Ingilizce Verbs Tenses

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Verbs Tenses

İngilizce sözcük dizimi, Türkçe sözcük diziminden farklıdır. Türkçe bir cümlede yüklem cümlenin sonunda yer alır ve özneyi de içinde barındırır.

Ben                 İngilizce        çalışırım.
Özne               Nesne             Yüklem
Subject           Object            Verb

cümlesini, “İngilizce çalışırım.” biçiminde de ifade edebiliriz ve ikinci cümlede özneyi açık olarak göremediğimiz halde, öznenin 1. tekil şahıs olduğunu yüklemdeki -m takısından anlarız.Bu durum İngilizce için geçerli değildir. Yani İngilizce bir cümlede yüklem özneyi belli etmez.Bu yüzden, cümleye özne ile başlamak zorundayız. Formüle edilmiş olarak İngilizce cümle düzeni şöyledir:

Ben                             İngilizce        çalışırım.
Subject
             +        Verb           +   Object
Özne                            Yüklem           Nesne

“İngilizce çalışırım.” cümlesini İngilizcede “I study English.” biçiminde ifade edebiliriz.

l-     THE VERB “BE”

Sözcükleri rastgele bir araya getirerek cümle kuramayız. Cümle kurabilmemiz için mutlaka bir fiile ihtiyacımız vardır. “Be” fiili, “come, go, study, eat, become” vb. gibi asıl fiilimiz olmadığı zaman cümle kurmamızı sağlar.”Be” fiilinin şimdiki zaman ve geniş zaman biçimi aynıdır ve bu tense’lerle “am, is, are” biçiminde kullanılır.

Singular Subject Pronouns                         Plural Subject Pronouns

I am — You are — He/She/It is                   We are — You are — They are
I am always nervous before an exam, (general)
I am nervous now, because I’m taking an exam in half an hour, (now)

1-1    ‘Be’ fiilini asıl fiil olarak kullanabileceğimiz başlıca üç kalıp vardır:

a)   be + noun                          b) be + adjective              c) be + prepositional phrase

I am a teacher.                      He is tall.                               They are at home.
They are students.               The world is round.              Jane is from England.
She is a Turk.                        They are intelligent.            She is at the bus-stop.
Today is Tuesday.                  It’s very hot today.               We are in the classroom.

1-2   “Be”, yardımcı fiil olarak sürerlik bildiren tense’lerle de kullanılır.

I am writing now./She is reading the newspaper./They are listening to music

2-     THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

2-1   FORM

Affirmative (olumlu) Negative (olumsuz) Interrogative (soru)
I am writing now.
You are reading a book.
He/She/It is eating lunch.
We are listening to music.
You are working hard.
They are discussing their financial problems.
I am not writing now.
You are not reading a book.
He/She/It is not eating lunch.
We are not listening to music.
You are not working hard.
They are not discussing their financial problems.
Am I writing now?
Are you reading a book?
Is he/she/it eating lunch?
Are we listening to music?
Are you working hard?
Are they discussing their financial problems?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz.

Am I not trying to help you?                         or
Are you not helping your mother?               or
Is she not studying English?                          or
Are we not leaving for class now?                or
Are you not watching the film?                    or
Are they not having breakfast?                    or

Aren’t I trying to help you?                      Aren’t you helping your mother?                Isn’t she studying English?
Aren’t we leaving for class now?            Aren’t you watching the film?                     Aren’t they having breakfast ?

 

2-2   SPELLING OF  -ING

Sonu -e ile biten fuller

 

write
admire
hope
hide

writing
admiring
hoping
hiding

shave
amaze
dine
ride

shaving
amazing
dining
riding

Sonu -e ile bilen fiillere -ing takısı eklenirken –e

 düşer. *

Sonu bir sesli harf +bir sessiz harfle biten fiiller

 

TEK HECELİ FİİLLER

Bu gruba giren tek hece­li fiillerde. sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır.

stop
beg
sit

stopping
begging
sitting

run
rub
set

running
rubbing
setting

İKİ HECELİ FİİLLER

Vurgu l.hecedeyse  sondaki sessiz harf tek yazılır;2.hecedeyse çift yazı­lır.

a) listen Happen
b) prefer
refer

listening
happening
preferring
referring

open
ripen
begin
control

opening
ripening
beginning
controlling

Sonu -y ile biten fiiller

 

study
reply
try

studying
replying
trying

play
buy
enjoy

playing
buying
enjoying

-y ile biten fiillere -ing takısı eklenirken yazım­da değişiklik olmaz.

Sonu -ie ile biten fiiller

 

die
lie
tie

dying
lying
tying

-ie -y‘ ye dönüşür ve     -ing eklenir.

Sonu iki sessiz harfle biten fiiller

 

stand
hold
spend

standing
holding
spending

start
find
bend

starting
finding
bending

İki sessizle biten fiillere     -ing eklenirken yazımda değişiklik olmaz.

* Sonu -ee biçiminde biten fiiller -ing takısı alırken -e düşmez: see-seeing, agree-aareeing, free-freeing

2-3   USE OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

a)   Bu  tense  ile temel   olarak  içinde  bulunduğumuz arıda yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri  anlatırız. Zamanı pekiştirmek için ise now, right now, at the moment, at present, still gibi zaman zarflan kullanırız.

Mother is in the kitchen now. She is cooking dinner.

— Where is your sister?
—I think she is writing a letter in her room. Listen! They are talking about us. Can you hear what they are saying?

b)   Konuşmanın geçtiği sırada eylemi yapıyor olmasak bile, o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri de bu tense ile anlatırız ve nowadays, these days, this term, this year, this month, this semestre, at the moment ( “şu sıralar” anlamında ) gibi zaman zarfları kullanırız.

— How many courses are you taking this term?
— I’m taking five courses.
— I haven’t seen Peter recently. Have you?
— No, but I talked to him on the phone last Saturday. He is very busy these days.
He is redecorating his house by himself.

c)        Değişmekte olan durumları, olayları bu tense ile anlatırız.

“Everything is expensive. (Her şey pahalı.)” cümlesi, fiyatların o anki durumunu anlatır. Fakat,

“Everything is getting more and more expensive. (Her şey gittikçe pahalılaşıyor.)” ifadesi, fiyatların sürekli değiştiğini, yükseldiğini gösterir.

It is cold. ( Hava soğuk.)
It is getting colder. ( Hava gittikçe soğuyor.)
The economic situation in Turkey is very bad. (Türkiye’nin ekonomik durumu çok kötü.)
The economic situation in Turkey is getting worse. (Türkiye’nin ekonomik durumu gittikçe kötüleşiyor.)

d)       Bu  tense’i,   tomorrow,   next  week,   next  year,   next  summer  gibi gelecek zaman     zarflarıyla, gelecekte yapmayı planladığımız eylemleri anlatmak için kullanırız.

I’m meeting Ann next Saturday.
They are giving a party next month.            
She is leaving Istanbul in two days.

Örneklerde görüldüğü gibi, cümle yapı olarak şimdiki zamana, anlam olarak ise gelecek zamana

aittir. Aynı kullanım Türkçe’de de varolduğu için, bu cümleleri Türkçe’ye, gelecek zaman ya da şimdiki zaman yapısında çevirmemiz mümkündür. Son örneği Türkçe’ye şu şekilde çevirebiliriz:

İki gün sonra İstanbul’dan ayrılıyor. / İki gün sonra İstanbul’dan ayrılacak.

3-     THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

3-1   FORM

Affirmative ( Olumlu ) Negative ( Olumsuz ) Interrogative ( Soru )

I get up early.
You go on holiday every year.
He studies hard.
She cleans the house herself.
It stands in the corner.
We keep our promises.
You like animals very much.
They help the people around.

I don’t get up early.
You don’t go on holiday every year.
He doesn’t study hard.
She doesn’t clean the house herself.
It doesn’t stand in the corner.
We don’t keep our promises.
You don’t like animals very much.
They don’t help the people around

Do I get up early?
Do you go on holiday every year?
Does he study hard?
Does she clean the house herself?
Does it stand in the corner?
Do we keep our promises?
Do you like animals very much?
Do they help the people around?

Üçüncü tekil şahıs için ( he/she/it) fiil, olumlu cümlede -s takısı ahr.

He reads a lot/She buys a newspaper regularly. /The cat drinks only milk in the morning.

Olumsuz cümlede ve sorada, yani “does”    ya da “doesn’t” bulunan cümlelerde fiil daima yalındır.

He doesn’t read a lot. /She doesn’t buy a newspaper every day.               Does the cat drink milk in the morning?

“have” fiilinin üçüncü şahıs biçimi “has” dir. Ancak, soruda  ve  olumsuz cümlede   fiilin yalın hali  ” have ” kullanılır.

— Do you have a bath every day?
— Yes, I do. (I have a bath every day.)

— Does your son have a bath every day?
— Yes, he does. ( He has a bath every day.)
— Does your father have breakfast in the morning?
— No, he doesn’t. ( He doesn’t have breakfast in the morning.)

3-2   USE OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

a)        Bu tense ile. genelde yaptığımız işleri,  alışkanlıklarımızı anlatırız  ve  always, sometimes, never, often vb. sıklık bildiren zarfların yanı sıra, every day, every month, every year, every summer gibi zaman zarflarım sıkça kullanırız.

— What time do you usually get up?
— I usually get up at seven o’clock.
— Does she always get up early?
— Not always. She sometimes gets up very late.— How often do you go to the cinema?
— I go to the cinema every eekend/once a week/twice a month/three times a year etc.
— How often does your brother write to you?
He writes to me very often.

b)        Frequency Adverbs ( Sıklık bildiren zaman zarfları)

always                                                                  all the time ( hep, her zaman )
almost always/nearly always                             almost all the time, nearly all the time (hemen hemen her zaman)
very often                                                            (çok sık)
usually                                                                 generally ( genellikle )
often                                                                     frequently ( sık sık )
sometimes                                                           occasionally, from time to tim (bazen,ara sıra)
rarely                                                                    seldom ( ender, nadiren, seyrek)
hardly ever                                                          almost never (hemen hemen hiç )
never                                                                  ( hiç,hiç bir zaman, asla )

Yardımcı fiil bulunmayan olumlu cümlelerde    bu    zarflar asıl    fiilden önce, yani özne ile yüklemin arasında yer alır.

She always sings in English. /I sometimes feel depressed. /They seldom go to the theatre.

Bu zarflar am, is, are  dan sonra gelir.

I sometimes go to work late. /I am sometimes late for work.

Sıklık bildiren zarfların olumsuz cümledeki yeri değişiktir.

Always daima olumsuzluk eki not dan sonra gelir.
I don’t always get up early. /She doesn’t always study very hard.
They aren’t always late for class.

frequently, sometimes ve occasionally  olumsuzluk ekinden önce gelir.

I sometimes don’t want to be with people. /She frequently doesn’t want to study.
They sometimes aren’t ready on time. /She occasionally isn’t polite to the people around.

NOTE: Birinci tekil şahıs için bu kural geçerli değildir. Zarf, yardımcı fiil ‘am’ ile ‘not’ arasında yer alır.

I’m sometimes not patient enough with children.

usually, generally ve often her iki durumda da kullanılır.

They usually don’t go out in the evenings. /They don’t usually go out in the evenings.
We often don’t turn on the television. /We don’t often turn on the television.
They generally aren’t awake till 11a.m./They aren’t generally awake till 11a.m.

rarely, seldom, hardly ever, almost never ve never olumsuz cümlede kullanılmaz. Bu zarflar sadece olumlu cümlede kullanılır, ancak olumsuz bir anlam taşır.

I hardly ever go to the theatre.  ( Tiyatroya hemen hemen hiç gitmem.)
He almost never goes to work in his own car. (İşe kendi arabasıyla neredeyse hiç gitmez.)
I’m hardly ever nervous before an exam.  ( Sınav öncesi neredeyse hiç heyecanlanmam.)
She never comes to her appointments on time. = She is never on time for her appointments. ( Randevularına asla vaktinde gelmez.)

Olumlu   anlam   taşıyan sıklık   zarflarını   (usually, generally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally) dilbilgisi kurallarına uygun bu kullanımlarının yanı sıra, cümlede vurguyu artırmak için, cümlenin başında da kullanabiliriz. Özellikle sometimes bu şekilde çok sık kullanılır.

Sometimes I get angry easily.
Occasionally I don’t need to get up early.
Usually they spend too much money on luxuries.

NOTE:  always bu şekilde cümle başında yer almaz.

Olumsuz anlam taşıyan sıklık zarflan (rarely , seldom , hardly ever, scarcely ever and never) cümlenin başına geldiği zaman cümle devrik olur.

I never eat fish.                                                    Never do I eat fish.
He rarely smokes.                                                Rarely does he smoke.
You seldom make mistakes.                                Seldom do you make mistakes.
She scarcely ever visits us.                                 Scarcely ever does she visit us.

ever olumlu veya olumsuz soruda kullanılır ve ‘hiç’ anlamını verir. Olumsuz cevapta ‘hiç’ demek için ‘do not everyerine ‘never’ kullanılır.

— Do you ever smoke?                                 — Don’t you ever help your mother?
— No, I never smoke.                                    — Yes, I help her when I have time.

c)        Doğa kanunlarını, her zaman geçerliliği  olan doğruları ve  genellemeleri bu tense ile ifade ederiz.

Diamond is a precious stone. /Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen.
The world revolves round the sun. /Plants need water in order to grow.
Water boils at 100° C. /Wood floats in water but iron sinks.

d)         ‘What do you do?’ sorusu    kişinin    neyle uğraştığını, işini sorar. Yani ‘What is your Job/occupation? sorusu ile aynı anlamdadır.

— What do you do?                                       — What does your father do?
— I’m a teacher.                                              — He is an accountant.

‘What do you do?’ sorusunu bir zaman zarfıyla kullanırsak, ‘sözü edilen zamanda ne yaparsın’ anlamına gelir.

— What do you do at the weekends?         — What does your father do in the evenings?
— I usually meet friends.                              — He reads his newspaper or watches television.

e) Why don’t you…………..? kalıbı birine öneri getirirken kullanılır.

— I have a headache.                                    —We have nothing to eat at home.
— Why don’t you take a tablet?                  — Why don’t we go out for dinner?

NOTE:     “Why don’t you get up early in the mornings?
I can’t, because I usually go to bed late.” ifadesinde, “Why don’t you ……….?
gerçek bir soru özelliği taşır ve kişi yanıt verilmesini bekler. Ancak:
“I’m too tired.
Why don’t you lie down and rest?” ifadesinde, “Why don’t you ……….?” yapı
olarak soru olmasına karşın, kendisi bir yanıttır ve öneri getirir.

f)  Sinema, tiyatro gibi etkinliklerin başlama ve bitiş saatlerini, ders programlarını ya da uçak, tren, otobüs tarifelerini belirtirken, geniş zamanı gelecek zaman anlamıyla kullanabiliriz.

The buses start at 6 a.m. and stop at 12 p.m. every day. (simple present)
The train to Ankara leaves at 9 a.m. tomorrow and arrives there at 6 p.m.     (future)
Our classes usually begin at 9 and finish at 12. (simple present)
My class begins at 9 tomorrow and finishes at 12. (future)

4-  THE SIMPLE PRESENT or THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Şimdi bu iki tense’i karşılaştıralım.

a) Konuşmanın geçtiği anda ya da o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri Present Continuous ile (I am doing) ; genelde yaptığımız işleri, alışkanlıklarımızı ise Simple Present ile (I do ) anlatırız demiştik.

Father is in his room now. He is resting. (now)
Father always rests in his room in the afternoon. (simple present)
I want to concentrate on my studies. That’s why I’m not playing volleyball this year.
I usually play volleyball at the weekend. I don’t play on weekdays.

b)        Bazı fiiller sürerlik bildiren tense’lerle (I am doing, I was doing, I have been doing. etc.) kullanılmazlar. Bu fiiller, konuşma sırasında bizzat yapılmakta olan bir eylem (action) bildirmezler, durum ifade ederler.

“I’m writing now.” ifadesinde, write fiili bir eylem bildirir. Yani benim şu anda yapmakta olduğum bir işi ifade eder.

“I know English.” ifadesinde ise know fiili bir eylem bildirmez. Yani, kişinin yapmakta olduğu bir işi değil,statik bir durum bildirir.

Durum bildiren fiillerin şimdiki zaman ve geniş zaman için kullanımları aynıdır.

When I get up in the morning, I want to drink something immediately.              (simple present)
I’m very thirsty. I want to drink something. (now)
People need money in order to live. ( simple present)
I need some money. Can you lend me some? ( now )

 

PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) TENSE’LERLE KULLANILMAYAN FİİLLER

1-

 

DÜŞÜNMEYE İLİŞKİN FİİLLER ( MENTAL STATE )
think *
suppose
believe
imagine

realize
notice
recognize
know

understand
feel
doubt
remember

forget
want
need
prefer

mean

2-

 

DUYGU BELİRTEN FİİLLER (EMOTIONAL STATE)
love
hate
like

dislike
appreciate
detest

loathe
fear
envy

mind
care
desire

wish
forgive

3-

 

SAHİPLİK BİLDİREN FİİLLER ( POSSESSION )
possess                   have *                    own belong
4-

 

DUYU FİİLLERİ ( SENSE PERCEPTIONS )
see *                          hear                           smell*  taste *                       feel *
5-

 

DİĞER DURUM BİLDİREN FİİLLER
look *
seem
appear*
owe
cost
weigh *
be *
exist
advise
promise
refuse
contain
consist of
include
sound

*Yanında yıldız olan fiiller, farklı bir anlamı taşıdıkları zaman, sürerlik bildiren tense’lerle kullanılırlar.

NONPROGRESSIVE ( DURUM BİLDİREN)   or   PROGRESSIVE ( EYLEM BİLDİREN )

think    ‘sanmak, zannetmek’    anlamındaysa progressive tense’lerle kullanılmaz; ‘düşünmek’ anlamındaysa kullanılır.

I think she is a student.
I think they will visit us next week.
I’m thinking about going abroad next year.
She isn’t, listening to the lesson now. She is thinking about her family.

see   ‘görmek’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing’ almaz; ‘görüşmek ‘ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing ‘ alır.

Right now, I’m looking out of the window. I see a lot of cars in the street and lots of people.
The doctor is seeing his patient now.
The manager is seeing one of the applicants now.

smell ‘kokmak’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing’ almaz; ‘koklamak’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing’ alır.

This perfume smells very nice.
These flowers smell awful. I can’t keep them in the kitchen.
Look! Mother is smelling the flowers.

have *     sahiplik bildiriyorsa, progressive tense’lerle kullanılmaz. Ancak, başka bir sözcükle birleşip eylem bildiriyorsa kullanılır.

Sorry, I can’t lend you any money, because I don’t have much now.
She has two brothers.
She is having breakfast now:
Father can’t come to the phone. He is having a bath right now.

taste   Bir nesnenin tadından söz ediyorsak ‘-ing’ almaz: ‘tadına bakmak’ anlamındaysa alır.

This soup tastes awful. I can’t eat it. (Çorbanın tadı berbat.)
The dinner looks bad but tastes delicious. (Yemeğin görüntüsü kötü ama tadı güzel.)
What are you doing here in the kitchen?         I’m tasting the meal.

feel      Bir   nesnenin   bize   verdiği   duyguyu   ifade   ediyorsa   ya   da   ‘sezinlemek,   ummak’ anlamındaysa  ‘-ing’  almaz.

This pillow feels very hard. (=This pillow is very hard. /Bu yastık çok sert.)
I feel something bad will happen.  (Kötü bir şeylerin olacağını hissediyorum/sezinliyorum.)

‘hissetmek’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing ‘  alabilir.

I feel better today, = I’m feeling better today. ( Bugün kendimi iyi hissediyorum. )

look     ‘gibi görünmek’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing ‘  almaz; ‘bakmak’  anlamındaysa   ‘ -ing ‘  alır.

You look ill. You’d better go home and take a rest. That ladder doesn’t look safe.
Why are you looking out of the window? Is there something interesting?
I’m looking at you carefully but I don’t understand what you are trying to do.

* Sahiplik bildiren ‘have, has’ ‘ have got, has got ‘ biçiminde de kullanılır.

I have two sisters.
I don’t have any brothers.
She has a car.
She doesn’t have a bike.
Do you have any nephews?
Yes, I do.
No, I don’t.
Does she have a boat?
Yes, she does.
No, she doesn’t.
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
I have got two sisters.
I haven’t got any brothers.
She has got a car.
She hasn’t got a bike.
Have you got any nephews?
Yes, I have.
No, I haven’t.
Has she got a boat?
Yes, she has.
No, she hasn’t.

appear  ‘gibi görünmek’ anlamındaysa ‘-ing’ almaz:  ‘ortaya çıkmak’ anlamındaysa ‘-ing ‘ alır.

The teacher appears to be in a bad mood today.
She appears to be bored with the film.
Look! Ali is appearing from where he has hidden. 

weigh    Bir nesnenin ağırlığını söylerken  ‘-ing’  almaz; ‘tartmak’  anlamındaysa  ‘-ing’  alır.

The baby is getting fatter. She weighs six kilograms. The butcher is weighing the meat now.

be: ‘be’   fiilinin present biçiminin am, is, are   olduğunu ve ‘şimdiki zaman’  ve ‘geniş zaman’ için aynı biçimde kullanıldığım daha önce ifade etmiştik.

I am hungry. I want to eat something.  (now)
When I am very tense, I prefer to have a walk to relax.    (general)

‘be’    fiili, konuşmanın geçtiği sırada bir değişimi vurguluyorsa, bazı sıfatlarla Şimdiki Zaman yapısıyla  ( am/is/are being) kullanılır.

‘You are very rude.’  (Çok kabasın.)   ifadesi kişinin genelde kaba biri olduğunu belirtir.
‘You are being rude.’ (Kabalaşıyorsun.)    ifadesi ise kişinin konuşma sırasında kaba davrandığını belirtir. ‘Kabalık’ genel bir özelliği olmayabilir.

c)         ‘live’   fiili ile sürekli oturduğumuz yeri ifade ediyorsak, geniş zaman kullanılır.

— Where do you live?                                             — Where do your parents live?
— I live in Istanbul.                                                 — They live in Germany.

Ancak, geçici olarak ikamet ettiğimiz yeri şimdiki zamanla belirtiriz.

I moved to Istanbul only two weeks ago, and I’m living with my relatives for the time being.

5-    THE  SIMPLE  PAST TENSE
FORM

Affirmative ( olumlu ) Negative (olumsuz) Interrogative (soru)

I studied English.
You worked hard.
He/She came late.
It rained heavily yesterday.
We enjoyed the party.
You helped a lot.
They got up early.

I didn’t study English.
You didn’t work hard.
He/She didn’t come late.
It didn’t rain heavily yesterday.
We didn’t enjoy the party.
You didn’t help a lot.
They didn’t get up early.
Did I study English?
Did you work hard?
Did he/she come late?
Did it rain heavily yesterday?
Did we enjoy the party?
Did you help a lot?
Did they get up early?

Olumlu cümlede, fiillerin past tense biçimi, olumsuz cümlede ve soruda ise fiillerin yalın hali kullanılır.

I stayed in İzmir for five years.
She didn’t study hard enough to pass the exam.

Did you stay home yesterday? 

Kısa cevapta did ve  didn’t kullanılır.

Did you go to the cinema last week?
Yes, we did.  ( Yes,we went to the cinema last week. )
Did you visit your friends yesterday?
No, I didn’t. (I didn’t visit my friends yesterday. )

5-2    Bu tense’i  geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri, olayları ve durumları anlatırken kullanırız. Yesterday, last night, last week, last summer, half an hour ago, ten days ago, two years ago vb. bu tense ile sıkça kullandığımız zaman zarflarıdır.

I became a teacher eight years ago.
Where did you go on holiday last summer?
He didn’t play football last Sunday because he was ill.
She left the country a few months ago.

5-3    Düzenli ( regular ) fiillerin past biçimi.fiilin yalın haline “-ed ” eklenerek elde edilir.

Present                  :    want             stay              study          shave
Past                        :    wanted         stayed          studied        shaved

5-4    “be” fiilinin past biçimi “was, were” biçimindedir.

I lived in a village when I was a child.

She was late for work yesterday, so her boss was angry with her.

We were at home last night.

5-5    Düzenli fiillerin “- ed” takısını almasıyla ilgili yazım kuralları şöyledir:

I)   Çoğu düzenli fiil -ed alır.

talk – talked                            govern – governed              roar – roared
walk – walked                         seem – seemed                    roam – roamed

II) Bir sessiz+bir sesli+bir sessiz harften oluşan kısa fiillerde, sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır.

grab – grabbed                        stop – stopped                     beg – begged
ban – banned                          slim – slimmed                   rob – robbed

III) Sonu –e ile bitenler sadece –d takısı alır.

gaze – gazed                            stare – stared                      like – liked
smile – smiled                          hate – hated                        save – saved

IV) Sonu bir sessiz harf+y ile bitenlerde – y, – i olur, ondan sonra – ed eklenir.

try – tried                                  cry – cried                           apply – applied
dry – dried                            fry – fried                              study – studied

y   den önce bir sesli harf varsa yazımda değişildik olmaz.

play – played                           delay – delayed                   betray – betrayed
pray – prayed                          decay – decayed                  spray – sprayed

5-6    Düzensiz (irregular ) fiillerin past biçimi ise tabloda görüldüğü gibidir.

AN    ALPHABETICAL LIST   OF IRREGULAR    VERBS

SIMPLE

FORM

SIMPLE

PAST

PAST

PARTICIPLE

SIMPLE

FORM

SIMPLE

PAST

PAST

PARTICIPLE

arise arose arisen

fling

flung flung
be was, were been

fly

flew flown
bear bore borne/ born

forbid

forbade forbidden
beat beat b eaten /beat

forecast

forecast forecast
become became become

forget

forgot forgotten
begin began begun

forgive

forgave forgiven
bend bent bent

forsake

forsook forsaken
bet bet bet*

freeze

froze frozen
bid bid bid

get

got gotten
bind bound bound

give

gave given
bite bit bitten

go

went gone
bleed bled bled

grind

ground ground
blow blew blown

grow

grew grown
break broke broken

hang

hung hung
breed bred bred

have

had had
bring brought brought

hear

heard heard
broadcast broadcast broad cast

hide

hid hidden
build built built

hit

hit hit
burst burst burst

hold

held held
buy bought bought

hurt

hurt hurt
cast cast cast

keep

kept kept
catch caught caught

know

knew known
choose chose chosen

lay

laid laid
cling clung clung

lead

led led
come came come

leave

left left
cost cost cost

lend

lent lent
creep crept crept

let

let let
cut cut cut

lie

lay lain
deal dealt dealt

light

lit/lighted lit/lighted
dig dug dug

lose

lost lost
do did done

make

made made
draw drew drawn

mean

meant meant
eat ate eaten

meet

met met
fall fell fallen

mislay

mislaid mislaid
feed fed fed

mistake

mistook mistaken
feel felt felt

pay

paid paid
fight fought fought

put

put put
find found found

quit

quit quit *
fit fit fit*

read

read read
flee fled fled

rid

rid rid
 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

ride rode ridden stand stood stood
ring rang rung steal stole stolen
rise rose risen stick stuck stuck
run ran run sting stung stung
say said said stink stank/stunk stunk
see saw seen strive strove striven
seek sought sought strike struck struck/ stricken
sell sold sold string strung strung
send sent sent swear swore sworn
set set set sweep swept swept
shake shook shaken swim swam swum
shed shine shed shone/shined shed shone/shined swing take swung took swung taken
shoot shot shot teach taught taught
show showed shown/ showed tear tore torn
shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk tell told told
shut shut shut think thought thought
sing sang sung throw threw thrown
sit sat sat thrust thrust thrust
sleep slept slept understand understood understood
slide slid slid undertake undertook undertaken
slit slit slit upset upset upset
speak spoke spoken wear wore worn
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded weave wove woven
spend spent spent weep wept wept
spin spun/span spun win won won
spit spit/spat spit/spat wind wound wound
split split split withdraw withdrew withdrawn
spread spread spread wring wrung wrung
spring sprang/sprung sprung write wrote written

*    Bu fiiller için American English ve British English arasındaki farklılıklara dikkat ediniz.

American British
bet – bet bet
fit -fit -fit
get – got – gotten
quit – quit – quit
bet – bet – bet   or   bet betted- betted
fit -fitted -fitted
get – got – got
quit – quitted – quitted

American English’de düzenli olan bazı fiiller British English’de düzensizdir.

American:   burn-burned, dream-dreamed, kneel-kneeled, lean-leaned, smell smelled, spill-spilled, etc.

British:    bum-burnt, dream-dreamt, kneel-knelt, lean-leant, smell-smelt, spill-spilt.

 

5-7   CONFUSING VERBS

a) raise, raised, raised (transitive)
The supermarket raised its prices twice last week.

b) rise, rose, risen (intransitive)
Prices rose three times last week.

c) arouse, aroused, aroused (transitive)
The man’s peculiar behaviour aroused the police’s suspicion.
d) arise, arose, arisen (intransitive)
Their suspicion arose because of the man’s peculiar behaviour.
e) set, set, set (transitive)
We set the chair at the head of the table.
f)   sit, sat, sat (intransitive)
My father sat at the head of the table
g) lay, laid, laid (transitive)
We laid the carpet after we’d painted the walls.
h) lie,* lay, lain (intransitive)
I lay on the sofa after dinner and went to sleep.
i)   bind, bound, bound (tie up)
He bound the dog to the fence with a long rope.

j)  bound, bounded, bounded (1. border   2. jump)
Luxembourg is bounded by Belgium,
Germany and France.
The dog was bounding across the field.

k) find, found, found
I found your pen on top of the fridge
l)   found, founded, founded (establish)
Mao Tse-Tung founded the People’s Republic of China.

m) grind, ground, ground (crush, into powder)
In the past people ground wheat into Hour using large stones.

n) ground, grounded, grounded (compel to stay on the around)
The authorities grounded the plane for safety checks.

o) wind, wound, wound (twist, turn)
He wound the string into a tight ball.
p) wound, wounded, wounded (injure)
The gun shots wounded several people.
q) fall, fell, fallen
She fell as she was getting off the bus
r)  fell, felled, felled (cut down)
They felled the tree because it was getting too big.
s)  see, saw, seen
They saw an accident, while driving to work.

t)  saw, sawed, sawed/sawn (cut with a saw)
He sawed the wood into equal lengths.

u) hang, hung, hung (suspend something)
They hung a flag from the window for Republic Day.

v) hang, hanged, hanged (kill someone by hanging)
The leader of the Pakistani military coup, General Zia ul-Huq, hanged the President, Bhutto, in 1979

* Lie “yalan söylemek” anlamındaysa, düzenli bir fiildir: She lied to us about her coming late.

EMPHATIC “DO”

Simple Present ve Simple Past tense’lerle. normalde, olumlu cümlede “do/does, did” kullanılmaz. Ancak vurguyu artırmak için bu yardımcı fiilleri olumlu cümlede kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda her iki tense ile de asıl fiil yalın haliyle kullanılır.

Your brother doesn’t like fish, does he? Yes, he does like fish.
You don’t help your mother with the housework, do you?  Yes, I do help my mother whenever I have time.
You didn’t go to school yesterday, did you? Yes, I did go to school yesterday.

6-     THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE                           6-1   FORM

Affirmative Negative

Interrogative

I was working.                                      You were studying.                      He/She/It was eating lunch.
We were laughing.
You were talking.
They were arguing.

I wasn’t working.
You weren’t studying.                  He/She/It wasn’t eating lunch.
We weren’t laughing.
You weren’t talking.
They weren’t arguing.

Was I working?
Were you studying?
Was he/she/it eating lunch?
Were we laughing?
Were you talking?
Were they arguing?

Where were you living this time last year?         I was living in İzmir.
What were you doing at 9 p.m. last night?
I was watching television.                                                       

6-2 USE OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
a)        Bu tense’i, geçmişte belli bir noktada yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri anlatırken kullanırız.               This time last year, this time last winter, at this hour yesterday, yesterday at 3 o’clock                   etc. bu tense ile sık kullanılan zarflardır.
This time last summer, I was lying on the beach in Bodrum, but now I’m working hard to finish this project
What were you doing at noon last Saturday?                        I was playing football with friends.

b)        Past Continuous (I was doing) ile Past Tense (I did) arasındaki kullanım farkına dikkat ediniz.
Eğer, geçmişte tamamladığımız bir eylemden sözediyorsak Simple Past Tense kullanırız. (Önemli olan belli bir zamanda ‘Neyapıyordum?” değil, “Neyaptım?”dır. )
What did you do last night?
I watched television first, then studied English.

Eğer, geçmişte tamamladığımız bir eylemi değil de, sözü edilen zamanda yapmakta olduğumuz işi anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullanılır. (Önemli olan “Ne yaptım?” değil, “Ne yapıyordum?” dur. )

What were your parents doing when you got home last night?
They were waiting for me to eat dinner with them.

c)        Sürerlilik    bildiren    tense’Ierle    kullanılmayan    fiiller    (non-progressive    verbs),    Past Continuous Tense ile de kullanılmazlar.
I already knew the news about him. ( Ben onunla ilgili haberi zaten biliyordum.)
She thought that I would go to the party as well. ( Partiye benim de gideceğimi zannediyordu.)
The flowers looked nice yesterday, but now they are fading.

d)        Geçmişteki alışkanlıklarımızı ya da sık   sık yaptığımız eylemleri Simple Past Tense ile anlatırız.

I went to the cinema very often when I was at university.

cümlesini Türkçe’ye iki şekilde çevirebiliriz.

“Üniversitedeyken sinemaya çok sık giderdim.” ya da “Üniversitedeyken sinemaya çok sık gidiyordum,” (Bu cümledeki “gidiyordum” ifadesi ilk anda Past Continuous Tense gibi görünse de, geçmişte belli bir noktada, devam etmekte olan bir eylemi değil de, genelde olan bir eylemi anlattığı için Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir.)

When he was young, he played football in the school team.                    ( general in the past)
When I saw him yesterday, he was playing football.               (a specific point in the past)

e)        Geçmişte bir eylemi, başlangıç ve bitiş zamanını   belirterek anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullanırız. (Bu tür cümlelerde Simple Past Tense kullanmak da mümkündür.)

I was watching a film on television from nine until eleven last night.
He was working as an accountant from 1985 to 1989.

f)        WHEN   and WHILE    SENTENCES

Past Continuous Tense “when” ve “while” cümlelerinde çok sık kullanılan bir tense’dir. Geçmişte devam etmekte olan bir eylem sırasında bir başka eylem olmuşsa, bu durumu şu cümlelerle ifade ederiz.

I was eating dinner when the guests arrived. ( Konuklar geldiğinde yemek yiyordum.)                 

I hurt my leg while I was playing football.              ( Futbol oynarken bacağımı incittim. )

WHEN

I-       “When” ile kurulmuş bir zarf cümleciği (adverbial clause), genellikle temel cümledeki (main clause) eylemin devam etmekte olduğu zamanı açıklar. “Bir eylem olduğunda bir başka eylem oluyordu” biçiminde bir anlam taşır.Bu nedenle “when” in bağlı bulunduğu cümlede Simple Past, temel cümlede ise Past Continuous kullanılır.

When he came,                    I was studying. ( O geldiğinde ben ders çalışıyordum.)

adverbial                                       main
clause                                           clause
He cam                                        I was reading

I was reading when he came.                   When I went out, it was raining.

They were arguing when I entered the room.                  (Ben içeri girdiğimde, tartışıyorlardı.)

When   +   Simple Past   ,   Past Continuous

II-      “When”  arka arkaya yapılmış eylemleri anlatmak için de kullanılır. Bu durumda her iki cümlenin de tense’i Simple Past‘dır.

When he arrived, we went into the cinema.
( First he came. Then we entered the cinema.)             (O gelince, sinemaya girdik.)

When he left work, he got on a bus and went home.
When the teacher asked a question, I raised my hand to answer it.

When   +   Simple Past   ,   Simple   Past

WHILE

I-      “While” cümleciği genellikle, temel cümledeki eylem sırasında devam etmekte olan bir başka eylemi anlatmak için kullanılır. Bu nedenle, “while” m bağlı bulunduğu cümle Past Continuous, temel cümle ise Simple Past‘dır.

While I was studying,                   He came in. ( Ben ders çalışırken o geldi.)

adverbial                                  main
clause                                    clause

I left home They were sleeping
I left home while my parents were sleeping.
I took a photograph while you weren’t looking.

While   +   Past Continuous   ,   Simple   Past

II-      “While”   cümleciği, temel cümledeki eylemle aynı anda olan bir eylemi anlatmak için de kullanılır. Bu durumda her iki cümle de Simple Past Tense ile kurulur.

I sang while I washed the dishes. ( Bulaşıkları yıkarken şarkı söyledim.)
She watched me while I made the cake. ( Kek yaparken beni izledi.)
I waited outside while she had an interview. (O görüşme yaparken ben dışarıda bekledim.)

While   +   Simple  Past ,   Simple   Pastanlatırken   öğrenciler   kendi   aralarında konuşuyorlardı.)

I was studying while everybody at home was sleeping. (Evde herkes uyurken ben ders çalışıyordum.)

While   +   Past Continuous,   Past Continuous

7-  THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE                                       7-1 FORM

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I have watched that film.
You have seen him twice.
He/She/It has eaten lunch.
We have invited her.                      You have worked hard.                  They have visited us.

I have not watched that film.
You have not seen him twice.
He/She/It has not eaten lunch.
We have not invited her.
You have not worked hard.
They have not visited us.

Have I watched that film?
Have you seen him twice?
Has he/she/it eaten lunch?
Have we invited her?
Have you worked hard?
Have they visited us?

Bu  tense’i  oluşturmak  için have/has   +  past  participle   (fiillerin üçüncü hali)   kullanılır.                Have/has ve have not/has not genellikle kısaltılmış olarak kullanılır.

I’ve seen that film before. /You haven’t seen that film.
He’s seen that film twice before. /She hasn’t seen that film yet.

Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz.

I) Kısaltma yapmadan:

Have you not seen that film yet? /Has she not seen that film before?

II) Kısaltma yaparak:

Haven’t you seen that film yet? /Hasn’t she seen that film before?

7-2 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

a)         Geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri zaman vermeden anlatıyorsak, bu tense’i kullanırız.

She has removed all the furniture in the house. They have painted their house.

Ancak, aynı eylemleri zamanı belirterek ifade edersek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir.

She removed all the furniture in the house last weekend.
They painted their house a few weeks ago.

Geçmişte yaptığımız eylem için zaman zarfı kullanmasak bile, eğer zamanı ima ediyorsak, yine Simple Past kullanırız.

I saw that film when I was in Ankara.”    cümlesinde kesin olarak bir zaman vermesek de when I was in Ankara’  geçmişte belli bir dönemi ifade etmektedir.
I went shopping after work.    (“after work”   yine belli bir zamanı belirtmektedir.)
I met him in İzmir. (“in İzmir” ifadesi yer belirtmesine karşın,”İzmir’de bulunduğum dönemde”  anlamını ima etmektedir.)

Present Perfect Tense ile sorulan sorulara yanıt verirken, yine bu kurallara dikkat etmeliyiz.

“Have you met his girlfriend?” sorusuna bir kaç şekilde yanıt verebiliriz.                  Yes, I have. (or No, I haven’t.)
Have you met his girlfriend?
Yes. I met her last week.  ( or I met her at Alice’s party.)
Have you seen my glasses?             Yes, I have.  ( or No, I haven’t.)
Have you seen my glasses?
Yes, I saw them on the kitchen table a few minutes ago.

b)        Yakın geçmişte olup sonuçları ya da etkileri içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam eden eylemler için bu tense’i kullanırız.

I have burnt myself. (I’m in pain now. — Şu anda acı çekiyorum.)                 I’ve cleaned the house. (It’s clean now.)

c)        Today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, this century vb., henüz tamamlanmamış bir dönem ifade eden zarflarla kullanılır.

I’ve been to the cinema twice this week.
I haven’t been able to go on holiday this year. Technology has advanced greatly in this century.

This morning“, “this afternoon” ve “this evening” ifadelerini kullanırken, saat kavramına dikkat edelim.

Genellikle  saat   13.00’e  kadar  olan süre  sabah  (morning),   17.00’ye  kadar  öğleden  sonra (afternoon), 17.00-20.00  arası ise akşam (evening)  saatlerini bildirir. Bu durumda:

I haven’t heard the alarm this morning.

ifadesini, sabah diliminin henüz bitmemiş olduğu bir saatte, örneğin saat 11-12 gibi söyleyebiliriz. Eğer Öğleden sonraki bir saatte, örneğin saat 2’de bu sözü söylüyorsak, artık “sabah” dilimi tamamlanıp yeni bir döneme geçilmiş olduğu için, o eylem geçmişte kalmıştır. Bu durumda ise Simple Past Tense kullanmalıyız.

I haven’t heard the alarm this morning. (It’s 11a.m. now.)         I didn’t hear the alarm this morning. (It’s 2p.m. now.
I’ve seen Tom this afternoon. (It’s 3 p.m. now.)                    I saw Tom this afternoon. (It’s 6 p.m. now.)

This year,   this month,   this   century gibi kullanımlarda,   eğer sözü   edilen zaman dilimi tamamlanmışsa, “this” yerine “last” kullanılır.

I have worked hard this week. (The week hasn’t finished yet.)                 I worked hard last week.
They have phoned me twice this month.          They phoned me twice last month.

d)       Lately, recently ile kullanımı:

“Son   zamanlarda,   son   günlerde”   anlamına  gelen   lately   ve   recently,   Present   Perfect   ile kullanıldığında, yine kesin bir zaman belirtmeden, yaptığımız ya da yapmadığımız işleri anlatır.

Have you seen your parents recently?
There has been great progress in the science of medicine recently.There have been some changes in my house lately.

Recently“, Simple Past Tense ile de kullanılır ve “a short time ago”   anlamını verir.

They came recently. (They came a short time ago.)
She passed her exam only recently.
(She passed her exam only a short time ago.)

e)       Already, just ve yet ile kullanımı:

Yet” soruda ve olumsuz cümlede kullanılır ve normal olarak cümlenin sonunda yer alır.

Have you finished your homework yet?                  No, I haven’t finished it yet.
Is your father at home?          No, he hasn’t come yet.

Just“,  olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve “henüz, şimdi, yenice” anlamını verir. “Just” cümlede, yardımcı fiille asıl fiil arasında yer alır.

Have you finished your homework?            Yes, I’ve just finished it.
Is the manager in?
No, he has just gone out.

Already“, olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve “zaten, çoktan” anlamına gelir. Bir eylemin umulandan daha önce bir zamanda yapılmış olduğunu vurgular. Cümle içindeki yeri normalde yardımcı fiil ile asıl fiil arasındadır, ancak cümle sonunda da kullanılır.

Shall we go to see the film “Schindler’s List” tonight? Not a good idea! I have already seen it.
Manager: Don’t forget to mail the invitations in time. Secretary: I’ve already posted them.
Mother: Wash your hands before you sit at the table. Son: I’ve washed them already.

f)        Ever, never, all my life, in his life, always, occasionally, often, several times, once, twice, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı:

Daha önce, sıklık bildiren zarfların (ever, never, always, often, etc.) Geniş Zaman ile (Simple Present) kullanımını görmüştük. Aynı zarflar, anlamda biraz bir değişiklikle, Present Perfect Tense ile de kullanılır.

I always get up early. (Simple Present — Ben her zaman erken kalkarım. “Bugüne kadar hep  erken kalktım. Bundan sonra da büyük bir olasılıkla erken kalkacağım. Bu benim alışkanlığım.”  anlamını verir.)

I have always got up early.

(Present   Perfect   —   “Ben   her   zaman   erken   kalkmışımdır.”   ifadesi, yaşamımın sadece şu ana kadar olan bölümünü kapsar.)

My father has always lived in his hometown.         (He has lived in his hometown all his life.)
I’ve never seen such a pretty dog in my life.
Have you ever ridden on an elephant?
No, I’ve ridden on a camel once, but I’ve never ridden on an elephant.

Once, twice, three times, several times, many times (bir kez, iki kez, üç kez, bir kaç kez, pek çok kez) gibi zarflarla, bir eylemi yaşamımız boyunca kaç kez yaptığımızı ifade etmek için Present Perfect Tense kullanırız.

Have you ever been abroad?
Yes, I’ve been to Germany several times.
She has invited me to her house many times, but I’ve never had any spare time.
I’ve seen her parents only once.

NOTE:   Bu zarfların Simple Past Tense ile kullanımına dikkat ediniz.

“She has invited me to her house many times, but I’ve never had any spare time.” cümlesini, geçmişte zamanı belirterek verirsek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir.
She invited me to her house many times during my stay in Germany, but I never had any spare time. “My father has lived in his hometown all his life.”

cümlesinden,   babamın hayatta olduğu anlamını çıkarıyoruz.  Artık hayatta olmayan birinin yaptığı işlerden söz ediyorsak. Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir.

My grandfather lived in his hometown all his life. (He is dead now.)
I have never flown in an aeroplane.
My grandmother never flew in an aeroplane.
(She isn’t alive any more.)
I have ridden on a camel twice. It is very exciting.
When I was in Egypt, I rode on a camel twice. It was very exciting.

g) So far (up to now, until now) ile kullanımı:

So far“,  “şu  ana kadar” anlamına gelir ve so far today,  so far this month, so far this semestre, so far this summer, etc. gibi zarflarla birlikte de kullanılabilir.
It hasn’t snowed so far this winter.
I got many bad grades last semestre, but I haven’t had any low grades so far this semestre.
We haven’t eaten anything so far todaySo far this summer, I have swum in the sea only once.

h)       For ve Since ile kullanımı:

For“,  geçmişte belli bir noktadan içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devam eden bir süreç bildirir, (for two years, for a month, for five minutes, for a long time, etc.)

He became the manager
He has been the manager for three months.

Since“, eylemin geçmişte başlangıç noktasını belirtir, (“since yesterday, since 1987, since March, since the Middle Ages, etc.)4

He has been the manager since January.
They moved to this town in 1997.
They have lived in this town for four years.
They have lived in this town since 1997.
She bought her house three years ago, so she has had it for three years.
I last saw him in September. I haven’t seen him since then.
We first met at my cousin’s 15th birthday party, so we have known each other for almost five years.
She has always been afraid of thunder since her childhood/since she was a girl.
I haven’t been to Germany since I got married.
They haven’t had the opportunity to have a long holiday for years.
We haven’t heard from him since he phoned us a month ago.
He has read fifty pages of the book since I gave it to him.
We have changed four houses since we moved to Istanbul seven years ago.
There has been a great rise in prices in the last six months.                                  
The housing problem has grown bigger in the past few years.

It is + a period of time + since + Simple Past/Present Perfect​

It is three months since I last went to the cinema.
It is three months since I have been to the cinema.

Her iki cümleyi de Türkçe’ye şöyle çevirebiliriz:
Sinemaya gitmeyeli üç ay oluyor, ya da En son sinemaya gittiğimden beri üç ay geçti.

Bu cümlelerin eş anlamlısı olarak, “Üç aydır sinemaya gitmiyorum.” ya da “Sinemaya en son üç ay önce gittim.”  gibi ifadeler de kullanabiliriz.

I haven’t been to the cinema for three months.                I last went to the cinema three months ago.

It’s ten days since she hasn’t worked because she is ill. (She has been ill in bed for ten days.)

It’s eight years since I graduated from university.             (I graduated from university eight years ago.)

It is just two weeks since they got married. (They got married just two weeks ago.  or They have been married for just two weeks.)

This is the first time   +  Present Perfect
I’m very excited now, because this is the first time I’ve driven a car.
This is the second time he has played tennis. That’s why he isn’t good at it.
You shouldn’t drink so much coffee. It’s bad for you. This is the fifth cup of coffee you have drunk in the last two hours.
This is the third exam we have taken so far this term.

This is Superlative   +  Present Perfect

This is the most boring book I have ever read.
(Bu hayatımda okuduğum en sıkıcı kitap.)
This is the most difficult situation I have ever been in.
He is the most talkative person I have met in my life.

1)         gone   or    been  “go” fiilini Perfect Tense ile iki şekilde kullanabiliriz: Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde ise, ya da sözü  edilen yere gitmek üzere yola çıkmışsa,  gone kullanılır.
I’d like to talk to your mother. Is she at home?     No, she has gone shopping.
Can I speak to Mr. Jones, please? Sorry. He has gone out of town and hasn’t come back yet.

Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde daha önce bulunduğunu ifade ediyorsa, yani konuşma sırasında başka bir mekanda ise been kullanılır.

Have you ever been abroad?
Yes, I have been to Germany several times. (The speakers are now not in Germany.)
I want to do some shopping, but I’m afraid I haven’t got enough money.
Don’t worry. I have been to the bank today. I can lend you some.

8-  THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE                                                                                             

8-1 FORM

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I have been working.
You have been working.
He/She/It has been working
We have been working.
You have been working.
They have been working.
I haven’t been working.
You haven’t been working.
He/She/It hasn’t been working.
We haven’t been working.
You haven’t been working.
They haven’t been working.
Have I been working?
Have you been working?
Has he/she/it been working?
Have we been working?
Have you been working?
Have they been working?

They have been living in this country since last year.
You have been studying for exactly three hours.
She has been learning English since she was in secondary school.

8-2 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
a)         Present Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte başlayıp, içinde bulunduğumuz anda hala devam etmekte olan eylemleri anlatır ve for, since, all day, all week, all year gibi zaman zarflarıyla çok sık kullanılır.

I started to read this book two hours ago, and I’m still reading it.                   I have been reading this book for two hours.
It started to rain yesterday morning, and it is still raining.                      It has been raining since yesterday morning.
You have been working very hard all week.                      You should take some time to relax at the weekend.
The discussion has been going on for two hours, but they haven’t taken a decision vet.

b)       Present Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte başlamış, içinde bulunduğumuz anda henüz bilmiş, ancak belirtileri devam eden eylemler için de kullanılır.

Is that child crying?
No, but his eyes arc watery. He has been crying.
Your hands are covered in oil. What have you been doing?                       I have been fixing the car.
You look very tired. Yes, I have been working hard today. Sorry, I’m late. Have you been waiting long?

c)        “Since” ve “for” ile belirtilen zamanları “how long” soru sözcüğü ile sorabiliriz. Present Perfect Simple ve Continuous tense’ler, geçmişten günümüze bir süreç belirttiği için, kesin bir zaman isteyen “when” soru sözcüğünü bu tense’lerle kullanamayız.

When did you move to this city?                I moved here seven years ago.
How long have you been living in this city?                             I have been living here for seven years.
When did you become a teacher? (Ne zaman öğretmen oldunuz?)                  I became a teacher in 1986.
How long have you been a teacher? (Ne zamandır öğretmensiniz?)              I have been a teacher since 1986.

9-  PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
a)        Geçmişte başlayıp, içinde bulunduğumuz anda hala devam etmekte olan, ya da henüz bitmiş olan bir eylemi anlatan bazı fiiller, her iki lense ile de kullanılır ve aynı anlamı verir. Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller şunlardır:

expect             lie                     rain                 snow               study            want
hope                live                   sleep                stand               teach            work                                                
learn               look                 sit                     stay                 wait

How long have you lived in this city?
How long have you been living in this city?
She has worked for that firm for the last two years.
She has been working for that firm for the last two years.

b)        Continuous    Tense’lerle    (l    am   doing,    I    was    doing)    kullanılmayan    diğer    fiiller (non-progressive verbs) Present Perfect Continuous ile de kullanılmazlar. Ancak, “want” ve “wish”  bu kuralın dışındadır.

Look at that lovely shirt in the shop window! I’ve been wanting one like that for some time.
I’ve been wishing to visit your mother since I heard that she was ill.

Diğer non-progressive fiiller ise Present Perfect Simple ile kullanılır.

What a lovely watch! How long have you had it?                               For over a year.
I see that you are close friends with him. Have you known each other for long?
Since we were children.
A nice old couple! They seem to be very fond of each other.
How long have they been married?
For almost fifty years. They’ll celebrate their Golden Wedding next year.
Hello, I have been looking everywhere for you. How long have you been in this remote part of the park?
Well, I have been thinking over my problems, and I lost track of time.

En son diyalogda “been” sözünün kullanımına dikkat ediniz. ” How long have you been in this remote part……..”   ifadesinde   “been“, “be”   fiilinin past  participle   biçimidir  ve asıl fiil olarak kullanılmıştır.

She is still a student. She has been a student for over six years.
They are married now. They have been married for three months.

“I   have   been   thinking   over   my   problems.”   cümlesinde   ise   “been”   yardımcı   fiil   olarak kullanılmıştır.

She has been working on her graduation thesis recently.
I have been helping her with her English assignments since the beginning of the term.

c)         Present Perfect Continuous Tense, always, never, sometimes gibi sıklık bildiren zarflarla, once, twice, several times gibi eylemin kaç kez yapıldığını bildiren yapılarla, ya da just, already, yet gibi eylemin bittiğini, tamamlandığını ifade eden yapılarla kullanılmaz.

I have always lived here. / I have lived here all my life.                          I have been living here since I was born.
I’ve been reading this book since this morning, and I’ve read a hundred pages so far.

(Okuma eylemi devam ettiği için “have been reading”  , yüz sayfalık bölümü tamamlanmış olduğu için “have read” )

We’ve been trying to answer a number of questions since the beginning of the class, and we’ve answered half of them already.
He’s been writing letters since breakfast time.   He’s just written the fourth one, and he has two more letters to write.
The door bell has rung twice in the last half hour, and each time, it has been a visitor for my roommate.
The door bell has been ringing for the last minute. Why doesn’t someone open the door?

About the author

1985-1988 Dörtler Köyü İlköğretim Okulu 1988- 1993 Sakıp Sabancı İlköğretim Okulu 1993-1996 Orhan Çobanoğlu Lisesi 1997-2000 Almanya'da Turist 2001-2002 Vatani Görev Isparta Muş'ta yaptım 2002-2004 Açiköğretim Lisesinden Üstün Başarı 2005-2010 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Alman Dili Öğretmenliğinde Mezun Oldum 2010-2011 Halk Eğitim Merkezinde Almanca Öğretmenliğine Başladım 2011-2013 Çeşitli Özel Dersane ve Okullarda çalıştım 2013- .... Milli Eğitimde Almanca Öğretmeni olarak çalışmaya devam ediyorum