………………

3.They usually  help each other.

…………………………………………………………………………

4.My students often listen to Madonna.

…………………………………………………………………………

5.Does your sister go to school by bus or car?

…………………………………………………………………………

6.She never watches  TV  at weekends, doesn’t  she?

………………………………………………………………………..

7.Mike  always carry his umbrella in his bag.

………………………………………………………………………..

8.The students often doesn’t do the shopping.

………………………………………………………………………..

9.He never write clearly.

………………………………………………………………………..

10.Why don’t  she wait for me on Wednesdays? 

…………………………………………………………………………

11.On what days do you have P. E. ?

…………………………………………………………………………

12.In which month does the school year begin and when does it end? …………………………………………………………………………

13.When does your school day finish?

…………………………………………………………………………

14.In which months do you have school holidays? …………………………………………………………………………

15.In what month is your birthday?

…………………………………………………………………………

 

. 84. Answer these questions       :

 

 

I am a doctor.

 

1.What do you do?

…………………………………………………………………………

2.Where do you live?

…………………………………………………………………………

3.Where do you go on Sunday evenings?

 …………………………………………………………………………

4.Do you ever watch TV at midnight?

 …………………………………………………………………………

5.What time do you go to bed?

 …………………………………………………………………………

6.Where do you usually go for your holidays? …………………………………………………………………………

7.How often do you read a novel?

 …………………………………………………………………………

8.Do you sometimes go to a club?

 …………………………………………………………………………

9.What kind of music do you usually listen to? …………………………………………………………………………

10.What time of the day do you do some sport? …………………………………………………………………………

11.Do you ever visit friends during the week? …………………………………………………………………………

12.Do you ever study early in the morning?

 …………………………………………………………………………

13.Do you ever help the poor?

 …………………………………………………………………………

14.How much do you  spend on food in a month? …………………………………………………………………………

15.What time do you have dinner on Saturdays?

…………………………………………………………………………

 

 

. 85.Now answer the same questions about your best friend :

 

 

She is a housewife.

 

1.What does she do?

 …………………………………………………………………………

2.Where does she live?

 …………………………………………………………………………

3.Where does she go on Sunday evenings?

 …………………………………………………………………………

4.Does  she ever watch TV at midnight?

 …………………………………………………………………………

5.What time does she often go to bed?

 …………………………………………………………………………

6.Where does she usually go for her holidays? …………………………………………………………………………

7.How often does she read a novel?

 …………………………………………………………………………

8.Does she sometimes go to a club?

 …………………………………………………………………………

9.What  kind of music does she usually listen to? …………………………………………………………………………

10.What time of the day does she do some sport? …………………………………………………………………………

11.Does she ever visit friends during the week? …………………………………………………………………………

12.Does she ever study in the morning early? …………………………………………………………………………

13.Does she ever help the poor?

…………………………………………………………………………

14.How much does she spend on food in a month? …………………………………………………………………………

15.What time does she have dinner on Saturdays? …………………………………………………………………………

 

 

FUTURE WITH SIMPLE PRESENT

 

86.We use the present simple  for the future  when we talk about   

*timetables

*programmes

*schedules

 

1.A:What time does the plane take off?

 

 
 

takes off

 

 

   B: It …………………(take off) at  8.30 a.m.  and ………………….(land) in London

       at 10.30.

 

 

2.A. How long  ……………………….(you stay) in London?

 

   B: Three days.

 

 

3.A: How long ………………………..(the journey to Berlin /take) then?

 

   B: It ……………………….(last) for only two days I think.   

 

 

FILL  IN  THE  SCHOOL  TIMETABLE         

SUBJECTS   : English-Turkish-Physical Education-German(if any)

 

 

MON

TUES

WED

THURS

    FRI

Lesson 1

 

 

 

   

 

(break)

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson  2

 

 

 

 

 

(break)

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson  3

 

 

 

 

 

(break)

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson  4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson  5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson  6

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 87. Answer these questions       :

 

 

We have six lessons every day.

 

1.How many lessons do you have every day?

……………………………………………………………………………….

2.How many subjects do you have?

……………………………………………………………………………….

3.Do you have English lessons on Monday?

……………………………………………………………………………….

4.Do you go to a public school ?

……………………………………………………………………………….

5.How many breaks do you have every day?

……………………………………………………………………………….

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

Present Continuous:

 

     a. The children are playing at the moment. (temporary)

b. They are living in a rented flat. (temporary)

This is called the present continuous.

 

be + verb +

ing.

 

e.g.: play: I am playing, you are playing, she is playing, they are playing.

 

We use the present continuous tense * to describe an action which

is going on at the  moment    and      is not complete.

 

* to talk about an action which is temporary.

He is working at the moment.

* to talk about a definite arrangement in the future;

They’re spending Christmas in Chicago.

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I am working

I am not working

Am I working?

You are working

You aren’t working

Are you working?

He is working

He isn’t working

Is he working?

She is working

She isn’t working

Is she working?

It is working

It is not working

Is it working?

We are working

We are not working

Are we working?

They are working

They aren’t working

Are they working?

 

 

 

 

 

 

TIME EXPRESSIONS

 

now

at present

at the moment

 

today

this week

this month

 

 

 

 

 

 

NON-CONTINUOUS  VERBS

 

State verbs are verbs which describe a state rather than an action and therefore do not normally have continuous tenses. These include;

Verbs of Thinking, Attitudes,  or Opinion            :

 

appear, believe, consider, doubt, feel, forget, guess, know, mean, need,

prefer, realize, remember, seem, sound, think, understand

e.g. I expect they will be late.

       (Not:  I am thinking they will be late.)

 

Verbs Expressing Possession          :

belong, have, own, posses

e.g. My uncle owns a hotel.

       (Not: My uncle is owning a hotel.)

 

Verbs Expressing Emotion  :

care, desire, forgive, hate, like, love, refuse, want, wish

e.g. I love chocolate ice cream.

Verbs Expressing Sense Perceptions         :

feel, hear, see, smell, taste

e.g. Mike must be at home. I can see his car parked outside.

       (not: I am seeing his car parked outside.)

 

Some of the above verbs are used in continuous tenses when they describe actions not states.

e.g.     I think he’s lying. (= believe)

            I’m thinking about the plan. (= am considering.)

            The food tastes delicious. (= has a delicious flavour)

            He is tasting the food. (=is tasting the flavour of)

            The chicken weighs 2 kilos. (= has a weight of)

            The butcher is weighing the meat. (is measuring how heavy it is)

            I can see some people. (= perceive with my eyes)

            I see what you mean. (=understand)

            I am seeing my doctor tomorrow. (=am meeting)

            Note: The verbs look (when we refer to a person’s appearance), feel, (=experience a  particular emotion),   hurt and ache can be used in either the continuous or simple tenses with no difference in meaning.

 

e.g. You look/are looking great today.

 

 

are waiting

 

. 88. Supply the present continuous tense form of the verbs in parenthesis :

1.They ……………………. (wait) for us in front of the school now.

2.Be quiet! The teacher ……………………….. (watch) you.

3.Look! The children ……………………………(dance).

4.Mehmet ………………………. (have) lunch in the cafeteria now.

5.Please be quiet! The patients ………………………. (sleep).

6.At present  the teachers ………………………………. (have) a meeting .

7.Pınar …………………………. (wear) her new dress today.

8.We …………………………….. (prepare) for the exam at the moment.

9.My son ………………………. (make) good progress at English at present.

10.Look at that cat there! It  ……………………. (clean) its feet.

. 89. Make  negative :

 

The telephone isn’t ringing.

 

1.The telephone is ringing.

…………………………………………………………………………..

2.All the birds are flying south.

…………………………………………………………………………..

3.They are travelling in Africa at present.

…………………………………………………………………………..

4.I       am working on the computer now.

…………………………………………………………………………..

5.The students are laughing at each other now.

…………………………………………………………………………..

6.They are having lunch in the cafeteria at the moment.

…………………………………………………………………………..

7.The baby is playing with her baby doll.

…………………………………………………………………………..

8.She is taking her medicine at present.

…………………………………………………………………………..

9.The monkeys are climbing the trees.

…………………………………………………………………………..

10.He is reading  a novel now.

…………………………………………………………………………..

 

. 90. Fill in the blanks and answer the questions :

Tonight,  Pınar  …..… wearing a long, blue coat, a green  sweater, and  dark

red trousers.  She  ………   wearing any shoes or socks, and she’s  carry……..

some flowers. But she is not look…..at me at all. Because I ……going  to the

cinema with her.

                                                              Serdal

1.What is Pınar wearing tonight?

…………………………………………………………………

2.Is she wearing any shoes?

…………………………………………………………………

3.What is she carrying?

…………………………………………………………………

4.Is she looking at Serdal?

…………………………………………………………………

5.Why isn’t she looking at him?

…………………………………………………………………

 

 

are doing

 

. 91. Fill in the blanks using either the present continuous or the simple present

Greetings from Alanya! Erdal and I …………….(do) something different this summer. We’re on Palm Beach. Most of the people here are the tourists. They ……………… (come)from  different countries and they ………………(speak) many foreign languages. We ………………(serve) the tourists at the beach part time. And we ………. (enjoy) ourselves when we are free after work. Erdal  ………..(practise) his  English and I …………….(try) to learn some more English. We …………… (get up) very early every morning. We ………………(work) eight hours and then …………………(finish) work and the day for us starts. But we ……(spend) a lot of money here. I ………….(hope) you come with us next year. See you soon.

Love,

Serdal

 

. 92. Correct the mistakes, if there are any       :

1.She going to the cinema at seven p.m.

………………………………………………………

2.They are come to visit their friends now.

 ……………………………………………………….

3.We are try to doing our homework.

 ……………………………………………………….

4.The cat drinking milk at the moment.

……………………………………………………….

5.What  you doing there?

 ……………………………………………………….

 

. 93. Choose the correct  word or structure      :

 

 
 

 

1.This can’t be right! I don’t believe / I’m not believing it.

2.She can’t go to work today. She has/is having a cold.

3.I can’t talk to you now. I leave/I’m leaving .

4.You are trying to tell me, but I don’t understand/ I’m not understanding you.

5.I’ll stop talking  with you. You are / are being rude. 

 

 

FUTURE WITH PRESENT CONTINUOUS

 

. 94. Make sentences        :

 

 

She is seeing the doctor.

 

1.She/see/the doctor

……………………………………………………………………………

2.We/have dinner/at 7.30 p.m.

……………………………………………………………………………

3.I/not go/to the dentist/until next month

……………………………………………………………………………

4.The new school/open/on 13th September

……………………………………………………………………………

5.You/fly/to İzmir/tomorrow/?

…………………………………………………………………………….

6.What time/they/leave  Berlin/?

…………………………………………………………………………….

7.She/have/an English lesson/tomorrow morning

…………………………………………………………………………….

8.We/not play/football/on Saturday

…………………………………………………………………………….

9.He/come/for tea/tomorrow afternoon

…………………………………………………………………………….

10.I/meet/my parents/at the bus stop

…………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

. 95. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or present continuous tense:

 

 
 

are going

 

 

1.A:We ………………. (go) to Paris tomorrow.

   B: Oh, yes. Where ……………….. you …………………(stay)?

   A: At a hotel in Montmartre. We always …………………(stay) there.

 

2.A: Hi. I’m Işık. I’m from Turkey.

   B: Hello. What ……………(do) here in England? Are you on holiday?

   A: No, I ……………(study) English at a language school.

   B: Where …………..you …………(live)? With a family?

   A: No, I ………….(share) a room at the school with another girl.

   B: Where ………you ………….(live) in Turkey?

   A: In Ankara. I …………….(have) a flat in my parent’s house.

 

3.A:What ……………. you ……….(do)?

   B: Well I’m a student actually, but I’ve got a temporary job for the summer.

   A: Oh, yes. What …………….. you ………(do)?

   B: I …………. (work) at a shoe factory.

 

 

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

 

Past Simple:

a. They saw me yesterday.(finished action +time reference: yesterday)

b. I met him at school.      (finished action +place reference: at school)

 

This tense is called  the past simple.

When the verb is a regular one, just add  – ed  (to repair: repaired)

When it is an irregular one, check on the list… (to sing: sang)

Examples of use with- to make (irregular verb);

            I made/he made/they made

 

. 96. Exercise:

 

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Be careful and

check whether there is a time reference  or not and whether the

verb is regular:

 

 

Yesterday I went to Antalya.

 

1.Yesterday I (go) to Antalya.

…………………………………………………………….

2.They (be) in Toronto last month. …………………………………………………………….

3.She (buy) this pen in Antalya. …………………………………………………………….

4.I (visit) my parents last week? …………………………………………………………….

5.You (see) Peter when you (be) in London last month?(be careful) …………………………………………………………….

6.We (come) at nine.(past) …………………………………………………………….

7.You (type) the letter  I (tell) you to type yesterday ! …………………………………………………………….

 

Key     :

 

1.went                        (time reference: yesterday)

2.were                         (time reference: last month)

3.bought                     (place reference: Antalya)

4.visited                      (time reference: last week)

5.did you see              (time reference: last month)

6.came                        (time reference: at nine)

7.have you typed        (no time reference)

   told                          (time reference: yesterday)

 

 

We use the simple past tense* to talk about the actions in the past.

We use the simple past for actions which happened immediately one after the other in the past.

With verbs such as think, hope, mean, expect, etc, past simple, past continuous or past perfect can be used without any difference.

 

Time expressions

 

yesterday                                           last night

yesterday morning                           last week

yesterday afternoon                                     last month 

yesterday evening                             last summer

                       last year

 

three days ago                                  in 1985                                  

two weeks ago                                  in 1986

a month ago

four years ago

 

etc.

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I worked

I didn’t work

Did I work?

You worked

You didn’t work

Did you work?

He worked

He didn’t work

Did he work?

She worked

She didn’t work

Did she work?

It worked

It didn’t work

Did it work?

We worked

We didn’t work

Did we work?

They worked

They didn’t work

Did they work?

 

 

Simple past form of the verb ‘be’  :

Now                                                                             in 1975

 

       
   

 

I  am  a teacher.                                                           I  was  a student.

I  am  37 years old.                                                     I  was  14 years old.

 

We are in Ankara.                                                       We were in Zonguldak.

Students are taller.                                                      They were short.

 

 

. 97. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of  ‘be’ :

 

 

were

 

1.We …………….. at home yesterday evening but we …………. in the classroom

   now.

2.Our teacher …………….. happy last Friday, now he …………. sad.

3.The boys …………….. short last year. They ………… tall  this year.

4.My best friend …………… with me last night.

5.Our cat ………… five years old two years ago. How old …….. it now you think?

 

 

 

worked

 

. 98. Use the simple past form of the verbs  :

1.I…………………(work) in  my grandfather’s garden yesterday.

2.We ……………..(study) English all day yesterday.

3.Erdal and Serdal ………….(watch) TV.

4.I………………..(visit) my aunt last week.

5.We …………….(wait) at the station for two hours at the bus stop.

6.It ……………….(rain) last night.

7.She …………….(paint) our house last summer.

8.He ………………(listen) to the radio yesterday evening.

9.Her friends ………………..(talk) on the telephone for ten minutes last week.

10.She ………………(post) the letters two weeks ago.

 

. 99. Make these sentences negative :

 

We didn’t work in the garden all day yesterday.

 

1.We worked in the garden all day yesterday.

………………………………………………………………………………

2.They listened to the radio last night.

………………………………………………………………………………

3.Pınar and I watched TV  yesterday afternoon.

………………………………………………………………………………

4.I       studied English last year.

………………………………………………………………………………

5.She waited at the bus stop for two hours this morning.

………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

had

 

. 100. Fill in the blanks using the simple past tense form of the verbs :

1.I………………….(have) breakfast at seven o’clock this morning.

2.My sons and I ………………….(eat) cheese for breakfast.

3.We …………………….(leave) home early.

4.Mrs Coşkun ………………(buy) a newspaper.

5.We ………………..(read) it quickly.

. 101. Make questions  :

 

Did you help your mother with the breakfast?

 

1.I       helped my mother with the breakfast.

……………………………………………………………………………..

2.We had lunch all together.

……………………………………………………………………………..

3.My father went to work early.

……………………………………………………………………………..

4.He returned home late yesterday evening.

………………………………………………………………………………

5.We watched TV until 10 o’clock.

………………………………………………………………………………

 

. 102. Make questions using the question words :

 

 

Who had breakfast all together?

 

1.We had breakfast all together.

…………………………………………………………………………………

2.My brother practised his English.

………………………………………………………………………………….

3.We listened to the radio.

………………………………………………………………………………….

4.They stayed at home yesterday.

………………………………………………………………………………….

5.She walked to school last week.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

6.We did our homework together.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

7.She ate a cheese sandwich yesterday morning.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

8.We spent a lot last summer.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

9.We stayed at a hotel.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

10.She listened to the radio with her girlfriend.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 103. Correct the mistakes, if there are any     :

 

 

She made a cake for her friends.

 

1.She did made a cake for her friends.

………………………………………………………………………………………

2.They smiled all together.

………………………………………………………………………………………

3.Did you bought those magazines?

………………………………………………………………………………………

4.What time did he finish his project?

………………………………………………………………………………………

 5.We  didn’t borrowed money from our parents.

………………………………………………………………………………………

. 104. ANSWER THESE  YES / NO  QUESTIONS  :

 

 

Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

 

1.Did you have breakfast yesterday morning?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Did you brush your teeth?   

…………………………………………………………………………………….

3.Did  you have cheese for breakfast?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

4.Did you go to school yesterday?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

5.Did you have an exam last week?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

6.Did you help your friends last month?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

7.Did your parents go anywhere last week?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

8.Did you go to the cinema last week?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

9.Did you watch TV last night?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

10.Did your mother prepare breakfast  yesterday?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

11.Did your father help your mother to prepare  breakfast?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

12.Did you buy anything last week?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

13.Did you leave home early yesterday morning?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

14.Did you do any housework yesterday ? …………………………………………………………………………………….

15.Did your friends visit you  yesterday?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 105. ANSWER THESE  QUESTIONS          :

 

 

I got up at 7 o’clock.

 

1.When did you get up yesterday?

………………………………………………………………………………………

2.What time did you have breakfast?

………………………………………………………………………………………

3.What did you have for breakfast?

………………………………………………………………………………………

4.What time did you clean your teeth?

………………………………………………………………………………………

5.When did you leave home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

6.What time did you catch the bus?

………………………………………………………………………………………

7.When did you have lunch?

………………………………………………………………………………………

8.Where did you have lunch?

………………………………………………………………………………………

9.What did you have for lunch?

………………………………………………………………………………………

10.Who did you have lunch with?

………………………………………………………………………………………

11.When did you get home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

12.How did you get home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

13.How long did it take you to get home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

14.Who did you see first when you got home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

15.What did you do first when you got home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

16.Did you have dinner at home?

………………………………………………………………………………………

17.Who did you have dinner with?

………………………………………………………………………………………

18.Did you drink tea or coffee after dinner?

………………………………………………………………………………………

19.What did you do before you went to bed?

………………………………………………………………………………………

20.Did you  sleep well last night?

………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

. 106. Fill in the life line   :

 

1961    :           I was born.

1966    :           I started primary school.

1971    :           ……………………………………………………… (finish primary school)

1974    :           ……………………………………………………… (start high school)

1977    :           I…………………………………………………….. (finish high school)

1981    :           I………………………………………………. ( graduate from university)

1983    :           I………………………………………………. (complete military  service)

1983    :           ………………………………………………………. (get  married)

1985    :           We………………………………………………….. (move to Ankara)

 

. 107. Now ask questions using  question words          :

              what, who, why, where, when, which, whose, whom,

              what time, How, How long, How many,  etc.

e.g.      :           Where were you born?

                        When were you born?

1. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

2. . …………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

4. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

5. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

6. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

7. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

8. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

9. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

10. …………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

Do  and Did  with positive sentences :

As you will remember we do not use do, does and did with positive sentences.

But there are cases when we do this. These are the cases that we want to stress

the situation.

e.g.      : I do like the cakes you make.

            (You may think that I do not like the cakes you make, but for sure;

              I like them very much.)

              I  did study hard but I still could not pass the exam.

            (You may think that I did not study  hard, but for sure; I studied

              very much, but even in this case I could not pass the exam.)

 

 

Read this text and do the following activities        :

 

‘One day I had a crazy idea. Why didn’t Eloise go with us to the White Mountains? But then I discovered by chance that she was already Capped. She seemed younger than me. But a Cap was hidden under her thick black hair. All  Capped people belonged to the Tripods. And  I very nearly  told her our secrets!

            I was getting stronger every day. Soon I was strong enough to ride a horse. We rode out every day through the castle gate, and into the  country.

            We spent our evenings with the Count and Countess. It was clear that they liked me. They missed their own sons, and  they were  happy to have a boy in the tower. The other boys only joined us for dinner. The dining room was very large, with one table which forty people  could sit around.’

 

 

. 108. Underline all the past  form of the verbs

 

. 109. Write their infinitive form            :

 

 

 have- ………

 

 

 

. 110. Answer these questions about the text    :

 

 

Eloise was already capped.

 

1.Who was   already Capped?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.Was she younger than the author?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

3.Where was the Cap hidden?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

4.Did the author tell her about their secret?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

5.Who rode out every day through the castle gate?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.Where did they spend their evenings?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

7.Who missed their sons?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

8.Why did the other boys join them?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

9.How many people could sit around the table?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

10.Did the Count and Countess like the author?

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

Past continuous :

 

a. Last week my friend rushed in.(1)

   We were having dinner.(2)

 

b. My friend rushed in(1) while we were having dinner.(2)

 

*Both actions (rushed in)/(were having) belong to the past and the time

  reference is apparent in example (a): last week.

*But action 2(were having) is interrupted and contrasts with a sudden

 and completed action.(rushed in)

 

The tense that shows that an action located in the past is interrupted is called the past continuous.

 

 

was/were + verb + ing

     

 

*The time reference doesn’t have to be apparent ; in sentence (b) it doesn’t

  appear but the speaker knows when it happened : It’s enough.

 

*Sentences (1) and (2)  can be joined with words like;

 

 

when – while – as.

 

. 111. Exercise :

 

Join the following sentences using the words in brackets  and put the verbs  in the correct tense ; (past simple/ past continuous) :

 

 

I was watering the lawn when the postman arrived.

 

1.I (water) the lawn. The postman (arrive). (when)

………………………………………………………………………………………

2.He (hurt) his foot. He (climb )the ladder. (while) ………………………………………………………………………………………

3.The gas (be cut off). I (cook) the dinner. (as) ………………………………………………………………………………………

4.They (find) your tie. They (sweep) the floor. (while) ………………………………………………………………………………………

5.She (be run over) by a lorry. She (cross) the street. (as) ………………………………………………………………………………………

6.My mother (do the shopping). It (start) to rain.(when) ………………………………………………………………………………………

7.Everybody (watch) TV. The rocket (be launched). (when) ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

We use the past continuous tense *  to describe an action in the past which

was going     or    continuing   when another action took place. In other words;

* to talk (about) something that was in progress at a specific time in the past.

– He was feeling particulary lonely and suffering from culture shock.

 

* to talk about something that was in progress at the time something else happened.

– He was staying with Cathy Kelly when he first met Josephine Wilson.

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I was working

I wasn’t working

Was I working?

You were working

You weren’t working

Were you working?

He was working

He wasn’t working

Was he working?

She was working

She wasn’t working

Was she working

It was working

It wasn’t working

Was it working?

We were working

We weren’t working

Were we working?

They were working

They weren’t working

Were they working?

 

 

. 112. Read the  text  and  make sentences        :

 

‘We were at Erdal’s birthday party yesterday evening. Suddenly we heard a big noise outside.’

 

 

What were these people doing when we heard the noise?

 

 

Serdal was eating a piece of cake.

 

1.Serdal/eat a piece of cake.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Pınar/dance.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

3.The other boys/sing a song.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

4.Erdal’s parents/watch TV in the living room.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

5.Erdal’s  cat/sit on the sofa.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 113. Fill in the blanks using the past continuous tense :

 

 
 

was playing

 

 

1.I       ……………………………(play) football at 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon.

2.My father ………………………….(read) a newspaper at 8  yesterday evening.

3.She ……………………(do) her homework at 5  last night.

4.It ……………………..(work) last week.

5.We …………………..(study)  Maths with her sister yesterday morning.

 

 
BEWARE !

 

The past continuous tense is almost always used

 with some other action in the past , not alone .

 

e.g.

            I was watching TV when the  phone rang.

 

 

. 114. Fill in the blanks using  the simple past or the past continuous :

 

       
 

was talking

 

 

rang

 

 

1. I      …………………….. (talk) on the phone when the bell ………………(ring).

2. They ……………………(eat) in the restaurant when I ……………………(see) them.

3. I…………………..(study) English while  you……………(listen)  to music.

4. We …………………..(live) in Ankara when the war ………………(start).

5. When I …………….(get) up this morning, the sun ……………….(shine) brightly.

6. When his mother ……………….(die)  he ……………………(work) in  Antalya.

7. I ……………(get) sick while we ……………………(drive) to Istanbul.

8. It …………..(rain)  when I ………………..(leave) home.

9.The accident …………….(happen) while they ……………. (travel) in Germany.

10 .She ……………….(fall) while she ………………..(get) into a taxi.

 

. 115. Choose the correct word  or  phrase       :

 

 
 

 

 1.How did you felt/did you feel yesterday evening?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

2.While I  take / was taking a shower, the telephone rang / ringed.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

3.She didn’t saw/didn’t see where the bus stop was, so we were missing / missed  the bus.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

4.Last winter I was going / went to school every day.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

5.When I was arriving / arrived there , they were waiting / waited for me.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

‘GOING TO’  FUTURE

 

We use  ‘ going to ‘  future 

 

* to talk about a plan or an intention

* to make a prediction

* to talk about a fact in the future

           

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I am going to work

I am not going to work

Am I going to work?

You are going to work

You are not going to work

Are you going to work?

He is going to work

He is not going to work

Is he going to work?

She is going to work

She isn’t going to work

Is she going to work?

It is going to work

It isn’t going to work

Is it going to work?

We are going to work

We aren’t going to work

Are we going to work

They are going to work

They aren’t going to work

Are they going to work?

 

 

. 116. Fill in the blanks using   going to  future  : 

 

 
 

is going to be

 

 

1.Pınar…………………………(be) very pleased with her present.  

2.I……………………………….(meet) my parents tomorrow evening.

3.The boys ………………………….(help) their parents with the housework.

4………………… you ………………. (make) dinner ?

5.He lost his job. He …………………………………(look for) a new job soon.

6.My mother  ……………………………………(live) in the Netherlands next year.

7.They ……………………………..(build) a swimming pool in the city next year.

8.The sky looks very grey. It………………………………..(rain).

9.Erdal…………………………………(buy) a bottle of perfume for his mother.

10.We ……………………………………….(move) to another town next month.

 

. 117. Make sentences with  going to  :

 

 

She is going to read a book.

 

1.She/read/a book.

…………………………………………………………………….

2.They/not go/to the party

……………………………………………………………………….

3.It/rain

……………………………………………………………………….

4.He/not play/basketball

……………………………………………………………………….

5.I/do/my homework

………………………………………………………………………..

6.You/do/your homework/?

………………………………………………………………………..

7.They/not visit their parents

………………………………………………………………………..

8.I/write/the letters

………………………………………………………………………..

9.She/make/a cake/?

…………………………………………………………………………

10.It/eat/its food

…………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I will work

I will not  work

Will I work?

You will work

You won’t work

Will you work?

He will work

He won’t work

Will he work?

She will work

She won’t work

Will she work?

It will work

It won’t work

Will it work?

We will work

We won’t work

Will we work?

They will work

They won’t work

Will they work?

 

We may also use;

I shall I shan’t

We shall We shan’t

 

Time expressions

 

tomorrow                  in five days

 

tonight                       soon

 

next week                  later

 

next month                next year

                                              

next summer

 

 

. 118. Fill in the blanks using the future simple  tense  :

 

 
 

will leave

 

 

1.Tom ………………(leave) tomorrow.

2.Mary……………………(fly) to France next  week.

3.Paul ………………………(watch) TV this evening.

4.Sally and Anne ………………….(come) to class tomorrow.

5.They …………………………(study) hard tonight.

 

FUTURE WITH TIME CLAUSES

 

When              I’ll tell him when I see him.

As soon as      We’ll buy it as soon as we receive the money.

Before             She’ll let us know before she leaves town.

By the time     It’ll be too late by the time we get there.

The moment   He’ll solve the problem the moment he faces it.

Until                She’ll  sing until she gets very old.

 

119. Match  A sentences  with  B sentences :

 

                A                                                    B                                

1.We’ll go for a walk                            a.the moment he enters the country.

2.When she arrives,                               b.until the mechanic comes.          

3.Before he ends the class,                    c.the teacher will tell us the answer.

4.The engine won’t work                      d.she will telephone her parents.   

5.The man will be put in prison             e.when it stops raining.

 

 

. 120. Think about learning English  in the future in Turkey. Which of these predictions do you ,your mother and your best friend  agree with and which of them you and they do not agree with?

Put   ü   if you agree and   ´   if you disagree   :

 

 

You

Mum

Friend

Children will learn English from the age of seven

 

 

 

There will be few adults who won’t speak English

 

 

 

Fewer  lessons at school will be in English

 

 

 

Everyone will need English for their job

 

 

 

It will be more important to speak English than Turkish

 

 

 

 

 

. 121. Complete the following sentences using  will   or   going to      :

 

 

I will look up

 

1. A:    I’ve got to phone a number in Bolu. Do you know the code?

    B:    No,………………………………………………… in the directory for you.     

2. A:    What are you doing during Ramadan?

    B:    Absolutely nothing. We ………………………………………. rest.

3. A:    Did you hear the weather forecast?

    B:    Yes………………………………….. cold at first, then  ………………………….

             a little warmer this afternoon.

4. A:    Why did you buy a house in such a terrible condition?

    B:    It was cheap. We …………………………………  modernize  it from top to the

            bottom, and  change it into a restaurant. What do you think?

5. A:   What are you doing here? Jane is expecting you for lunch.

B:    I completely forgot ! I …………………………………….. give her a ring, and

        tell her  I …………………………..  be late. Thanks for reminding.

. 122. Write the questions and negatives           :

 

will they be here

 

will they be here

 

 
 

 

1.What time ………………………………………………….?

   They’ll be here by 8.00.

2.When ………………………………………………………?

   We’re leaving tomorrow.

3.What ………………………………………… at university?

   She’s going to study History.  ……………………….. Geography.

4.When …………………………………………. Mr Brown?

   She’s meeting him at 10.00.

5.How long …………………………………………………?

   I’ll be away for three days.

6.Where ……………………………………………………?

   They’re going to live in Australia.

7.When ……………………………………………………?

   I’ll  move within two weeks.

8.We …………. next week. We’re sure it’s going to  start  tomorrow.

9.I …………… go for a walk. I’ll study instead.

10.It is going to be cold. But I don’t think it ………. snow.

 

  

 

 

 

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS  TENSE

 

We use the future continuous tense * to describe an action which will be going on or continuing at some point in the future.

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I will be working

I won’t be  working

Will I be working?

You will be working

You won’t  be  working

Will you be working?

He will be working

He won’t   be  working

Will he be working?

She will be working

She won’t  be working

Will she be working?

It will be working

It won’t  be  working

Will it be working?

We will be working

We won’t  be  working

Will we be working?

They will be working

They won’t  be  working

Will they be working?

 

 

 

. 123. Supply  the future continuous tense form of the verbs :

 

 
 

will be buying

 

 

1.At this time tomorrow morning, I …………………….(buy) my daily newspaper.

2.At this time next year, they ………………..(work) in Germany for a better life.

3.Don’t telephone him now. He…………………………….(make)  his usual visit.

4.Tomorrow afternoon at this time, we ……………………..(travel) to Istanbul.

5.It probably …………………………….(rain) when he gets back.

 

 

GOING TO vs WILL FUTURE

 

10:30   A: Where will you go for your holidays this summer?

            B: I’ll go to Bodrum.

 

10:31   C: Where will you go for your holidays this summer?

            B: I’m going to go to BODRUM.

            (It’s planned before the time of speaking.)

 

 

 

We use the future simple

We use be going to

· When we make a prediction based on  what we think, believe or imagine:

® In the year 2010 people will drive electric cars.

· for on the spot decisions:

® I like this one better than the other. I’ll take it.

· When we make a prediction based on what we can see (evidence) or what we know:

® She is going to cut the flowers.

· for actions we have already decided to do in the future:

A: Do you like this blouse?

B: Yes, why?

A: I am going to give it to my son as a gift.

 

 

 

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

 

 

We use the present perfect tense;

*to describe an action in the past which is connected  in   one way

  or    another    with the  present time.

*to explain an action which happened at an indefinite time in the past

*to explain a repeated action which happened in an indefinite time

 in the past

 

Present Perfect:

a. They have lived in the flat for 2 years.

     (They still live + indication of duration: 2 years.)

b. My sister has been an invalid all her life.

     (She still is + indication of duration: all her life.)

This is called the present perfect.

 

 

Have/has + verb III (past participle)

 

e.g.  to repair: I have repaired, she has repaired, they have repaired.

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I have worked

I haven’t worked

Have I worked?

You have worked

You haven’t worked

Have you worked?

He has worked

He hasn’t worked

Has he worked?

She has worked

She hasn’t worked

Has she worked?

It has worked

It hasn’t worked

Has it worked?

We have worked

We haven’t worked

Have we worked?

They have worked

They haven’t worked

Have they worked?

 

 

Time expressions  :

already, just, recently, yet

ever, never

for, since

 

still, scarcely, hardly

today, this week, this year

 

April                                                              September

=          I have studied English  for  five  months.

April                                                                September

          =           I have studied English  since  April.

 

 

1985                                                                        2000

I moved to Ankara.                                                 I live in Ankara

· I have lived in Ankara for 15 years.

· I have lived in Ankara since 1985.

 

. 124. Fill in the blanks supplying the present perfect tense form of the

 

have spoken

 

             verbs in the brackets :

1.I       ………………..(speak) to her  about it several times.

2.We ……………(finish) all our work.

3.He …………….(visit) her many times.

4.We …………….(see) that film before.

5.They ……………………….(learn) many new words in this course.

6.I ……………………………..(be) to Istanbul many times.

7.She …………………………(lose) her dictionary.

8.My cousin ……………………………(go) to Russia for work.

9.I       ………………………………..(move) into my new flat at last.

10.We …………………………..(live) in this flat for ten years.

 

 

 

since

 

. 125. Complete the following sentences using  for  or  since  :

1.We haven’t gone to the cinema …………………… September.

2.She has studied  Medicine ………………………… six years.

3.It hasn’t rained in that area ……………………………. 1918.

4.I haven’t received any postcards ………………….. seven years.

5.He hasn’t seen his girlfriend …………………. several weeks.

6.My aunt has been in İstanbul ……………………… 1986.

7.She has waited at the bus stop ……………. thirty minutes.

8.I haven’t spoken Dutch ………………… four years.

9.Pınar hasn’t come to school ……………… five days.

10.Our Science teacher has been ill  ………. two months.

 

 

. 126. Fill in the blanks using   the present perfect   or   the simple past   form of the verbs  :

 

went

 

1.Mr  Coşkun …………………….(go) to Germany last week.

2.We …………………………..(watch) that film several times.

3.We …………………………………(learn)  all the tenses at the course.

4.When I was young, I  often  …………………………..(go) fishing with my friends.

5.It …………………. (be) cold last week.

6.She ……………………………..(read) that book before.

7.He………………………….(start) to prepare for the university exams last winter.

8.I       ……………………………(do) a lot of homework yesterday evening.

9.My father ……………………….(help) me with my homework.

10.The First World War…………………….(begin) in 1914 and…………………

     (end) in  1918.

. 127. Make these sentences negative  :

 

She hasn’t prepared for the exam for two years.

 

1.She has prepared for the exam for two years.

……………………………………………………………………

2.The president has left for Britain.

 ……………………………………………………………………

3.He has gone to the cinema.

 ……………………………………………………………………

4.We have worked on this job for three hours.

 ……………………………………………………………………

5.They have done very little work recently.

 ……………………………………………………………………

6.The baby has slept for one hour.

……………………………………………………………………

7.I have taught English for thirteen years.

……………………………………………………………………

8.It has snowed all day.

 ……………………………………………………………………

9.We have lived in Ankara since 1985.

 ……………………………………………………………………

10.The boy has brought his ball to school.

……………………………………………………………………

 

. 128. Answer these  questions    :

 

Yes, I have / No, I haven’t been to a foreign country.

 

1.Have you ever  been to a foreign country?

………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Have you ever talked to a tourist?

 ………………………………………………………………………………….

3.Have you ever swum across a river?

 ………………………………………………………………………………….

4.Have you ever been to the South East of Turkey? ………………………………………………………………………………….

5.Have you ever drunk whisky?

 ………………………………………………………………………………….

6.Have you ever been late for the classes? ………………………………………………………………………………….

7.Have you ever travelled by plane?

 ………………………………………………………………………………….

8.Have you ever helped someone?

………………………………………………………………………………….

9.Have you ever taken a photograph?

………………………………………………………………………………….

10.Have you ever eaten chicken for breakfast? ………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

GONE    BEEN

 

Erdal has been to Erdek.

(He’s just got back. He is here now.)

 

 

Serdal has gone to the cinema.

(He won’t be back for a while. He is not here now.)

 

 

THE PRESENT  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

Present Perfect Continuous:

 

She has been playing the piano for 3 hours. (She still is at the piano +indication of duration: 3 hours… used to emphasize the fact that she is playing the piano right now)

This is called the present perfect continuous.

 

Have/has + been + verb +

ing

 

e.g.: to sing:  I have been singing, she has been singing,

                 they have been singing.

 

The Present Perfect tense is used * to talk about something which happened in an indefinite time in the past, such as an experience with ‘ever’ and ‘never’:

Have you ever read an English newspaper?

*to talk about a past action which has a result in the present, such as a change:

She’s done the cooking.

 

 

 

. 129. Exercise: Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct tense (Present Simple/ Present Continuous/ Present Perfect/ Present Perfect Continuous.) (See indications between brackets)

 

 

In the USA, they speak American English.

 

1 – In the USA, they (speak) American English. (truth)

…………………………………………………………………………

2 – I (read) this book quickly because Ann wants it back. (temporary)

…………………………………………………………………………

3 – He usually (come) at 8:00. (habit)

…………………………………………………………………………

4 – I (read) this book for the last 3 hours. (duration + insistence).

…………………………………………………………………………

5 – My family (live) here since 1982. (duration)

…………………………………………………………………………

6 – Look! It (rain)

…………………………………………………………………………

7 – They (listen) to their favourite record. Don’t disturb them. (temporary)

…………………………………………………………………………

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I  have been working

I haven’t been working

Have I been working?

You have been working

You haven’t been working

Have you been working?

He has been working

He hasn’t been working

Has he been working?

She has been working

She hasn’t been working

Has she been working?

It has been working

It hasn’t been working

Has it been working?

We have been working

We haven’t been working

Have we been working?

They have been working

They haven’t been working

Have they been working?

 

. 130. Write the verbs in   the present perfect continuous :

 

What have you done today? I have rewritten my project work.

 

1.What (you/ do) today?        I (rewrite/ my project work)

……………………………………………………………………………….

2.How long (they) study  English?

……………………………………………………………………………….

3.My sons (watch/football on TV) since seven o’clock.

……………………………………………………………………………….

4.My brothers (live) in Kdz.Ereğli  for thirty years.

……………………………………………………………………………….

5.We are hungry. We (work) for hours .

……………………………………………………………………………….

6.They look terrible. They (study) for a fortnight on their project.

……………………………………………………………………………….

7.I (teach) for over twenty years.

……………………………………………………………………………….

8.How long (you/ride) as a hobby?

……………………………………………………………………………….

9.Your roommate  (speak on the phone) for an hour.

……………………………………………………………………………….

10.Why (he/visit ) them so  often?

……………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

 

We use the past perfect tense  *to describe an action which took place in

the past  before another past action.

e.g.  She said that she had seen that film.

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

the past perfect

the simple past

time of speaking (now)

future

 

I learnt English. (1)   I learnt German.(2)

First I learnt English.

Then I learnt German.

I  learnt German after I had learnt English.

I  had learnt English before I learnt German.

 

Past perfect

           

            a. They saw the house.(1) They decided to buy it.(2)

            b. After they had seen the house (1) they decided to buy it.(2)

*Both actions  (saw/decided )belong to the past. The time reference is not apparent but the speaker knows when it happened. That’s why  in (a) the verbs in each sentence, are in the past simple (ref. to past).

*But in sentence (b) we have joined  the two sentences  using after  and doing so, we have chosen to contrast two actions  belonging to the past (ref. to past) we want to show that action (1)  happened before action (2).

*The tense used to show that something in the past was  completed before another time in the past is called past perfect.

 

  had + V

past participle

 

 

Examples of use with – to learn (irregular verb)  :

           

            I had learnt/you had learnt/he had learnt/she had learnt

           We had learnt/They had learnt

 

 

. 131. Exercise : Join the following sentences using the words in brackets

             and  put the verbs   into the correct tense (past perfect)           

 

 

After he had left the cinema he went to the cafeteria.

 

1.He (leave) the cinema.(1) He (go) to the cafeteria. (2) (after)

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.She (tell) me his name. (1) He(leave).(2) (after) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.They (arrive).(1) The dinner already (2) (begin).(when) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.He (be) in Turkey.(1) He soon (remember) all he (2) (learn).(when) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

5.We( learn )English.(1) ( We (leave) for New Zealand. (2) (before) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

6.She (leave).(1) I (want) to see her again. (2) (as soon as) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

7.You (post) the letter? (1) You (write) it.(2) (after) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

. 132. Exercise      :

Supply  the past tense  (past simple or  past perfect)

 

The room was much smaller than she had thought at first.

 

1.The room (be) much smaller than she (think) at first.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

2.The little boy (ask) what (happen) to his bicycle. …………………………………………………………………………………….

3.I (can not) help thinking that I (see) them somewhere before. …………………………………………………………………………………….

4.It (seem) ages  since the ship (set off). …………………………………………………………………………………….

5.We (worry) a lot  before we (hear) that he was out of trouble. …………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I had worked

I hadn’t worked

Had I worked?

You had worked

You hadn’t worked

Had you worked?

He had worked

He hadn’t worked

Had he worked?

She had worked

She hadn’t worked

Had she worked?

It had worked

It hadn’t worked

Had it worked?

We had worked

We hadn’t worked

Had we worked?

They had worked

They hadn’t worked

Had they worked?

 

 

. 133. Complete the sentences using the past perfect tense of the verbs:

 

 

had seen

 

1.I       was sure that I ……………………………..(see) the boy before.

2.He said he ………………………………….(have) breakfast.

3.What did she say she ……………………………….(do) with the money?

4.He visited the museum after the other tourists………….. (leave) there.

5.He said he ………………………………………(find) the keys under the door mats.

6.The burglars …………………………..(leave) by the time the police arrived there.

7.Previously he ……………………..(be) a successful businessman.

8.I   ……………….(meet) them before I   drove  a hundred kilometres.

9.I corrected the mistakes which my learners ………………………………..(make)

10.Someone in the team recognised that we ………………..(take) the wrong way.

 

 

 

had

 

. 134. Complete the sentences using the past perfect     :

1.By the time Ali came to Turkey, he ……………………………….  finished four

   years of  university.

2.Last  week we had a test . Erdal overslept, so when he got to

   class, …………………………………….. .

3.By the time he began  the test, the other  students ……………………………………………………………. .

4.As soon as Erdal  had turned his paper to the teacher, she returned  it

   because he ………………………………………………………………………………..

5.He immediately left the class  after the teacher ………………………………………………………………. .

 

. 135. Combine these two sentences       :

 

 

Because it had rained a lot the roads were closed, so workers went home late.

 

1.It rained a lot. The roads were closed, so workers  went home late.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Machines opened the roads. The cars served  the people.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.Heavy duty machines opened the roads. All the roads were damaged.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.I  arrived home too late. I had a late dinner.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. I cleaned my teeth. I went to bed.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

. 136. Put the verbs into the correct tense         :

 

 
 

looked

 

 

I………………….(look) around the apartment where I…………………..(spend) most of my life. The window ……………………..(be) open and sounds from the street …………………..(mix) with the talk show from the radio that my mother  always ……………………………(keep) on. It ……………………….(seem) that she……………………….. (turn)   the  volume up  to get  her mind off the fact that I …………………………..(leave).She ……………………………(sit) in her favourite chair, the one I………………………..(have to)fix at least twice a year for as long as I  remember. Who………………….(fix) it now? I ……..(wonder) absently. The door bell……………………….(ring) and my sister………..(enter)  without waiting for someone to let her in.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

 

            a. He worked in a factory for ten years.(1)

                Then he got this new job.(2)

           

            b. He  had been working in a factory for ten years

    before he got this new job.

 

*Both actions (worked/got) belong to a definite past.

  (time reference : for ten years)

*That’s why in (a) the verbs are in the past simple (see :past simple)

*In (b), we have joined sentences (1) and (2) using before and doing so,

  we show that action (1) happened before action (2)

*We also want to insist on the  continuity of action (1).

 

The tense used to  ;

1.  show that an action in the past happened  before another action

    in the past.

 

2.  insist on the continuity of that action is called past perfect

continuous :

 

had + been + V + ing

 

 

 

 

 

. 137. Examples  of use with  – to go /(irregular)

 I had been going / They had been going

 

Exercise         : Put the verbs  between brackets in the right tense, either

                          in the past  perfect    continuous / past simple :

 

 

They had lived in Italy for 7 years when they left in the U.S.A.

 

1.They (live) in Italy for 7 years. They (leave) the U.S.A. (when)

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.I (wait) for her for over an hour. She (ring) me up. (when) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.They (walk) in the park for an hour. They (come) home (before). ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.He (work) with his class since September. He  (learn) this (when). ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I had been working

I hadn’t been working

Had I been working?

You had been working

You hadn’t been working

Had you been working?

He had been working

He hadn’t been working

Had he been working?

She had been working

She hadn’t been working

Had she been working?

It had been working

It hadn’t been working

Had it been working?

We had been working

We hadn’t been working

Had we been working?

They had been working

They hadn’t been working

Had they been working?

 

 

 

. 138. Rewrite the sentences using the words given     :

 

 

She had been doing the housework for three hours at noon.

 

1.She started doing the housework at nine.(at noon/for three hours)

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.The students started learning English in September.(in May/

   for nine months)

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.We started investigating the event in November l996.(in May l998/for

   thirty-one months)

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.I started working for the Ministry in 1985.(in l990/for five years)

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.They started fighting  for the right to vote in l850.(in 1932/for 82 years)

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

. 139. Complete the story with the correct tenses of the verbs in brackets:

 

Paragraph 1: past simple or past continuous

 

Paragraph 2: past simple or past perfect

 

Paragraph 3: past simple or present perfect

 

 

 

 

had to

 

Five years ago I ………..(have to) make a big decision. At the time I ……….. (work) for a small engineering company. However, things …………. (not go) very well for the company and it ……….. (lose) money. One day while we ……. (work) as normal, the boss……….(tell) us that the company ……….. (be) bankrupt. We ………. (be) all unemployed.

That lunch-time we ……….. (go) to the pub as usual. We were all very depressed. I ……. (work) at the  company for over fifteen years  and some of the people ………….. (be) there longer than that.  Well, of course we ……(talk) about the problem. Then the landlord of the pub ………. (hear) the news. He ……… (say) : ‘Why don’t you buy the company?’ At first we all ……. (laugh), but then we ………… (start) to discuss it properly. We ……….. (know) the problems. The company …………(lose) a lot of customers, because it ………… (not develop) new products. But finally we …………. (decide) to go for it.

So we ……….(buy) the company. The first few years ……….(be) very difficult. But we ……… (work) hard and we ………..(have) a bit of luck. We finally  ………(turn)  the corner three years ago. Since then we …………(do) pretty well. Last year we ………(take on) four new people and so far this year we ………..(take on) another ten.  It ……….(be) a big gamble six years ago, but I  …………(not regret) it for a minute.

 

 

 

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

 

We use the future perfect tense * to describe an action which  ( at a certain point in the future)  will be considered a past and completed action  :

 

e.g.      By next September 11 we will have moved to another city.

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I will have worked

I will not  have worked

Will I have worked?

You will have worked

You won’t  have worked

Will you have worked?

He will have worked

He won’t  have worked

Will he have worked?

She will have worked

She won’t  have worked

Will she have worked?

It will have worked

It won’t  have worked

Will it have worked?

We will have worked

We won’t  have worked

Will we have worked?

They will have worked

They won’t  have worked

Will they have worked?

 

 

 

TIME EXPRESSIONS

 

       
 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

  By     tomorrow                                          By       this time         tomorrow

            next     week                                                                          next week

            next     month                                                                       next month

 

 

 

 

. 140. Read and answer the questions   :

 

MONDAY

 

8:00-8:50

Conference with presidential advisors

9:00-9:50

Breakfast meeting with the prime minister, the president and their interpreters.

10:00-10:50

Televised speech by the president on peace relations between the two countries

11:00-11:50

The President and the prime minister and their wives will visit an automobile factory.

12:00-13:00

Private lunch with presidential advisors

13:00-15:00

Discussion of import-export needs of the two countries: president, prime minister, and ministers of trade.

15:00-15:30

Signing ceremonies for a new trade agreement

15:35-16:00

Meeting with television and newspaper reporters: president and prime minister.

16:00-17:00

Rest period in hotel

17:00

Get ready for formal dinner at 18:00

           

 

 

 

 

He will be having a breakfast meeting.

 

1.What will  the president be doing at 9:00?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Whom will he be meeting with at 9:00 ?……………………………………………………

3.By 10:00 what will the president and prime minister already have done?

   (give two actions).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.At what time will the president be making  his speech on television?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.What will be happening at 11:00?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6.What will the president already have done by 13:00?

   (give four or five actions).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7.Why will these officials be meeting from 13:00 to 15:00?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

8.By 16:00 what important document will they have signed?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

9.When will the president and prime minister be meeting with reporters?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

10.Will the president be touring the city from 16:00 to 17:00?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

11.By what time (approximately) will the president  have got ready to go

     to dinner?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

12.Before the day is over, how many meetings will the president have had?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

Affirmative

Negative

Question

I will have been working

I won’t have been working

Will I have been working?

You will have been working

You won’t have been working

Will you have been working?

He will have been working

He won’t have been working

Will he have been working?

She will have  been working

She won’t have been working

Will she have been working?

It will have been working

It won’t have been working

Will it have been  working?

We will have been working

We won’t have been  working

Will we have been working?

They will have been working

They won’t have been working

Will  they have been working?

 

 

 

. 141. Complete the sentences using the future perfect continuous tense of

             the verbs       :

 

 
 

will have worked

 

 

1.In 2010 I ………………………………..(work)as a teacher for fifteen years.

2.In June, she ……………………………..(study) English for five years.

3.At seven o’clock tomorrow  we ……………………….(travel) around the world   for seventy hours.

4.In July, we ………………………………….(live) in this flat for eight years.

5.On Monday, he …………………………… (sleep) for a week.

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE  IMPERATIVE

 

 

 

. 142. Provide sentences for the above pictures using imperatives      : 

 

 
 

Stop at the traffic sign!

 

 

a………………………………………………………………………….

b………………………………………………………………………….

c………………………………………………………………………….

d………………………………………………………………………….

e………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

A. First and  third person imperative         :

 

 

    Let  +  noun/pronoun  +  infinitive (without  to)

 

 

Positive                                              Negative

 

Let   us   go.                                       Let them not go !

But this usage is not common, instead of this below pattern is used.

 

(Let’s  go.)                                         = They must not go

                                                           =  I don’t want them to go.

 

Let   him  go.

 

Let  them  come.                                Let them not come.

 

 

 

 

B. The  second person imperative  :

 

Positive                                  Negative

 

Go !                                        Don’t  go !

Come !                                   Don’t come !

study !                                    Don’t  study !

 

 

    Do study !

    (If  we want to be more persuasive.)

 

. 143. Write the affirmative form of these sentences   :

 

 

Drive fast!

 

1.Don’t  drive too fast!

…………………………………………………………………………………

2.Don’t buy expensive clothes!

…………………………………………………………………………………

3.Don’t  study in the evenings!

………….…………………………………………………………………………

 

. 144. Write the negative  form of these sentences       :

 

 

Don’t speak slowly!

 

1.Speak slowly!

………………………………………………………………………………

2.Come and help me!

………………………………………………………………………………

3.Take your umbrella!

………………………………………………………………………………

4.Go downstairs!

………………………………………………………………………………

 

. 145. Write imperatives for these situations     :

 

 

Have a rest!

 

1. ‘I am very tired.’

………………………………………………………………………………

2.’You are late for the classes. What does the teacher say?’

…………………………………………………………………………………

3.’It is very cold outside. What do you tell your friend to do?’

…………………………………………………………………………………

4.’You couldn’t get up  early today. What did your mother tell you to do?’

…………………………………………………………………………………

 

PREPOSITIONS

 

about                   between                    out

above                   beyond                     over

across                   by                             since

after                     despite                      through

against                 down                        throughout

along                    during                       to

among                  except(for)                toward(s)

around                 for                             under

as                         from                          unlike

at                         in                              until

before                  into                           up

behind                 like                            upon

below                   near                           with

beneath                of                              within

beside                  off                            without

besides                 on                             onto

 

 

 

Study these:

1. We don’t know what will happen in the future.

2. She was born in October.

3. I was born on October 29,1961.

4. The travellers walked along the road.

5. The lady walked across the street.

6. They watch TV at night.

7. The cat is under the table.

8. We live in Ankara.

9. They walked among the trees.     

MULTIPLE WORD PREPOSITIONS

 

according to                           in contrast to/with

ahead of                                 in favour of

along with                              in front of

as a consequence of                in spite of

as a result of                           instead of

aside from                              in the event of

away from                              next to

because of                              on account of

by means of                            on behalf of

contrary to                              on the top of

due to                                     owing to

for fear of                               prior to

for the benefit of                    regardless of

for the purpose of                   subsequent to

in addition to                          together with

in back of                               with reference to

in case of                                with regard to

in comparison with                 with respect to

in connection with                  with the exception of

 

 

 

 

 

VERB + PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

 

Combination             Meaning

 

agree to                       be willing to

agree with                   feel the same way as / about

approve of                  have the favourable opinion of

bring about                 cause

bring on                      result in

bring up                      raise for discussion

call on                                     ask(someone) to do

call off                                    cancel

call up                         telephone

come out                     be published

come up                      arise

consist of                    be made of

consult with                get the opinion of

count on                     depend on; rely on

depend on                  rely on; count on

differ from                 be unlike

do without                  sacrifice

get over                      recover from

get up                         wake up

give out                      distribute

give up                        surrender

hand in                       submit

keep on                       continue

keep up                       continue; maintain

listen to                       pay attention to the sound of

look after                    take care of

look over                    review

look up                       search for(in a book)

make out                     understand

make up                      invent; reconcile with

object to                     oppose by arguing against

pass out                      distribute

pass up                        fail to take advantage of

pick up                        gather or collect

prepare for                  get ready for; study for

put off                        postpone

put out                                    extinguish

recover from               get well

refer to                                   call or direct attention to

rely on                        count on; depend on

reply to                       answer

respond to                  answer

succeed in                   be successful at

take over                     assume control

take up                                   consider; discuss

think about                 consider

think off                     have an opinion about

turn down                   reject

worry about                have concern or anxiety about

 

Prepositions of time  :  in, on, at

 

parts of the day

in the morning

at noon, at night

months

in  May

seasons

in  spring

years           

in  1998

decades

in  the 1980s

centuries

in the twentieth century

 

dates

on     19  May

days of the week

on     Monday

 

on     Monday morning

‘ special  ’ day

on     my birthday

                                                          

times          

at 8.00        

holidays

at the weekend

                                                                                                                     

Prepositions of position  and  movement

 

at, from, in, into, off, on, onto, out of, to 

 

 

*Prepositions of  date  and  time  :

 

at (time)                                 I’ll  see  you at 4 p.m. tomorrow.

 

by  (time)                               I’ll have finished  by 7 p.m. (before 7 p.m.)

 

on  (day / date )                     I’ll see you on Monday

 

in  (period of time)                 I’ll see you in July  /  in  the afternoon  etc.

in time                                    not late : School started at 8. I arrived at 7.45.

on time                                   at the time arranged/not before, not late, not at  8.55,not at 9.05  at 9.00.

until /till (time)                       I  waited until 6 p.m.  I  waited   till 6 p.m.

from …. to (period of time)   I waited for three hours/for ages.

during                                    I had a good time during my holidays.

                                                                                        the summer.

(period of time; introduced by article or possessive)

 

since (point of time)               She has been here since last July.

                                                                             since she was young.

 

 

*Prepositions of travel :

 

by                   We came by bus/car/train/plane/air/boat/sea.

on                    He came on foot/ a bicycle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

at

 

. 146. Fill in the blanks with   in  /  on  /  at        :

1.She gets up …. seven o’clock every morning.

2.The elections were …………..April 18th 1999.

3.The concert is  ……………….. October.

4.The schools  start …………….. June.

5.Dinner is ……. 8 p.m.

6.The film will start …… 9  o’clock …….. the evening.

7.There are a few eggs …………….. the fridge.

8.My  birthday is ………..29th of October.

9.There were five oranges ……… the basket.

10.She is a student ……………….. İstanbul.

11.Erdal is a student …… Anatolian Highschool …. Ankara.

12.My house is ……. Yunus Emre Street.

13.There were about 40.000 people  ……. the football match.

14.’The Passive’ was …………. page 141.

15.I was …… time for the programme.

16.The plates are ……. the table.

17.The kilim is ……. the floor.

18.Who is ………the door?

19.My sister is a worker ……… Wuppertal.

20.The plane is …………… the runway.

21.Who is that lady …………. the photograph?

22.There are many books ………. the bookcase.

23.Is there a good hotel ……….. the centre of the town?

24.Our office is ……….. the fifth floor.

25.The Prime Minister is ……………… the meeting at the moment.

 

 

. 147. Exercise    : Fill in the blanks with a preposition;

 

to

 

                                  on – in – of – since – to – till – etc.

1.Can you take that letter …….. once ………….. the post-office.

2.Joe is talking to her …………… the phone.

3.He is taking me ……………. the restaurant tomorrow.

4.The man jumped  ……… his car, bought a newspaper.

5.What did you do ……….. Sunday? Did you stay ………….. home?

6.He’s been rather depressed ……… 2 or 3 days.

7.She told me to be  …………. the station  ……….. ten.

   She  doesn’t  want me to be late.

8.I won’t take a taxi. I’d rather go ……….. foot.

9.We stayed near Casablanca ……….. 2 weeks ………… 1984.

10.Did you take many pictures ……….. that time?

11.The teacher took the map …… the wall and  put up a picture instead.

12.He travelled ……. the American continent …….. the summer.

13.The car fell ….. the gap ……….. the old bridge.

14.I watched  TV …….. dinner time and then went …… bed.

15.She has  been waiting for him …… 3 o’clock.

 

. 148. Complete the sentences with   to, at, from :

 

 
 

at

 

 

1.Kathy  works …………….. the post office.

2.She travelled ………………. Rome and arrived …………………the office here

   in Ankara.

3.We didn’t go ………………… her party.

4.They landed ………………………… Adana airport at 4 p.m.

5.He arrived ………………… the station at seven in the morning.

 

. 149. Complete the sentences with  on,  onto  or   off  :

 

 
 

on

 

 

1.We don’t have any photos ……………….. the wall.

2.Can I sit ………………… this chair?

3.She lay the books ……………. her bed.

4.They spent the day ……………… the beach.

5.The boy climbed  ……………….. the roof.

6.He got on the bus but got ……….. at the next stop.

7.We usually put vase …………….the table in the living room.

8.You  mustn’t park ………………. the grass.

 

. 150. Complete the sentences with  in, into, out of   :

 

 
 

in

 

 

1.She is living  ……. a flat of her parents’.

2.We can’t park …………….the  car park.

3.At the end of the school day, all the students hurried ………………….the school

   building.

4.She carried her old sofa …………………… her new flat.

5.I moved ……………… my flat in Çankaya last year.

 

151. Complete the sentences with  to, at, from, onto, off, on, into, in, out of   :

 

 
 

out of

 

 

1.She got …………….. the bath when the door bell rang.

2.I arrived …………….. work late yesterday morning.

3.We’re going to stay …………….. a friend’s flat  next summer.

4.The girls were very excited when they got back ………….. the cinema.

5.He stopped …………………. the traffic lights and everybody got angry with him.

6.It was very nice so I walked ………………. school this morning.

 

Next to, between, in front of, above, below, over, behind,

under, opposite, along, across, down, up, round, past 

 

 

to

 

The hotel is opposite the bank.

The baby is behind her mother.

The girl is walking along the street.

 The cat is under the table.

 

 

. 152. Choose the correct preposition    :

1.One hot summer morning, we decided to take a trip in

   our car from/to the city  from/to the sea.

2.We got in/into the car.

3.We drove along/around the highway.

4.We went on/up one side of Mt. Binboğa.

5.We went down/past the other side.

6.The highway went across/around the lake and around/across the bridge.

7.Then we drove  among/through the forest.

8.We  drove  past/across the big water tower.

9.We arrived in/at the beach.

10.We climbed out in/of the car.

11. She comes to/from the richest city in the world.

12. I came from a poor area at/of the city.

13. The travellers leave for Berlin at/on Sunday the 22nd.

14. She arrives in/at Ankara  in/at 8.00 in/at the evening.

15. She flies at/on Turkish Airlines.

16. I walked over below/beside her.

17. He led me along/across the dark.

18. The first thing I saw when I came in/into the room was a bouquet

       in/of parsley.

19. He slept on/of the second floor below/under  Pınar’s room.

20. I found a  girl working on/in the garden next to/above the house.

 

 

SEA

 

TOWN

 

       

              MT  AĞRI

 

. 153. Look at the picture and fill in the blanks with one of the following prepositions.

             Each preposition may be used only once.

                   down            to              through          of

                   along            from         across             up    

 

from

 

                   around         at              past                 into

 

to

 

            One hot summer morning, we decided to take a trip in our car _______   the  town                        the sea. We got                            the car and drove  _____                          the highway. We went                        one side of Mt. Ağrı    and   _____________                                 the other side. The highway went                           the lake and _______________                              the bridge. Then we  drove                             the forest and                           the big water tower. We arrived            the beach and climbed out                      the car.

 

ALANYA

 

 

ANTALYA

 

 

   NEWSAGENT’S

 

 

 

. 154. Look at the picture and fill in the blanks with one of the following

 prepositions.

                                               in         of         behind

 

at

 

                                               on        at         next to

1. The woman                             the newsagent’s  is buying something.

2. The briefcase                               the floor belongs to the man.

3. The man                                   the train is the conductor.

4. The man                                 the sweater is reading a magazine.

5. One                                    the women is wearing gloves.

6. The man                          the newsagent’s  is giving the woman her change.

7. The bags                                   the baggage cart belong to the woman.

8. Two                                      the people are sitting.

9. The sign                                the ticket counter is a travel poster.

10. Both                                    the women have short hair.  

 

 

YKM

KIZILAY

 

 

 

. 155. Answer these questions     :

1. Where is the man in the parking lot standing? (between)

2. Where is the parking lot? (beside)

3. Where is there a sale? (at)

4. Where is the door to YKM Kızılay? (to the right of)

5. Where is the black car parked? (next to)

6. Where is the white car parked? (on the opposite side of)

7. Where is the parking lot sign? (above)

8. Where is the shop window? (below)

9. Where is the YKM Kızılay located? (on)

10. Where are the tall buildings? (behind)

 

 

 

. 156. Read the information below  and draw  according to the

             discretion      :

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                        The supermarket is next to the fire department.

                        The supermarket is behind the fire department.

                        The supermarket is across from Mehmet’s   house.

                        The supermarket is on the corner of Yunus Emre Street.

1. City hall   is next to the police station.

2. Pınar’s house   is between  Mehmet’s house and the house for sale.

3. The library is next to the tennis court.

4. An apartment building is opposite the police station.

5. Erdal’s house is near the elementary school.

6. Ayşe’s  boutique is between the supermarket and Day Nursery.

7. The fire department is on the corner of 4th street and Atatürk Street.

8. An elementary school is opposite the park.

9. A park is  at the end of Atatürk Street between the City Hall and the library.

10. The Police Station is on Poplar Street next to the City Hall.

11. Day Nursery is near the Apartment building and next to Ayşe’s house.

12. A house for sale is on Yunus Emre Street next to  Serdal’s house.

13. Serdal’s   house is at the end of Yunus Emre Street.

14. A Tennis court is opposite Serdal’s house.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – III

 

MODALS

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May-Might

Can-Could

Must

Needn’t

Should-Ought to

*Dare

*Need to +Don’t/Doesn’t need to +Needn’t

*Had better

*Managed to

*Be to

* Be allowed to

* Be obliged to

*Used to

*Past Modals

 

 

 
 

 

MODALS                MODAL – LIKE VERBS

 

may

might 

can                              be able to

could                          be able to

shall

should                                    be to/ought to/had better/ be supposed to

would                         used to

must                            have to/ have got to

will                             be going to

                                   would like to

                                   would rather

 

Modal auxiliaries      :

 

*Can/could-May/might-Must-Needn’t-Should and Would are called

 modal auxiliaries.

 

They follow very strict rules  :

            -They are never followed by another modal auxiliary,

            -They never take an – s or an -ing form,

                 e.g. He can run fast.

            -They are always followed by an infinitive (without to)

              in a complete sentence         :

                 e.g. She will come tomorrow.

            -And can stand alone  in a short answer       :

                 e.g. You should try harder. Yes, I should.

            -They can be followed by a certain number of verbal constructions but

             the auxiliary of the verbal construction is always in the infinitive.

                 e.g. He is working, I think.

                        = He must be working.(continuous)

                           She is given a book.(passive)

                        = She will be given a book.(passive)

                           They are being beaten, perhaps. (passive continuous form)

                        = They might be being beaten.(rare)

 

 

            -They express a certain number of notions and the general rule to

              locate  the action in time is as follows         :

 

 

 

Action in the present    : modal auxiliary + infinitive

 

 

Action in the past         : modal auxiliary + have + past participle

 

 

 

*Note that in the past , like in the present ,the modal auxiliary is followed  by an infinitive : have – the infinitive form  “to have”

 

            -In certain constructions, it is not possible to use a modal auxiliary in

 this case, we have to use an equivalent :

 

 

Can         = be able to      +   infinitive (capacity, possibility)

Must                                 = have to   +   infinitive (obligation)

Can/may                           = be allowed to     +   infinitive (permission)

 

 

e.g.

            He will come + He must come.

            =He will have to come.

 

 

 

. 157. Complete the chart with the suitable form of the modals;

 

 

 

NOTIONS

IN THE PAST

IN THE PRESENT

IN THE FUTURE

Advice

 

should + infinitive

shouldn’t  + infinitive

 

Capacity

could + infinitive

can + infinitive

 

Incapacity

could not / couldn’t + infinitive

cannot/can’t + infinitive

 

Condition

would have +  past participle

will have      past participle

will + infinitive

would + infinitive

 

Deduction

must have    +  past participle

can’t have    +  past participle

must + infinitive

can’t + infinitive

 

Future

 

shall/will + infinitive

‘ll + infinitive

 

Missed opportunity

could have + past participle

 

 

Reproach

shouldn’t have +past participle

shouldn’t  + infinitive

 

Obligation

had to + infinitive

must + infinitive

will/shall + have to + infinitive

Absence of obligation

needn’t have + past participle

needn’t + infinitive

 

Permission

could + infinitive

can/may + infinitive

 

Possibility

could + infinitive

be able to + infinitive

can+infinitive

will/shall + be able to + infinitive

Impossibility

could not/couldn’t + infinitive

cannot/can’t  + infinitive

 

Probability

must/may/might + infinitive

must/may/might + infinitive

 

Prohibition

was/were not allowed to + infinitive

mustn’t  + infinitive

 

 

 

Study this example   :

a. It’s possible for you to come tomorrow.

            b. You can come tomorrow.

 

. 158. Exercise      :

 

Change the following exercises using a modal      :

1.You think it would be better if Serdal didn’t come tomorrow.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.You think you do not have the ability to swim so far. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.You’re disappointed you didn’t pass the exam. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.You hope it will be possible for you to go to the party. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.You’re quite sure he’s having a few days off. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

6.You reproach yourself for not buying that record; it was so cheap. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

7.You don’t think he was working, he was ill in bed. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

8.You think it wasn’t necessary for  Paul to wash the car. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

9.You think it was very late when you heard that explosion. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

10.You think there is a condition before you come ; get an invitation. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

11.You think the ambulance driver was obliged to drive very fast. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

12.You imagine, but you are not sure at all, the man was a thief. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

13.You think it isn’t necessary for  your mother to do the cooking. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

14.You think it would be a good thing if you learn English. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

15.You think perhaps he is a teacher, but you are not sure. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

MAY

 

We use may     * to show permission

 

  * to indicate doubt or possible future action

             

e.g. :    You  may smoke.

(You have permission to smoke here.)

She may leave tomorrow.

(It is possible that she will leave tomorrow.)   

 

 

MIGHT

 

We use might  a. For  possibility     1.about a future action

 

                        e.g.      I might leave  school during the next break.

 

                        2.about a present condition

 

                        e.g.      She didn’t appear today. She might be  at home.

 

                          b. For  past of indirect    : She said she might  get the job.

 

CAN

We use can    * to talk about what someone can  or  can’t do   ;

a)as a general truth in the present :

e.g. : I can swim.

b)in the present, at this moment :

e.g. : I can help you.

c)in the future, with a time expression :

e.g. : He can visit us tomorrow.

 

 

. 159. Answer these questions    :

1.Can you speak English?

…………………………………………………………………………..

2.Can you play the guitar?

…………………………………………………………………………..

3.Can you make a cake?

…………………………………………………………………………..

4.Can you drive a car ?

…………………………………………………………………………..

5.Can you ride a bicycle?

…………………………………………………………………………..

6.Can you read English books?

…………………………………………………………………………..

7.Can you fly a plane?

…………………………………………………………………………..

8.Can you swim?

…………………………………………………………………………..

9.Can you tell English stories?

…………………………………………………………………………..

10.Can you use a computer?

…………………………………………………………………………..

 

1-Can  for ability                          :    Can you type?

2-Can for permission                    :    Can she use the car whenever she likes?

3-Can for possibility                     :    Can you get to the top of the mountain in one day?

4-Can for negative deduction      :    She can’t be hungry.She has just had dinner.

 

 

 

 

. 160. Is it can for ability, permission, possibility,negative deduction            ?

 

 
 

permission

 

 

1.Can I go out?                                              ………………………………

2.Can you close the door?                             ………………………………

3.Our baby can walk in a few weeks.           ………………………………

4.Can you type?                                            ………………………………

5.I can’t pay you today.                                ………………………………

6.You  can ski on the hills.                            ………………………………

7.We can’t bathe here on account of sharks. ………………………………

8.It can’t be a helicopter.                               ………………………………

9.She can’t still be writing the letter.            ………………………………

10.They can come and stay with us.             ………………………………

 

. 161. Complete the sentences with   can   or   can’t    :

 

       
 

can’t

 

 

can

 

 

1.A cat …………. fly, but it ………. climb the trees.

2.A dog ……… bark, but it ………. read.

3.I ……….  read a book by moonlight, but I ……… read in sunlight.

4.Green plants …………. produce oxygen, but rocks ……………. .

5.An  English teacher …….. teach English, but she  ………. teach Maths.

6.A baby ….. speak, but an adult ……….. speak.

7.A young person ……… play basketball well, but an old person …………. .

 

 

 

 

. 162. Fill in the blanks with can  or  can’t        :

 

 
 

can’t

 

 

1.That man is deaf. He ……………. listen to the radio.

2.She is very rich. She ……………… buy a mercedes.

3.I am  very tired. I ………………. mend the fuse now.

4.Teresa is very old. She …………….. play basketball.

5.Serdal is very tall. He ………. touch the ceiling.

6.He is very poor. He ……….. go on holiday in Bodrum.

7.My  father is very fat. He …………… run fast.

8.She is blind. She ………….. notice the traffic lights.

9.I have got a driving licence. I ……….. drive a car.

10.Erdal is a hard-working boy. He ………… pass his class.

 

. 163. Make sentences      :

 

1.Erdal can help his mother.

1.Erdal/help/his mother

2……………………………………………………………………..

2.Serdal/play/basketball.

3.……………………………………………………………………..

3.Mary/cook.

4.……………………………………………………………………..

4.play/chess

5. ……………………………………………………………………..

5.Bilgesu/swim.

 

. 164. Substitute    :

 

1.She can eat three loaves of bread.

     1                       2   

                                    3          

a. Who ………………………………………………………………….?

b. How many ……………………………………………………………?

c. What .……………………………………………………………..do ?

 

2.Erdal and Serdal can speak two languages.

1                              2

 

a. Who  ……………………………………………………………….?

b. How many…………………………………………………………..?

 

 

CAN– COULD  —  BE  ABLE TO

 

 

Infinitive                    ——–                          to be able to

Present                       can                             am/is/are able to

Future                                   ———            will be able to

Past                            could                          was/were able to

Present Perfect         ——-                           have/has been able to

 

 

 

 

COULD

 

a. past ability : When I was nine years old I could swim very well.

 

b. ability  based on certain conditions  :  I could be a good footballer if I was allowed to play.

 

c. possibility  :  Be careful  with the  lighter! You could start a fire.

 

d. permission : Could I come with you?

 

e. polite request : Could you please help me?

 

f. suggestion  :  You could buy a shirt for your father for the Fathers’ Day.

 

g. past of can in indirect speech  : She said that I could attend my lessons.

 

 

 

 

MUST  –  HAVE  TO –  HAVE GOT TO

 

 

We use  must  or  have to  to express  necessity  or strong obligation.  In general, we use must for the expression of orders or commands and we use  have to  for everyday expression of necessity. Have got to is interchangeable with have to. But there is sometimes a  difference. Have to is used for habitual actions and single actions. Have got to is used for single actions.

 

 

. 165. Exercise      :

 

Change the following sentences      :

 

 

We don’t have to use special glasses to observe the eclipse.

 

1.We have to use  special glasses to observe the eclipse.

(-) ………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

2.She has to read daily newspapers.

(-)………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

3.I have to go now.

(-)………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

4.Gülay doesn’t have to work for the state.

(+)………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

5.They don’t have to read a lot.

(+)………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

6.He had to leave the house early.

(-)………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

7.Did she have to help them?

(-)………………………………………………………

(+)………………………………………………………

8.Does your mother have to work all day?

(-)………………………………………………………

(+)………………………………………………………

9.Do you have to go to school every day?

(-)………………………………………………………

(+)………………………………………………………

10.She has to go and see what is going on.

(-)………………………………………………………

(?)………………………………………………………

 

 

 

. 166. Answer these questions     :

 

1.What  time do you have to get up  during the school holidays?

………………………………………………………………………..

2.When do you have to study? ………………………………………………………………………..

3.What do you have to wear at school? ………………………………………………………………………..

4.How often do you have to go to school in a week? ………………………………………………………………………..

5.How many hours does a high school teacher have to teach? ………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

NEEDN’T

 

We use needn’t to express things which are not necessary to do :

Today is my day off, I needn’t go to work.

 

 

. 167. Read the instructions and complete the sentences with

must, mustn’t,  or needn’t      :

 

Don’t  leave  disks in the disk drive.

Keep disks in their files.

You can use my disks if you want.

Don’t put drinks near the computer.

You can leave the computer on, if you want.

Lock the door when you leave.

Don’t  overload your computer.

 

 

 

 
 

mustn’t

 

 

1.You ………………. leave disks in the disk drive.

2.You ………………. keep disks in their file.

3.You ………………. use your own disks.

4.You ………………. put drinks near the computer.

5.You ………………. switch the computer off.

6.You ………………. lock the door when you leave.

7.You ………………. overload your computer.

8.You ………………. read the instructions carefully.

 

SHOULD  –  OUGHT  TO

 

We use  should  and  ought to  ;

*to suggest obligation

*to state that someone should have done something that was not done

or

someone should not have done something  that was done

 

 

She should    spend more time on her show.

She ought to  spend more time on her show.

 

 

168. Put in  should  or  ought to in the blanks       :

 

 
 

should

 

 

1.You ………………. try to come to school on time.

2. I ……………………spend more time on English.

3.They ……………….not (smoke) so much.

4.We …………………(pay) attention to  what  the teacher says.

5.You ………………..not (work) so hard. 

 

. 169. Rewrite these  sentences using a  model auxiliary         :

 

 

 

Can anyone go there?

 

1.Is it possible for  anyone to go there?

……………………………………………………………………………………

2.At the age of nine, I didn’t  know how to write a letter. ……………………………………………………………………………………

3.Are you able to come and help me tonight? ……………………………………………………………………………………

4.She refuses to save some money. ……………………………………………………………………………………

5.It’s essential that we sign the book every morning. ……………………………………………………………………………………

6.Do not tell anything about this. It’s very important that it

   remains  a secret. ……………………………………………………………………………………

7.Are the students allowed to smoke at  school? ……………………………………………………………………………………

8.She promised to write to me soon. ……………………………………………………………………………………

9.I intend to learn a seventh language next year. ……………………………………………………………………………………

10.It’s not a good idea for you to leave home at this age. ……………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

. 170. Complete the sentences using the correct

             form of the modals  :

 

 
 

can play

 

 

1.He is still young. He …………… (play) football well.

2.I’d like ……………….. (work) with her one day.

3.I…………………(find) my suitcase anywhere.

4.I don’t love………………..(spend) all morning in bed on Sundays.

5.Do you know where I  ………….(buy) sun glasses?

6.Your university exam …………..(pass) successfully if you study hard.

7.She ate the mulberries that were on the grass, because she ………….

   (not climb) the tree.

8.You …………..(do) whatever you want to.

9.I ……………….(understand) what  he said, he spoke too fast.

10. If they didn’t  arrive in Ankara on time, she ………..(die) of  bleeding.

 

 

 

. 171.          Complete the sentences using : should, ought  tomust, need 

or  have to:

 

 
 

should

 

 

1.You …………… respect  her. She has done a lot for you.

2.Why ………………. I stay at home all day. It’s my day off.

3.They ………………… stay in a hotel. They can stay with us.

4.It’s your own problem that you’re late. You …………… depart earlier.

5.I don’t think it’s a good idea to help them. They ……. spend so much.

6.I’m going to punish you. You ……………….. come to class late.

7.We…………….leave late last night, because my brother from Izmir arrived late.

8.He ………………. tell her this story. She knows all the facts about him.

9.We stayed in a hotel, so we ……………….. prepare our meals.

10.He has come here for five weeks' stay. He ……………… be in such a hurry.

 

 

DARE

 

Dare can be used as a modal auxiliary in the question and negative form.

And it can be used as a main verb followed by  toinfinitive :

 

                                   present                                            past

negative                     I do not dare                                  I  dared  not

                                   She does not dare                         He   …………..

affirmative                I daresay there will                      Nobody dared (to) …

                                    be   a kitchen in the house*

interrogative              Do you dare?                                Dared you?

                                    Does she dare?

 

* ‘dare’  is not normally used in the affirmative except in the expressions.

* ‘daresay’ has two idiomatic meanings;

a) I suppose:

e.g.  I daresay there will be students in the cafeteria.

 

b) I accept what you say:

e.g. I daresay you can drive.

(You can drive, I believe, but this road is too dangerous for foreigners.)

e.g.

I dare to come after all.

I daren’t  ask  my  boss that question.

Dare  you jump from that tall building?

I dare you  are not mistaken. 

 

e.g.

Do the boys miss the lessons?

No. They daren’t miss the lessons.

 

Will Susan speak to Mary?

No. She daren’t speak to Mary.

 

172. Do these in the same way        :

 

1.Will you stay out during the night?

………………………………………………………………….

2.Does your niece go to the cinema alone?

………………………………………………………………….

3.Do the boys watch TV  all the time?

………………………………………………………………….

4.Does your sister drive your father’s car?

………………………………………………………………….

5.Does Erdal stay out late ?

………………………………………………………………….

 

NEED TO + DON’T/DOESN’T NEED TO + NEEDN’T

 

Positive Statement    Negative Statement              Question

 

I need to go.               I don’t need to go.                Do I need to go?

He needs to go.          He doesn’t need to go.          Does he need to go? 

 

 

HAD BETTER  (=should)

 

. 173. Read each situation and  write a sentence with  had better       :

 

We use had better  for offers, suggestions  or  advice.

                                  With ‘to be had up for’ it means  ‘to be prosecuted for’

e.g.

      You’d better take the rest of the day off.

      You’d better not drive so fast. You’ll be had up for speeding.

 

1.You are going for a walk  with Ali. You think you should take an

   umbrella because it   might rain.      What do you say to Ali?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Your friend doesn’t feel very well today. You think  she should  stay at

   home  and  relax.   What do you say to her?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.You think your sister will meet someone she doesn’t like at the party. So you

   think it is  a good idea  for her to stay  home. What  do you say to your 

   sister?……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

MANAGED TO

 

There was a lot of traffic but we managed to go to the airport  in time.

(There was a lot of traffic but we could go to the airport in time.)

I was very tired of writing that book, but I managed to finish it.

 

 

BE  TO

 

I am to go and see the case. (I have to go and see the case.)

You are to help the poor. You should help the poor.)

 

 

We were to be there on time.

She was to become  more and more beautiful.

 

BE ALLOWED TO

You are allowed to drive only if you have a current driving licence. (otherwise you can not drive.)

 

BE OBLIGED TO

We were obliged to stay there till the end of the ceremony. (We wanted to leave, but they didn’t let us to do so.)

 

 

USED TO

We use   used to   in  three forms with three different meanings  :

 

1.used to + infinitive

We use this form to express habitual past actions:

My mother used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day.

2.To be used to + -ing

This means to be accustomed to:

I  must go to bed early. I’m used to having nine hours of sleep a night.

(or: 9 hours' sleep)

3.To get used to

This means to become accustomed to :

I don’t like English food, but I will get used to eating it soon.

 

. 174. Answer these questions  :

 

 

I used to play football when I was ten.

 

1.What  sport did you use to play when  you were ten?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.Did you use to speak a lot in the class when you were at  primary school?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.What do you think your mother used to do when she was your age?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.How  often did you use to visit your grandparents when you were at

   primary  school?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.Did you use to eat your nails when you were young?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 175. Complete the following sentences:

 

 
 

drinking tea

 

 

1.I got used to …………………………….(drink tea).

2.My sons are used to …………………………(eat  out).

3.Serdal is used to ………………………..(speak English).

4.Did  it take long to get used to ………………………..

  (pronounce English words).

5.It was easy for me to get used to …………………..(drink white wine).

 

 

 

BE USED TO = BE ACCUSTOMED TO

 

Be used to  and  be accustomed to have the same meaning.

. 176. Use be accustomed to         :

 

I am accustomed to hot weather.

 

1.I am used to hot weather.

…………………………………………………..

2.Americans are used to living abroad.

 …………………………………………………..

3.Turkish people are used to buying big houses. …………………………………………………..

4.We are used to working less and talk  a lot.

…………………………………………………..

5.They were used to  surviving without being paid regularly.

…………………………………………………..

 

GET USED TO  =  GET ACCUSTOMED TO

177. Use  get accustomed to  :

 

I’m getting accustomed to eating American food.

 

1.I’m getting used to eating American food.

…………………………………………………..

2.We are getting used to  living in big cities. …………………………………………………..

3.She was getting used to staying in the hostel. …………………………………………………..

 

WOULD – USED TO – WILL

‘Used to’   can refer to permanent situations and habitual actions, and is used to talk about past habits, routines and states which are now finished.

‘would +infinitive’  refers to habitual past actions and is used to talk about past habits and routines, but not past states. 

‘will +infinitive’ refers to habitual future actions

 

used to

 

. 178. Put  used to   or   would    :

1.I ………………. have a lot of friends before I started a permanent job.

2.They ………………. be happy together but they are not now.

3.During the last weeks of our holiday, I  …………….. go to the

   sea in the morning early.

4.She ……………………. go for a walk every morning.

5.I ………………………. do jogging for hours.

 

Read this text for practice. Choose the correct one:

As a child, I used to/would spend my holidays in the mountains. We used to / would have a chalet near Geneva. We used to / would go there for a month in the summer. When it used to / would be sunny and for Christmas, when there used to / would be lots of snow.

PAST MODALS

 

We use  should have  +  V3   and     shouldn’t have  + V3     to describe   actions  in the past which were wrong,  or which we now regret.

 

She should have gone to Europe  in the summer.

She shouldn’t have spent so much on food.

 

**Ought to have + V3   and  oughtn’t  to have + V3    has a similar

    meaning to  should have +V3 /shouldn’t have +V3.

 

 

. 179. Write sentences with  should or shouldn’t have :

 

 

She shouldn’t have come by train.

 

1.It was wrong of her. It’s quicker by car.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.He spent too long in the sun and he’s got sunburn.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.They’ve eaten too much and now they feel ill.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.Are you still waiting for them? They won’t come.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.My bag is too heavy to take home . I can’t carry it.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

May have        +   V3    –  Might have       + V3

Can’t have      +   V3    –   Could have       + V 3

Must have       +   V3

Needn’t have  +   V 3

 

 

 

We use ‘may have’,  ‘might have’, and ‘could have’  to talk about something that possibly happened in the past.

 

We use  ‘must have’ and  ‘can’t have’  to talk about something that probably or certainly happened in the past.

 

We use needn’t have to express an unnecessary action which was nevertheless performed. 

e.g. I needn’t have bought that car because my boss bought one for

                   me as a birthday present.

 

 

 

. 180. Rewrite these sentences using  might have  or  could have        :

 

e.g.    :    I can’t find the old books  in my room.

              Someone might have taken them to the library.

1.I can’t find my car key. I wonder where it is.

……………………………………………………………….

2.The car won’t start.

……………………………………………………………….

3.He should be there by now.

……………………………………………………………….

4.The door is closed, but it isn’t locked.

……………………………………………………………….

5.The boys are here but the girls have gone.

……………………………………………………………….

 

 

. 181. Write sentences drawing conclusions  about what must have   or 

             can’t have happened           :

 

e.g.      : He looks very tired.

 

              He must have worked during the night.

 

1.He looks  pale and very slim.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.The roads are very wet.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.When the bus arrived, they weren’t  on it.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.I’m sure she did it by mistake.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.He looks very upset.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

TAG     QUESTIONS

 

After   a  positive sentence   the tag question  is  negative,

After   a  negative sentence  the  tag  question  is  positive.

*but;

 

 

  •      I’m a bit late , aren’t I?

 

Not :   I’m a bit late, amn’t I?

    

 

SENTENCE

QUESTION TAG

 

affirmative

 

negative

 

 

negative

 

affirmative

 

 

e.g. He goes to school by bus, doesn’t he?

       They are drinking tea now, aren’t they?

 

Everybody is sleeping, aren’t they?

Nothing happened, did it?

Let’s go to the cinema, shall we?

Sit down, will you? (imperative)

Have a seat, won’t you? (polite request)

 

. 182. Add the correct tag ending  :

 

1.She goes shopping everyday, ………………………..?

2.They are travelling in England now, ……………………………?

3.She is a good teacher, ………………………..?

4.He’ll be back before noon, ……………………………..?

5.They have read that book, …………………………..?

6.It takes more than one hour to get there, …………………………….?

7.The bus doesn’t stop near the supermarket, ………………………………….?

8.You played tennis yesterday, ……………………………….?

9.She never goes to the cinema alone, ……………………..?

10.He plays the guitar well, ……………………………………?

11.Pınar doesn’t smoke, ……………………………..?

12.He won’t smoke anymore, …………………………………………?

13.You get up late every day, ………………………………………….?

14.She gave him her watch, …………………………………………….?

15.She shouldn’t drive fast, ……………………………………………..?

16.We last met  ten years ago, ……………………………………………..?

17.We won’t see you for a while, ……………………………………………..?

18.Let’s have something to eat, ……………………………………………..?

19.Erdal and Serdal haven’t moved yet, ……………………………………………..?

20.You can sing, ……………………………………………..?

21.You’d like a drink, ……………………………………………..?

22.Hüseyin lives in Paris now, ……………………………………………..?

23.I’m always late, ……………………………………………..?

24.Koray used to have a beard, ……………………………………………..?

25.Fiona isn’t going  out with Fred, ……………………………………………..?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – IV

 

VERB PATTERNS

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Gerunds and Infinitives

     Gerunds

     Infinitives

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GERUNDS AND  INFINITIVES

 

 

*Verbs + -ing  (Gerund)

 

  How to form Gerund   :

  

e.g.

            to read      ®     reading

            to swim    ®     swimming

           

 

*verbs expressing likes and dislikes are often followed by a gerund          :

to like, to enjoy, to love, to prefer, to dislike, to hate, to avoid, can’t stand, can’t bear, can’t help .. etc

 

e.g.

            John likes reading. Mary hates swimming.

            I can’t stand doing the washing up.

 

*The verbs to go and to come , expressing a physical activity are followed by

  a  gerund:

 

e.g.

            I went skiing. She went shopping. Will you come running?

 

*The verbs to want/to need are followed by a gerund  in :

 

e.g.

            The gate wants painting (= someone should paint the gate.)

            The shirt needs washing (= someone should wash the shirt.)

 

*There are some words  which are always followed by a gerund.

To avoid/to be used to/ to deny/ to keep/ to look forward to/ to mind/

to take to/ it’s no use / it’s no good/ it’s worth….

 

e.g.

            She didn’t mind working extra hours.

 

VERB + GERUND    /   VERB + INFINITIVE

 

*Verbs of perception (to see, to hear, etc) are followed by a gerund with the action is not finished :

 

e.g.

            I saw him crossing the street.(in the process of crossing)

            I heard her playing the piano.(in the process of playing)

 

They are followed by an infinitive when  the action is finished:

 

e.g.

            I saw him cross the street.(= looked until the end)

            I heard her play the piano.(I listened until the end)

 

*VERB + GERUND / VERB + TO +INFINITIVE

 

To remember is followed by a gerund when the reference is the past:

 

e.g.

            I remember seeing them last year.(I saw them last year,

but I’m not sure where I saw them or when® is often used when

the verb “remember” is negative)

 

It’s followed by an infinitive when the reference is the future.

 

e.g.

            I must remember to do the shopping this afternoon.

 

To try is followed by a gerund when it expresses a means.

 

e.g.

            Try pushing the car. Perhaps it will start!

 

            It is followed by to + infinitive   when  it expresses a purpose.

e.g.

            He tried to sell his car but it didn’t work.

 

To stop / to forget  change in meaning in cases of both

 

Gerund and Infinitive.

 

VERBS WHICH MAY TAKE EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUND

 

advise/agree/allow/begin/can-could bear/cease/continue/forget/hate

intend/ like/love/mean/need/permit/prefer/propose/recommend/regret

remember/require/start/stop/try/used to/want

A.GERUNDS

Gerunds are verbs that behave like nouns.

We form gerunds by adding  -ing to the verb base:

1.As the subject of a clause or sentence:

    Eating out is expensive.

2.As the object of a clause or sentence

    My sister enjoys driving.

3.After certain verbs :

a)After verbs expressing likes and dislikes :

    I don’t enjoy working here.

b)After other verbs such as  :

 

admit, anticipate,  appreciate, avoid, be worth, can’t help, complete,  consider, defer, delay, deny,

detest, discuss, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish,  forgive, give up, imagine, involve, keep, mention,

mind, miss, postpone, practice,  put off, prevent,  recall, recommend, represent, report,  resist,

risk, spend time, suggest, tolerate, understand.

 

4.After prepositions :

 

e.g.   :  On opening the  letter, he realized it wasn’t for him.

 

B.INFINITIVES

 

a. The infinitive may be used alone or a part of infinitive phrase:

            e.g. We began to walk down the road.

b. may be the subject of a sentence

c. may be the complement of a verb:

            e.g. His plan is to keep  the affair secret.

d. may be the object or part of the object of a verb:

            e.g. He wants me to pay.

e. can express purpose

f.  be + infinitive  can express commands or instructions

g. can be used after certain adjectives

            e.g. angry, glad, happy, sorry, fortunate, likely, lucky

h. can connect two clauses

i.  can replace relative clauses

j.  can be used after certain nouns

k. can be used with too/enough and certain adjectives and adverbs

l.  an infinitive phrase can be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence:

            e.g. to tell the truth, to cut a long story short

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.After certain verbs

We use infinitive after these verbs :

 

afford, agree, appear,  arrange, ask, appear, attempt, be, be supposed, care, claim, come,  choose,

 

decide, demand, deserve, endeavour,  expect, fail, forget, happen, hesitate,  help, hope, intend,

 

learn, manage, mean, neglect,  need, offer, plan, prepare,  pretend, proceed, promise, prove, refuse, seem, serve, struggle, swear, tend, threaten, volunteer, wait.

 

 

2.We use infinitive after certain adjectives  :

 

amazed, certain, difficult, disappointed, easy, free, glad, happy, likely, pleased, possible, simple, sure, surprised.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE  GERUND   OR  THE  INFINITIVE

 

 

There are certain verbs which can be used with both  infinitive  and  gerund, but in meaning there  will  be a difference :

 

 

Try  :

+gerund :we use this form to experiment  in order to achieve an objective :

Try working long hours and see if you can make more money.

+infinitive : we use this form to attempt a difficult action;

I have been trying to find a better job since 1979.

 

 

Stop  :

+gerund: we use this form to finish an activity;

Stop working and go  home earlier today.

 

+infinitive: we use this form to stop an activity  in order to do another

  activity:

 

We stopped to have a cup of tea.

 

 

Regret, forget and remember, go on, mean  are some of the verbs which have different meanings  in gerund form and infinitive forms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 183.Complete the sentences with a   gerund   or  infinitive  using the verbs in the brackets  :

 

 
 

to cook

 

 

1.She never learnt……………………..when she lived with her parents.(cook)

2……………………….German is really difficult.(learn)

3.She’s often dreamed of ………………………..round the world.(travel)

4.He’s agreed ………………….me with the party.(help)

5.They love …………………. a good book.(read)

6……………………children changes  your way of living.(have)

7.I miss …………………. all my friends.(see)

8.It was kind of him to offer …………….the children.(look after)

9.When did she decide ……………………. to Germany.(move)

10. ………………………a cake can be very enjoyable.(make)

11.They worried about ………………………..their exams.(take)

12. I remember …………………. afraid of the dark as a child.(be)

13.We went there ………………………the doctors.(see)

14.I remember …………………….the newspapers.(post)

15. …………………..alcohol is very dangerous.(drink)

 

184. Circle the correct form.

  1. I’m planning (to fly/flying) to Paris next week.
  2. The Browns’ house is too small. They’re considering (to buy/buying) a bigger house.
  3. We discussed (to be/being) to Marmaris for our holiday.
  4. You seem (to be/being) in a good mood today.
  5. The Clintons can’t afford (to buy/buying) a car.
  6. Deniz doesn’t like green vegetables. He refuses (to eat/eating) them.
  7. Keep (to talk/talking). I’m listening.
  8. Susan doesn’t like her job. She’s talking about (to get/getting) a new one.
  9. Let’s go for a walk if it has stopped (to rain/raining).
  10. When you finish (to clean/cleaning), can you help me in the kitchen?
  11. Serdal intends (to be/being) a doctor when he grows up.
  12. Nursen offered (to look/looking) after our children while we were out.
  13. He pretended not (to hear/hearing) me but I’m sure he did.
  14. We managed (to get/getting) to the airport on time in spite of the traffic.
  15. The boss was very strict. Nobody dared (to contradict/contradicting) him.
  16. It was cold and rainy yesterday, so we postponed (to visit/visiting) the zoo.
  17. Mehmet promised (to come/coming) to my party.
  18. Our neighbour threatened (to tell/telling) the police if we didn’t stop the noise.
  19. She can’t stand (to sleep/sleeping) in a room with all the windows closed.
  20. I can’t imagine Erdal (to ride/riding) a motorbike.
  21. He denied (to give/giving) away the secret.
  22. His job involves (to work/working) all sorts of hours.
  23. Meryem admitted (to be/being) nasty to the new girl.
  24. When I’m on holiday, I enjoy not (to have/having) to get up early.
  25. Soon after (to take/taking) off, the plane crashed.
  26. I’m quite excited about (to start/starting) the new project.
  27. He left the room without anyone (to see/seeing) him.
  28. I was really delighted (to get/getting) your letter last week.
  29. It was careless of Çilem (to leave/leaving) the door unlocked when

      he went out.

  1. You must practise (to answer/answering) these sorts of questions for

      the exam.

 

Verbs followed by either gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning:     

attempt, begin, cannot bear,continue,dislike,dread,hate,like,love,need,neglect,prefer,start

 

e.g.

 

     Suddenly  it began  to  rain

     Suddenly  it began  raining.

 

 

     I like to drink coffee.

     I like drinking coffee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – V

 

THE PASSIVE

 

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*The Passive

 

 
 

 

 

 

THE PASSIVE

 

tenses

 ACTIVE                                                                      

PASSIVE

present simple

The postman delivers  letters.

Letters are delivered .

present continuous

The postman is delivering letters.

Letters are being delivered.

past simple

The postman delivered letters.

Letters were delivered.

past continuous

The postman was delivering letters.

Letters were being delivered.

present perfect

The postman has delivered letters.

Letters have been delivered.

past perfect

The postman had delivered letters.

Letters had been delivered.

future

The postman will deliver letters.

Letters will be delivered.

going to future

The postman is going to deliver letters.

Letters are going to be delivered.

must

The postman must deliver letters.

Letters must be delivered.

can

The postman can deliver letters.

Letters can be delivered.

may

The postman may deliver letters,

Letters may be delivered.

ought to

The postman ought to deliver letters.

Letters ought to be delivered.

dare

The postman dares to deliver letters.

Letters dare to be delivered

used to

The postman used to deliver letters

Letters used to be delivered

 

 

 

 

We use the passive in the following situations;

a)    When it is obvious or not important to say who, what,

etc. is the subject:

e.g. She was born in 1986.

b)    avoiding using I, we, they, one, etc:

       e.g. The job will be finished by tonight.

c)    reports:

       e.g. Food must be found for refugees.

d)    describing a process:

       e.g. The beans are seperated from the shells and then they are put into     

              sacks.

e)    official announcements:

       e.g. Fees must be paid in advance.

f)    scientific texts:

e.g. The liquid is heated to a temperature of 60°C.

           

 

 

 

When we form passives, we do not usually mention the person or thing responsible for the action (the agent). When we mention the agent we generally use by when we mention who or what was responsible and with when we mention the instrument used;

e.g.      The car had seen driven by my younger sister.

            The victim had been killed with a bread knife.

Read these sentences:

1. This church was designed by Christopher Wren.

2. He was shot by a hunter with a rifle.

3. A decision to strike was taken by some of the workers.

4. Her bedroom wall was covered with posters of her favourite singer.

5. He had been stabbed with a pen knife.

 

. 185. Make these sentences passive       :

 

 

Computers are made by Apple.

 

1.Apple makes computers.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

2.Reşat Nuri Güntekin wrote ‘Çalıkuşu’.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

3.Shakespeare  wrote  ‘Hamlet ‘.

………………………………………………………………………………………

4.The Chinese invented gunpowder.

………………………………………………………………………………………

5.They make Fiat cars in Italy.

………………………………………………………………………………………

6.Columbos discovered America.

………………………………………………………………………………………

7.The Pharaohs built The Pyramids.

………………………………………………………………………………………

8.The Americans invented the atom bomb.

………………………………………………………………………………………

9.Süleyman the Magnificent built The Blue Mosque.

………………………………………………………………………………………

10.Bell invented the telephone.

………………………………………………………………………………………

. 186. Rewrite these sentences putting the verbs in the passive          :

 

This computer was made in Taiwan.

 

1.This computer/make/in Taiwan.(past)

……………………………………………………………………..

2.These books/publish/in Great Britain.(present)

……………………………………………………………………..

3.The car/paint/every year.(present)

……………………………………………………………………..

4.The head of the association/kill/yesterday.

……………………………………………………………………..

5.Jam/make/from cherries.(present)

………………………………………………………………………

 

 

. 187. Put these sentences into passive   :

 

1.We send the newspapers to the South of Anatolia by trucks.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

2.They paid a lot to the workers for the job.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

3.They  import hundreds of books every year.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

4.She posted the letters last week.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

5.I  check all the exercises thoroughly.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

6.He washed the car yesterday.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

7.We have told him the story again.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

8.The minister had cancelled the meeting.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

9.The police arrested  more than two hundred people last weekend.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

10.We export  Turkish  Kilims to many countries.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

11.You should carry the food in a container.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

12.She is mending my shoes at the moment.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

13.You can use this machine after 4.30.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

14.The boss is interviewing the applicants now.

……………………………………………………………………………………….

15.He will study Maths at the university.

……………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 188. Rewrite these questions in the passive    :

1.Have you done your homework?

…………………………………………………………………….

2.Did he steal all the jewels himself?

…………………………………………………………………….

3.Is she doing the housework now?

…………………………………………………………………….

4.What  languages can they speak here?

…………………………………………………………………….

5.Were you writing the letters?

…………………………………………………………………….

6.Did Shakespeare write A Midsummer Night’s Dream ?

…………………………………………………………………….

7.Does the hotel provide clean towels?

…………………………………………………………………….

8.Will a maid clean our room?

…………………………………………………………………….

9.Do a large number of people speak Chinese in China?

…………………………………………………………………….

10.Did a bird kill the cat?

…………………………………………………………………….

 

11.Did   Erdal break the window?

…………………………………………………………………….

12.Is the mechanic going to mend the car?

…………………………………………………………………….

13.Did Yaşar Kemal write İnce Memed ?

…………………………………………………………………….

14.Has anyone ever hypnotized her?

…………………………………………………………………….

15.Did his directions confuse them?

…………………………………………………………………….

16.Will someone deliver the mail tomorrow?

…………………………………………………………………….

17.Where did someone make your radio?

…………………………………………………………………….

18.When did they build the Bosphorus Bridge?

…………………………………………………………………….

19.Did you hear about the accident?

…………………………………………………………………….

20.Where did they cut that tree?

…………………………………………………………………….

21.Why were you  writing that composition?

…………………………………………………………………….

22.Have they ever played  backgammon?

…………………………………………………………………….

23.Do you have to  drink milk before you go to bed?

…………………………………………………………………….

24.Was he buying the necessary things yesterday?

…………………………………………………………………….

25.Has the University accepted them?

…………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

. 189. Use the correct form of  verbs     :

 

 
 

is played

 

 

1.Football ……………………………. (play) all over the world.

2.Baskeball and football………… (play) in many countries.

3.German ……………………………. (speak) in  Germany and Austria.

4.My house …………………………. (clean) by my wife.

5.Medicine ………………………….. (sell) by chemists.

6.Tea ………………………………….. (drink) by many people in Turkey.

7.Traffic rules ……………………… (not obey) by most of the drivers in Turkey.

8.Exam papers …………………….. (prepare) by teachers.

9.Helicopters ………………………. (use) by armed forces.

10.Footballers ……………………… (train) by trainers.

 

. 190. Change the sentences from active to passive      :

1.My younger uncle invited me to dinner.

……………………………………………………………………………….

2.Mustafa Kemal founded the Turkish Republic.

……………………………………………………………………………….

3.Water surrounds an island.

……………………………………………………………………………….

4.Yaşar Kemal wrote ‘İnce Memed’’.

……………………………………………………………………………….

5.Their mistakes embarrassed the instructor.

……………………………………………………………………………….

6.The secretary is going to answer the letters.

……………………………………………………………………………….

7.A large number of people speak Chinese.

……………………………………………………………………………….

8.A sleepy doctor  has examined the baby.

……………………………………………………………………………….

9.This news will  disturb them.

……………………………………………………………………………….

10.Everybody has signed the petition.

……………………………………………………………………………….

11.Someone serves beer and wine at the restaurant.

……………………………………………………………………………….

12.The Prime Minister cancelled the meeting.

……………………………………………………………………………….

13.People use hammers to pound the nails.

……………………………………………………………………………….

14.My grandfather bought that house.

……………………………………………………………………………….

15.Someone  made my radio in Germany.

……………………………………………………………………………….

16.No one will  collect the rubbish tomorrow.

……………………………………………………………………………….

17.Pınar wrote that composition.

……………………………………………………………………………….

18.Someone is building a new house on Yunus Emre Street.

……………………………………………………………………………….

19.The Foster Wheeler Intercontinental Corporation built Afşin-Elbistan

      Power Plant. 

……………………………………………………………………………….

20.All of the students must do the assignment.

……………………………………………………………………………….

21.Someone ought to paint my flat in Elvankent.

……………………………………………………………………………….

22.Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

……………………………………………………………………………….

23.People speak Turkish in Turkey.

……………………………………………………………………………….

24.People grow rice in India.

……………………………………………………………………………….

25.The baseman caught the ball.

……………………………………………………………………………….

. 191. Change the sentences if possible  :

1.I walked to the school yesterday.

…………………………………………………………………….

2.She slept at her mother-in-law’s house last night.

…………………………………………………………………….

3.The leaves fell to the ground.

…………………………………………………………………….

4.I agree with you.

…………………………………………………………………….

5.The professor announced  an exam.

…………………………………………………………………….

6.She went to the cinema  on her own.

…………………………………………………………………….

7.They didn’t come to my house last week.

…………………………………………………………………….

8.That car belongs to her.

…………………………………………………………………….

9.The event occurred in the center of the city.

…………………………………………………………………….

10.It happened when I was born.

…………………………………………………………………….

 

 

   Get  is sometimes used instead of ‘be’ in colloquial speech     :

        

 

    e.g.      The glasses     got      broken.

                                   (=were)

 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

 

           

What did they break?            ®        What was broken?

Who wrote that book?           ®        Who was that book written by?

When did he write it?                        ®        When was it written?

 

Use of passive  :

 

Active:            People suspect him of gambling.

Passive:          He is suspected of gambling.

 

Active:            People suppose that she is living alone.

Passive:          She is supposed to be living alone.

 

192. Make sentences with a similar meaning by using  ‘ be supposed to’  :

 

1.The teacher expects us to be on time for class.

………………………………………………………………………………..

2.Our instructor expects us  to read Chapter 7 before class next week. ………………………………………………………………………………..

3.Someone expected me to help with  the housework yesterday, but I didn’t. ………………………………………………………………………………..

4.My boss expects me to work late every day. ………………………………………………………………………………..

5.People expect the plane  to arrive before 11 p.m. ………………………………………………………………………………..

 

Active:            One sees this sort of public show everywhere.

Passive:          This sort of public show is seen everywhere.

 

Infinitive constructions are used after these verbs:

 

acknowledge/assume/believe/claim/consider/estimate/feel/find/know/  presume/report/say/think/understand.

 

e.g.

Active:            People consider that she is jealous of the other people.

Passive:          It is considered that she is jealous of the other people.

                        She is considered to be jealous of the other people.

 

Use of continuous infinitive :

 

believe/know/report/say/suppose/think/understand

 

Active :           People believe that she is living in İstanbul.

Passive:          She is believed to be living in İstanbul.

 

Active:            People  believed that she was living in İstanbul.

Passive:          She was believed to have been living in İstanbul.

 

 

Infinitive combinations:

 

Active:            She wants someone to take photographs.

Passive:          She wants photographs to be taken.

 

Active:            She invited me to go.

Passive:          I was invited to go.

 

 

With   : 

 

advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + indirect object + infinitive + object

 

e.g.

Active:            They urged the council to reduce the rates.

Passive:          The council was urged to reduce the rates.

They urged that the rates should be reduced.

 

 

agree/be anxious/arrange/be determined/determine/decide/demand + inf + obj

 

 

e.g.

Active:            She decided to sell the car.

Passive:          She decided that the car should be sold.

 

 

 

 

 

Gerund combinations  :

 

advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + gerund + object

 

e.g.

Active:            She recommended  using  water proof  wrist watches.

Passive:          She recommended that water proof wrist watches should be used.

 

It/they + need + gerund

 

e.g.

Active:            I remember them taking me to the park.

Passive:          I remember being taken to the park

 

 

PASSIVE  INFINITIVE

 

Active             : She wants someone to take photographs.

Passive           : She wants photographs to be taken.

 

. 193. Put these sentences into passive :

1.She wants to finish the housework.

………………………………………………………………………

2.We want to rebuild that cottage.

………………………………………………………………………

3.I expect to see that film.

………………………………………………………………………

4.My son wants  to paint his room.

………………………………………………………………………

5.They  expect to buy the car.

………………………………………………………………………

CAUSATIVE  VERBS

  **Have something done

*have someone do something

  **Get something  done

*get someone to do something

*Make  someone do something

     *Let someone do something

 

What are  you going to do about that broken  padlock?

I’m going to have it mended.

(I’m going to have the locksmith mend it.)

 

What are you going to do about his long hair?

I’m going to have it cut.

(I’m going to have the barber cut it.)

 

194. Match a sentence in A with a sentence in B. Write what verb tense they  are:

 

 

                        A

 

1. We paint the house every year.                                         n-Present Simple

2. Erdal is washing his car.                                                   ……………..

3. She typed three letters yesterday.                                                ……………..

4. She was cleaning the carpet  when I arrived.                   …………….

5. We will install the lights next week.                                 …………….

6. I’ll be planting some trees in the garden tomorrow morning.    ….…….

7. The girls have repaired their bicycles.                               ……………..

8. We’ve been importing clothes from Italy since we

    opened the shop.                                                               ………………

9. He had organised the meeting before I called.                 ……………..

10. They had been photocopying a book when the

      manager arrived                                                              ..…………….

11. He managed to repair the roof.                                       ……………..

12. I remember taking my blood pressure.                            ……………..

13. You should fix the leakage in the tank.                          ……………..

14. Clean the table, please.                                                   ……………..

 

B

 

a. Have the table cleaned, please.                                         ……………..

b. You should have the leakage in the tank fixed.               ……………..

c. I remember having my blood pressure taken.                   ……………..

d. He managed to have the roof repaired.                            ……………..

e. They had been having a book photocopied when the

    manager arrived.                                                               ………..…….

f. He had had the meeting organised before I called.          ……………..

g.We’ve been having clothes  imported from Italy

    since we opened the shop                                                 ………………….

h.The girls have had their bicycles repaired.                         ……………..

i.  I’ll be having some trees planted in the garden

    tomorrow morning                                                            ……………..

j. We’ll have the lights installed next week.                         ……………..

k. She was having the carpet cleaned when I arrived.         ……………..

l.  He had three letters typed yesterday.                               ……………..

m.Erdal is having his car washed.                                        ……………..

n. We have the house painted every year.                     1- Present Simple

. 195. Make sentences using the causative verbs; have  and  get  :

 

Pınar will have the brochures distributed.

 

1.Pınar-brochures,distribute

………………………………………………………………..

2.My father-long grass, cut

…………………………………………………………………

3.My sister-long dress, shorten

………………………………………………………………..

4.Jack-old house, repair

………………………………………………………………..

5.My brother-dirty dishes, wash

………………………………………………………………..

 

. 196.Rewrite the following sentences    :

 

 

1.I’ll persuade my son to go to university.

………………………………………………………………………………………

2.I asked the electrician to mend the fuses.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.They tried to force  them to pay  for the goods.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.I told the customers to come early.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.She asked the hairdresser to cut her hair.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – VI

 

THE REPORTED SPEECH

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Reported Speech

     No Change in Tenses

     Changes in expressions of time and place

     Imperatives in Reported Speech

     Yes-No Questions

     WH-Questions

     Exclamations

     Mixed Types

 

 
 

 

REPORTED  SPEECH        (DIRECT-INDIRECT)

 

tenses

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

present simple

I’m a nurse,” She said.

She said she was a nurse.

present continuous

I’m not going, “She said.

She said she was not  going.

past simple

Pınar did it,”He said.

He said Pınar had done it.

past continuous

Erdal was studying Maths,”She said.

She said Erdal had been studying Maths.

present perfect

I haven’t broken it,”He said.

He said he hadn’t  broken it.

present perfect continuous

I have been living here for two years,”She said.

She said she had been living there for two years.

past perfect

I had done this,”He said.

He said he had done that.

past perfect continuous

We had been searching for it,”They said.

They said they had been searching for it.

‘Will’ future

I’ll get it,”She said.

She said she would get it.

‘Going to’ future

I’m going to get it,”She said.

She said she was going to get it.

Can

I can speak German,”He said.

He said he could speak German.

May

I may be late,”She said.

She said she might be late.

Must

I must go now,”She said.

She said she had to go then.

Have to

She has to be here,”He said.

He said she had to be there.

1st Conditional

“If you invite, I’ll come.”

She told him that if he invited her, she would come.

2nd Conditional

“If you invited , I would come.”

She told him if he invited her, she would come.

3rd Conditional

“If you had invited, I would have come.”

She told him that if he had invited her,she would have come.

Needn’t

“I needn’t   help her.”

He said that he didn’t need to help her.

 

 

 

 

 

We can report people’s words by using direct or reported speech. Direct speech is the exact words someone used.

e.g. ‘I’m tired’, Seda said..

Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in reported speech. We can either use the word that after the introductory verbs (say, tell, etc.) or we can omit it.

 

* Personal pronouns, possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns change according to the meaning of the sentence.

e.g. Seda said (that) she was tired.

 

* We can report someone’s words either a long time after they were said (outofdatereporting) or a short time after they were said (up to date reporting)

 

* When we quote someone’s actual words, we can use reporting verbs such as say, reply, suggest, etc.

e.g. ‘I knew the answers,’ he said.

 

* We can report statements, questions, requests, thoughts, etc.

 
 

 

BEWARE !

must (obligation)                               ®        had to

must (need to)                                   ®        had to / needed to

must (it’s logical)                   ®       would; was/were no doubt

must have (it’s logical)          ®       would have

must (strong advice)                          ®        should

must not (no obligation)        ®       needn’t

must not (forbidden)                         ®        was/were not to/was/were forbidden to

 

Would you like to dance?                ®        …….. if I wanted to

(making offer)

 

Would you type these letters?         ®        asked me if I would type ………..

(a polite order)

Can I / Could I / May I                    ®        ……. if he could

Will you …………                                ®        ………if I would

                                                                       …….. whether I would

Have you seen ……..                          ®        ……… if  I had seen ….

                                                                       ……… whether I had seen

Shall I (offer)                                    ®        ……….if I wanted him to

 
Might                                                 ®        might

Ought to/should                                ®        ought to/should

 (for obligation/assumption)

 

ought to/should         (for advice)     ®        advise + object + infinitive

If I were you I should/would           ®        advise + object + infinitive

If I were you I should/would be (very) grateful if you would  

®       ask + object + Ving

Would                                                           ®        would

Used to                                              ®        used to

 

 

 

INTRODUCTORY VERBS

 

(say-tell-complain-explain-object-point out-protest) + object

(agree-refuse-offer-promise-threaten) + infinitive

(accuse…of-admit-apologize for-deny-insist on) + gerund

(add-admit-answer-argue-assure(+obj)-boast-grumble-observe-remark

remind(+object)-reply) + direct object/indirect  object

(murmur-mutter-shout-stammer-whisper) with statements and questions

ask-inquire-wonder-want to know

(wonder-want to know + WHETHER + infinitive) common use.

(inquire + WHETHER + infinitive) is also possible.

(tellorder) used for commands.

(askbeg) used for requests.

Let’s-let him    are reported using   suggest.

e.g. ‘Let’s go to the cinema.’ ® He suggested going to the cinema.

                                                    He suggested that they should go to the cinema.

 

 

 

 

NO CHANGE  IN TENSES

 

a. When the reporting verb is  in the present tense :

The verb tenses can either change or remain the same in reported speech:

     in  up to date reporting.

 

e.g. : says

“I have been to Prague before,” says the trainer.

 

The trainer says he has been to Prague before.

 

 

 

b. When the reporting verb is in the past tense and we want to emphasize that the statement is still true we can keep the same tense (if we wish) :

“Bill is my cousin,” said Jane.

Jane said Bill is her cousin.

 

When reporting a general truth or law of nature.

e.g. The teacher said, ‘Paris is the capital of France’

       The teacher said (that) Paris is/was the capital of France.

 

 

c. When the sentence contains a “must” of deduction, “must” does not change.

     “You must be a fool to think of this idea. “said the wife to her husband.

     The wife said to her husband that he must be a fool to think of that idea.

 

 

 

 

CHANGES IN  EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE

 

Direct Speech                                               Indirect Speech

 

today                                                        that day; the same day

tomorrow                                                the next day, the following day

the day after tomorrow                         in two days’  time

next week(month,year)                          the week(month,year) after

                                                                 the following week(month,year)

yesterday                                                 the previous day, the day before

last week(month,year)                            the week(month,year)before

                                                                 the previous week(month,year)

ago                                                           before, previously         

two days ago                                           two days before, two days earlier

now                                                          then

here                                                          there

come                                                        go 

this, these                                                 that, those

this,these(when they are pronouns;)     it, them

 

 

 

 

IMPERATIVES  IN  ENGLISH

 

Drive carefully,” said the policeman.

The policeman told  me  to  drive carefully.

Don’t work so hard,” said  the doctor.

The doctor told the patient  not to  work so hard.

 

 

GAME

 

Write the name of one of your friends …………………………………………..

Write the name of an animal ………………………………………………………..

Write a number ……………………………………………………………………………

Write a food …………………………………………………………………………………

Write a physical skill…………………………………………………………………….

Write the name of  a piece of  furniture………………………………………….

Write the name of a  room in a house …………………………………………….

Write the name of a famous city or town. ……………………………………….

 

 

Now fill in the blanks in the following text :

 

………………….. has a pet …………………… which is ……………………. years old.

S/He  feeds it on ………………………. and has taught it ……………………………. .

S/He keeps it on a …………………….. in the ……………………… . Last year it

went   to …………………….. for its holidays.

 

 

 

YES/NO  QUESTIONS  IN  ENGLISH

 

Are you ready?” asked the director.

 

The director asked me  if  I was ready.

 

Does she like milk? asked  the doctor.

 

The doctor asked the mother  if  she liked milk.

 

‘Is anyone there?’ he asked.

 

He asked if anyone was there.

 

He asked whether anyone was there.

 

 

WH–   QUESTIONS

 

“What are you doing here?” the mother asked.

 

The mother asked the boy what he was doing there.

 

“Where do you live?” the man asked.

 

The man asked me where I lived.

 

 

 

. 197.Turn these sentences into  direct speech  :

 

 

Tony said, ‘We are both seventeen’

 

1.Tony said they were both seventeen.

………………………………………………………………………………….

2.She said they needed an early night.

………………………………………………………………………………….

3.Kathy said they were both tired.

………………………………………………………………………………….

4.She said she was listening to music.

………………………………………………………………………………….

5.He said he hadn’t seen them for years.

………………………………………………………………………………….

6.She said she had done her homework the day before.

………………………………………………………………………………….

7.He said that would happen the following day.

………………………………………………………………………………….

8.I said they could come to the party the following week.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

9.She asked if he had to come with them.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

10.They asked where we would go the day after.

……………………………………………………………………………………

11.She told him to go shopping.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

12.He told me not to forget him.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

13.She asked if I had been abroad before.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

14.He asked if they had dinner together.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

15.They said they had had lunch at home.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 198. Put these questions into indirect speech :

 

 

how much I paid for that shirt.

 

1.How much did you pay for this shirt?”

   She wanted to know ……………………………………….

2.”Whose English is not good?”

   He wanted to  know ……………………………………….

3.”Which boy have they caught?

   The policeman wanted to know ……………………….

 

 

. 199. Answer the questions        :

 

1.”I do not like this city.”

What does the girl say?

………………………………………………………………………………………

2.”I’ll explain  it to you.”

What does Ayşe tell Ali?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

3.”My mother is going to get well soon.”

What does the teacher tell his friend?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

4.”I haven’t met these boys before.”

What does the girl tell her mother?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

5.”I always do the housework myself.”

What does the woman tell  you?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

6.”It is not my car, mine is  red.”

What does the man say to his friend?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

7.”We are learning English.”

What do the students tell their friends?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

8.”I do not watch TV a lot.”

What does the girl tell you?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

9.”She doesn’t work on Sundays.”

What does the boss tell you?

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

10.”I will help her.”

What does the husband say?

……………………………………………………………………………………..

 

. 200. Write these reported statements in direct speech  :

 

1.He offered her a lift.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2.He agreed to pay her ten million TL.

……………………………………………………………………………………

3.She warned him not to trust that man.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4.She decided to take a taxi.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5.He promised to ring when he got home.

……………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

EXCLAMATIONS

 

Direct     : ‘What a beautiful  girl !’

Indirect  :  Serdal said that she was a beautiful girl.

‘Wow!’ he said as he unwrapped his gift.

He gave an exclamation of surprise as he unwrapped his gift.

‘You fool!’ she said.

She called him a fool.

‘Happy Birthday!’ we said to Hasan.

We wished Hasan a happy birthday.

‘You won’t tell anyone, will you?’

She said to him.

She asked him not to tell anyone.

 

. 201. Put these exclamations into indirect speech       :

 

1.”How wonderful !” Pınar said.

…………………………………………………………………………

2.”How  cold it is !” Erdal said.

…………………………………………………………………………

3.”What a lovely day !” He said.

…………………………………………………………………………

4.”What a delicious  meal !”  said the girl with green eyes.

…………………………………………………………………………

5.”How dreadful !” The boy in  the blue  leather coat said.

…………………………………………………………………………

 

Mixed types       

. 202. Put these sentences into indirect  :

e.g.

            “It’s very expensive . Is it soft?”

             He said that it was very expensive and asked if it was soft.

 

1.”Is the girl wearing them? They  are really nice.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.”Did you read the story? It was really  interesting.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.”What time will you come? I won’t  be here tomorrow.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.”Don’t forget to bring  your lunch. You can’t find anything to eat there.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.”We have to be punctual. It is  the second time we  will be late.”

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 203. Change the quoted speech to reported speech  :

1.Ali said,  ‘I am sleepy.’

…………………………………………………………………….

2.Mrs Beydilli said,  ‘This is a very expensive flat.’

…………………………………………………………………….

3.Bilgesu said, ‘I have already eaten lunch.’

…………………………………………………………………….

4.Deniz said, ‘I will call you tomorrow.’

…………………………………………………………………….

5.İnan said, ‘Your pronunciation is very bad.’

…………………………………………………………………….

6.Bob said, ‘I can’t move until the end of the semester.’

…………………………………………………………………….

7.Tom asked me, ‘Where do you live?’

…………………………………………………………………….

8.She asked me, ‘Do you live in a students’ hostel?’

…………………………………………………………………….

9.He admitted, ‘I stole the money.’

…………………………………………………………………….

10.He asked me, ‘Where is Jane?’

…………………………………………………………………….

11.She said, ‘I am going to quit  school and get a job.’

…………………………………………………………………….

12.They asked  her, ‘Did you mail the letter?’

…………………………………………………………………….

13.He asked us, ‘What are you thinking about?’

…………………………………………………………………….

14.She said, ‘I have to go to the chemist’s.’

…………………………………………………………………….

15.Ali told me,  ‘I can’t pick you up at the airport.’

…………………………………………………………………….

16.I told her, ‘I will take a taxi.’

…………………………………………………………………….

17.She told us, ‘You should speak English as much as possible.’

…………………………………………………………………….

18.Gülay asked me, ‘Have you already eaten lunch?’

…………………………………………………………………….

19.Safiye asked me, ‘What time do  you want to leave  for home?’

…………………………………………………………………….

 

20.Serdal said, ‘I made a mistake.’

…………………………………………………………………….

21.The teacher announced, ‘The exam will be on the 10th of this month’

…………………………………………………………………….

22.She said, ‘I can’t. I have to study.’

…………………………………………………………………….

23.He said, ‘Where’s  Özgür? I’m surprised he isn’t here.’

…………………………………………………………………….

24.My friend said, ‘ I think you should take a long holiday.’

…………………………………………………………………….

25.My mother said, ‘Make an appointment with the doctor.’

…………………………………………………………………….

Punctuation in Direct Speech:

e.g. He said, I love Paris in the winter.

     ‘I love Paris in the winter,’ he said.

 

 

REVISION

 

204. Put these into Reported Speech          :

 

1.Mrs  Kent, ‘My gums are very sore’.

…………………………………………………………………………

2.Mrs  Kent, ‘Yesterday, as I was brushing my teeth, I noticed that  my

    gums were bleeding!’

…………………………………………………………………………

3.Mrs  Kent, ‘Is there anything wrong with them?’

…………………………………………………………………………

4.Mrs  Kent, ‘ How can I stop bleeding?’

…………………………………………………………………………

5.Mrs  Kent, ‘What should I do?’

…………………………………………………………………………

6.Dentist, ‘Don’t panic!’.

…………………………………………………………………………

7.Dentist, ‘If you take my advice, you won’t have any problems.’

…………………………………………………………………………

8.Dentist, ‘Buy a soft toothbrush and brush your teeth twice a day to keep your

    gums healthy.’

…………………………………………………………………………

9.Dentist, ‘I’ll make an appointment for you next week, so that I can remove the

    plaque that has built  up and is causing you problems.’

…………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………

10.Mr  Parker, ‘I have had bad breath for the past year.’

…………………………………………………………………………

11.Mr  Parker, ‘I brush my teeth regularly.’

…………………………………………………………………………

12.Dentist, ‘Do you eat onions, garlic or food with lots of spices?’

…………………………………………………………………………

13.Dentist, ‘Do you smoke?’

…………………………………………………………………………

14.Mr  Parker, ‘I do all these things.’

…………………………………………………………………………

15.Mayor, ‘We’ve evacuated the houses. What else can we do?’

…………………………………………………………………………

16.Mayor, ‘When is help coming? We’ve been waiting for over two hours.’

…………………………………………………………………………

17.Mayor, ‘I wish we had some help.’

…………………………………………………………………………

18.Fire Protection Officer, ‘The important thing is not to panic. Help will

      arrive soon.’

…………………………………………………………………………

19.Mrs Coşkun, ‘Why don’t we invite  Pınar to dinner tonight?’

…………………………………………………………………………

20.My  geography teacher, ‘Where is Mount Everest?’

…………………………………………………………………………

21.’If  you  scream, I’ll shoot,’ said the  robber to the girl.

…………………………………………………………………………

22.’I have been standing in this queue for three hours!’ said the  woman.

…………………………………………………………………………

23.‘You’ll burn yourself, Serdal, if you keep playing with matches,’ said

      his mother.

…………………………………………………………………………

24.’I’m really sorry that I woke you up this morning, Erdal,’ said Mrs Coşkun.

…………………………………………………………………………

25.’I’m going on a business trip.  Would you mind looking after my house

       while I am away?’  said Mr Coşkun.

…………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – VII

 

THE CONDITIONAL

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Conditional Sentences

  WISH CLAUSES

 

 

 
 

 

CONDITIONAL  SENTENCES

 

 

 

  1.Zero (present) conditional (type 0)

  If + present …….. present or imperative

  We use this form to refer to conditions which are always true:

  If I read on the train, I start to feel ill.

  2.First Conditional  (type 1)

  If + present simple……. will  future

  We use this form to predict events which may happen in the

  future, if a condition is met:        

  If  you pass your exams, I’ll give you a present.

  3.Second Conditional  (type 2)

  If + past simple …………… would /could/might

  We use this form to speculate about imaginary or improbable situations:

  (the implication is that the condition will not be met)

  If  I studied harder, I would be a lawyer .

  4.Third Conditional (type 3)

  If + past perfect………….. would / might / could  have  + past  participle

 We use this form to talk about the past possibilities which did not happen :

  If  I  had had your telephone number, I would have telephoned you.

 

 

 

  5.Mixed Conditional Sentences

  If + past perfect ……. would / could / might

  We use this form to express a completed past action with a present  result :

  If  I hadn’t broken my leg, I would go on holiday with my friends

 

  6.Hidden  Condition

  My friend didn’t attend the classes.

 ‘What a pity. I’m sure she would have learnt a lot.’

 (The second statement depends on the hidden condition ‘if she  had attended’ ) :

  I’m sure  she would have learnt a lot .  (if she had attended)

 

 

 

 

. 205. Write these sentences, putting the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the future  :

 

 

He will call you if he has time.

 

1.He (call) you if he (have) time.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

2.What will she do if she (not pass) the class? …………………………………………………………………………………………

3.If that Toyota costs a lot, I (buy) a Broadway. …………………………………………………………………………………………

4.If the patients can’t see the doctor, they (complain)  about him. …………………………………………………………………………………………

5.I (visit) a lot of  historical places if I (go) to İstanbul.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

6.I (lend) her  some money if she (ask) for it.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

7.Will you inform me if there (be) any problems?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

8.If it rains a lot, most of the villagers (stay) at home  doing nothing.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

9.I (come) if they (invite) me.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

10.I (ask) my lawyer if I (have)  to pay the expenses.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

. 206. Write sentences using the words given  :

 

1.If/you/asked/me for tickets/I/could/buy/you a few.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.I/not/marry/her/if/I/know/what she was like.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.I/visit/you/in jail/if/I/know/you were there.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.I/could/give you/a lift/if/my car/not broken down.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5.If/you/be born/a year earlier/you/not have to do/military service.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

. 207. Put the verbs  into the correct tense  :

 

1.When  the temperature (fall) below zero, water (freeze).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.She (get) angry if you (call) her ‘shorty’ .

………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.The recorder (not work) if the batteries are flat.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.When water (boil), it (change) into steam.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.If you (fill) a balloon with hot air, it (rise).

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

. 208. Write the sentences putting  the verbs into the mixed type      :

 

1.If I (stay) at school, I (be) in university now.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

2.I(take) your plate if you’ve finished.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

3.If she (see) them, she always said hello.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

4.If the machine (stop),we stopped.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

5.He wouldn’t be so angry if he (eat) a good lunch.

…………………………………………………………………………………….

 

. 209. Write these sentences using the correct form of the verbs       :

 

1.If you had called me, I  (come).

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.She wouldn’t get angry with them if they (invite) her to  their party.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.She wouldn’t  have  helped her mother if she (not give) her some more

   pocket money.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. I  wouldn’t have done that if they (phone) me .

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.If we (stay) in the same hotel, we wouldn’t have spent  so much.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

. 210. Rewrite these sentences using type 2       :

 

1.The weather is terrible today, so we can’t have the picnic.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.Besides, I  don’t have any time to spend for a picnic, so I can’t go.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.It is raining, so the countryside is wet I  am sure.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.You aren’t an experienced  footballer, so you are not able to teach me.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5.The principal  won’t let us have the party at school, so  we can’t have

    it at school.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

WISH  CLAUSES   

a)  wish + past simple

 

This expresses  an unrealistic desire for the present situation to be different .

There is very  little chance of the  desire to occur.

 

 

Subject + WISH+ subject + past simple

 

 

. 211. Rewrite these sentences using  wish + past simple:

 

 

I wish I lived alone.

 

1.I’d love to live alone.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

2.I’d love to be a lawyer.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.Why don’t we  have a modern car?

………………………………………………………………………………………….

4.I’d love to speak more than two languages.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

5.I never have enough time to visit my relatives.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

b)  wish +  past perfect

 

This expresses a desire that an action or event in the past had been different.

 

Subject + WISH +subject + past perfect

 

 

. 212. Rewrite these using above pattern          :

1.I decided to work for the state.

………………………………………………………………………………………

2.We didn’t go to Alanya last summer.

………………………………………………………………………………………

3.It was a mistake to drive home alone.

………………………………………………………………………………………

4.I spent all my money on clothes.

………………………………………………………………………………………

5.We didn’t spend our holiday with my parents.

………………………………………………………………………….

 

c)  wish + would + infinitive

 

This expresses annoyance with a person or situation and a desire

for a situation to change, either now or in the future. The change

could possibly occur, but we do not expect it to.

 

Subject + wish +subject +would + infinitive

 

 

. 213. Write these sentences according to the above pattern  :

 

1.My  sister never visits  her friends.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

2.He never wears a tie.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.My cousin doesn’t take a shower very often.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

4.I’d like everybody to stop smoking.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

5.Serdal doesn’t prepare for his exams regularly.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

 

IF  ONLY

 

We can replace I wish with If only.

 

If only I owned a  Mercedes  600 S.

If only I hadn’t  drunk so  much!

 

 

 

 
 

 

If only = I wish
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER – VIII

 

RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

 

 

       
 
 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Relative Clauses

     Defining

     Non-Defining

     Leaving out  Relative Pronouns

     Prepositions with Relative Clauses

     Relative Clauses of Time, Place, and Reason

 

 
 

 

RELATIVE  CLAUSES

 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

 

*Who  (relative pronoun  for people, subject in the relative clauses)

 

1.a.  This is the man.(1) He bought two expensive books.(2)

   b.  This is the man who bought two expensive books.

 

2.a. The man forgot to take them.(1) The man bought two books.(2)

   b. The man who bought two books forgot to take them.

 

            *You can join (1) and (2) using the relative pronoun  who.

              It can only replace people.

 

            *Who always follows the  antecedent and is the subject of the verb

             in the relative clause.

 

            *See the difference in construction  between e.g. (1) and e.g. (2).

 

. 214. Exercise  :

           

Join the following sentences using the relative pronoun  ‘who’

 

 

The shop assistant  served the customer who is standing behind the counter.

 

1.The shop-assistant  served the customer .She is standing behind the counter.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

2.This is the lady. She gave me a lift yeste