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PREFIXES 

NEGATION   : uncomfortable, discomfort   

2.  DIRECTION  : transatlantic, departure

3.  TIME              : post-war, antecedent

4.  PLACE           : subway, uphill

5.  NUMBER       : biennial, triangle

6.  DEGREE        : hypertension, ultraviolet

Aşağıda, yaygın olarak kullanılan öneklerin bir listesi ve anlamlan verilmiştir. Bu listeyi dikkatle inceleyiniz. Öneklerin anlamlarını bilmeniz, böyle bir sözcükle karşılaştığınızda, sözcüğün anlamını bilmeseniz bile yaklaşık bir tahminde bulunmanızı sağlayacaktır

COMMON PREFIXES

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
A- not, without amoral, atheist
AB- from, away from absent, abstain  
AD- to, towards advance, adverse
AMBI- both, double, two ambiguous, ambivalent
ANTE- before, in front of antedate, anteroom
ANTI- opposed to, against antibiotic, antifreeze
BENE- good, well beneficial, benevolence
BI- two, twice bilingual, bicycle
CENT- (CENTI-) a hundred centimetre, century
CIRCUM- around circumnavigate, circumscribe
CO- together with coordinate, combine
CONTRA- (COUNTER- against contradict, counter-claim
DIS- opposite of, not disagree, disorder
EN- make into, cause to be endanger, encourage
EX- out, out of, from exclaim, exclude
  at one time, former ex-husband, ex-president
FORE- before, in front of foretell, forewarn
HYPER- to a large or  
  extreme degree hypersensitive, hypertension
IN- (IL-, IM-, IR-) in, on, into intake, inject
IN- (IL-, IM-, IR-) not immoral, irrelevant
INTER- between, among international, intercontinental
MID- middle midnight, midland
MIS- wrong, not mislead, misunderstand
MONO- one, single monochrome, monotone
MULTI- many multi-coloured, multiply
NON- not nonsense, non-stop
POST- after post-war, postcolonial
PRE- before premature, pre-war
RE- again rewrite, regain
SELF- one’s self, alone self-service, self-taught
SEMI- half, midway semi-circle, semi-detached
SUB- under subsoil, subway
  lower in rank sub-committee, substandard
SUPER- above, over supermarket, superstructure
  superior to, more than superpower, superhuman
TRANS- across trans-atlantic, trans-continental
  to a changed state transform, transfer
UN- not, opposite of unable, unlock
UNI- one, the same union, unisex
UP- to a higher or upgrade, upstairs
  better state  

 

1-2   SUFFIXES

Suffix , sonek anlamına gelir. Sözcüğün sonuna eklenerek yeni sözcükler türetir. Yapım eki olarak suffix, eklendiği sözcüğün türünü değiştirir. Örneğin “honest” sıfatı, “-y” ekinin gelmesiyle “honesty” ismini oluşturur.

A-       SOME NOUN-FORMING SUFFIXES

SUFFIX                                                            EXAMPLES

-AGE ………………………………………………………..       mileage, wreckage

-AL …………………………………………………………..       refusal, dismissal

-AN …………………………………………………………..      American, republican

-ANCE (-ENCE) …………………………………………..     avoidance, intelligence

-ANCY(-ENCY) …………………………………………..     fluency, agency

-ANT (-ENT) ……………………………………………….     recipient, deterrent

-ARD (-ART) ……………………………………………….    drunkard, braggart

-ATION ………………………………………………………     conversation, organisation

-DOM ………………………………………………………..      freedom, kingdom

-EER…………………………………………………………        engineer, pioneer

-ER (-AR, -IER) ……………………………………………     teacher, liar

-ERY …………………………………………………………      robbery, recovery

-ESS …………………………………………………………       manageress, mistress

-HOOD ………………………………………………………      childhood, neighbourhood

-ICE …………………………………………………………        prejudice, cowardice

-ION (-SION,-TION) …………………………………….     information, expansion

-ISM …………………………………………………………       criticism, socialism

-1ST ………………………………………………………….       egoist, feminist

-ITY ………………………………………………………….       probability, possibility

-MENT ………………………………………………………      agreement, disappointment

-NESS ……………………………………………………….       whiteness, eagerness

-OR …………………………………………………………..       actor, creditor

-SHIP ………………………………………………………..       friendship, kinship

-T ……………………………………………………………..       complaint, weight

-TH …………………………………………………………..       health, wealth

-URE, -ATURE …………………………………………..       pressure, signature

-Y …………………………………………………………….       honesty, delivery

 

B-       SOME ADJECTIVE-FORMING SUFFIXES

SUFFIX                                 MEANING                                    EXAMPLES

-ABLE (-IBLE) …………………..                                            showing qualities of, ………….         portable, flexible that can be

-AL …………………………………                                              having qualities of ……………..        natural, magical

-ANT (-ENT) ……………………..                                             having the character of……….         significant, dependent

-ATE (-ITE) ………………………                                             having ……………………………..         affectionate, passionate

-FUL ……………………………….                                              full of ………………………………        skilful, meaningful

-1C (-ICAL) ……………………….                                            resembling ……………………….         romantic, dramatical

-ISH ………………………………. resembling, in the manner of..       childish, snobbish

-IVE……………………………….. having a tendency towards …..       constructive, impulsive

-LESS …………………………….. without ……………………………         helpless, useless

-LY …………………………………                                              like …………………………………          cowardly, friendly

-ORY ………………………………                                              relating to ………………………..          compulsory, explanatory

-OUS ……………………………… having the qualities of, full of        famous, vigorous

-WORTHY ……………………… deserving ………………………….       trustworthy, praiseworthy

-Y ………………………………….  resembling, full of………………       gloomy, salty

Bu eklerin yanı sıra, İngilizcede yaygın olarak sıfat türeten ekler -ing ve -ed dir.

disappoint-disappointing-disappointed

annoy – annoying – annoyed

 

C-       AFFIXES OF NEGATION

İngilizcede önekler un-,  in- (il-,  im-,  ir-),  dis- ve non- ve sonek -less,  sözcüğün anlamını olumsuz yapmamızı sağlar.

in- eki, “l” ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken il-, “m” ve “p” ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken im-, “r” ile başlayan sözcüklere eklenirken ir- biçimine dönüşür.

legal — illegal                              logical — illogical

moral — immoral                        perfect — imperfect

regular —irregular                       responsible — irresponsible

Ancak, bazı istisnaların olabileceğim göz önünde bulundurmamız gerekir. Örneğin aşağıdaki sözcükler, “p, m, r” harfleriyle başladığı halde un- ekiyle olumsuz yapılırlar.

pleasant — unpleasant

manly — unmanly

real — unreal

Olumsuzluk eklerini genel olarak bütün sözcük türlerine (isim, fiil, sıfat, zarf) ekleyebiliriz.

advantage (noun) — disadvantage

obedient (adjective) — disobedient

agree (verb) — disagree

agreeably (adverb) — disagreeably

Bn/.i di in unlarda, sözcüğün türü değişince aldığı olumsuzluk eki değişebiliyor.

comfortable (adjective) — uncomfortable

comfort (noun, verb) — discomfort

satisfaction (noun) — dissatisfaction

satisfactory (adjective) — unsatisfactory

About Post Author

Erdem OVAT

1985-1988 Dörtler Köyü İlköğretim Okulu 1988- 1993 Sakıp Sabancı İlköğretim Okulu 1993-1996 Orhan Çobanoğlu Lisesi 1997-2000 Almanya'da Turist 2001-2002 Vatani Görev Isparta Muş'ta yaptım 2002-2004 Açiköğretim Lisesinden Üstün Başarı 2005-2010 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Alman Dili Öğretmenliğinde Mezun Oldum 2010-2011 Halk Eğitim Merkezinde Almanca Öğretmenliğine Başladım 2011-2013 Çeşitli Özel Dersane ve Okullarda çalıştım 2013- .... Milli Eğitimde Almanca Öğretmeni olarak çalışmaya devam ediyorum
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