ingilizce

Noun Clauses

Noun clause bir cümlede isim gibi işlev gören cümleciktir. Yani cümlede özne ya da nesne görevinde bulunabilir.

I don’t know the answer. (object)

noun

I don’t know      what the answer is. (object)

noun clause

I don’t know her address. (object)

noun

I don’t know where she lives. (object)     noun clause

Our discussion was private. (subject)

noun

What we talked about was private. (subject)          noun clause

Her address is unknown. (subject) noun

Where she lives is unknown. (subject) noun clause

Noun clause’ları üç ayrı grupta inceleyebiliriz:

1-     Noun clauses beginning with a question word (what, why, who, when, etc.)

2-     Noun clauses beginning with whether or not/if or not

3-     Noun clauses beginning with that

1-1    NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD

Soru sözcüğü ile başlayan bir soruyu, noun clause biçimine dönüştürmek için öncelikle o cümleyi soru olmaktan kurtarmamız gerekir. Bunun için de soru cümlesi düzenini düz cümle düzenine dönüştürmeliyiz. Bilindiği gibi İngilizce soru cümlesi Yardımcı fiil + özne + yüklem formülü ile oluşturulur. Düz cümle ise Özne + yardımcı fiil + yüklem düzeniyle kurulur.

Question:           Why is he coming tomorrow?

Noun clause:      Why he is coming tomorrow is a secret.

Question:           What time does he start work?

Noun clause:     I don’t know what Lime he starts work.

Question:           When did he leave the country?

Noun clause:    When he left the country is still unknown.

Question:           Where are you going on holiday?

Noun clause:     Where we are going on holiday isn’t certain yet.

Question:           What are you going to buy for him?

Noun clause:     I haven’t decided yet what I am going to buy for him.

Question:           When did you buy that sweater?

Noun clause:     I can’t remember when I bought this sweater.

Question:           What have they done about this case?

Noun clause:     I have no idea what they have done about this case.

Eğer bir soru sözcüğü cümlenin öznesini soruyorsa, o soru cümlesinde özne olarak bir başka sözcük bulunmadığı için, cümleyi düz cümle biçimine dönüştüremeyiz. Bu nedenle, soru cümlesi ile noun clause’un sözcük dizimi aynı olur.

Question:           Who is coming tomorrow?

Noun Clause:    I don’t know who is coming tomorrow.

Question:           What is happening in that country?

Noun Clause:    What is happening in that country doesn’t concern me.

Question:           Whose daughter has passed the exam?

Noun Clause:    I haven’t heard whose daughter has passed the exam.

Question:           How many students are going to take the university exam?

Noun Clause:    I don’t knowexactly how many students are going to take the university exam.

Simple Present Tense ve Simple Past Tense ile özneyi sorarken, “do, does” ya da “did” yardımcı fiilleri kullanılmaz.

Question:           Who comes to the office first?

Noun clause:     I don’t know who comes to the office first.

Question:           Who came to the office first this morning?

Noun clause:    I don’t know who came to the office first this morning.

Question:           Who locks the doors in the evening?

Noun clause:     I don’t know for sure who locks the doors in the evening.

Question:          Who locked the doors yesterday evening?

Noun clause:     I don’t remember who locked the doors yesterday evening.

Question:           What happens here at the weekend?

Noun clause:    Please tell me what happens here at the weekend.

Question:           What happened here yesterday?

Noun clause:     Please tell me what happened here yesterday.

Eğer aynı soru sözcüklerini kullanarak cümlenin nesnesini soruyorsak, “do, does” ya da“did”

yardımcı fiilleri kullanılır.

Who visits him every day? (“Who” özneyi soruyor.)

Onu her günkim ziyaret ediyor?

I don’t know who visits him every day.

Onu her gün kimin ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who/whom does he visit every day? (Cümlede nesne durumundaki insanı sorarken “who” yerine “whom” da kullanabiliriz.)

O her gün kimi ziyaret ediyor?

I don’t know who/whom he visits every day.

Onun her gün kimi ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who visited him yesterday? (“Who” özneyi soruyor.)

Dün onu kim ziyaret etti?

I don’t know who visited him yesterday.

Dün onu kimin ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who /whom did he visit yesterday?

O dün kimi ziyaret etti?

I don’t know who/whom he visited yesterday.

Onun dün kimi ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who/whom did she go to the party with?

(With whom did she go to the party?)

I don’t know who/whom she went to the party with.

                     with whom she went to the party.

“Who, what, whose” gibi soru sözcükleriyle sorabileceğimiz şu soru tiplerine de dikkat ediniz:

Who are        those girls?

verb         subject

I don’t know who    those girls     are.            subject       verb

Who   is       that man?

 verb       subject

I don’t know who    that man     is.

subject     verb

What        is        this substance?

verb         subject

Do you know what        this substance    is?

    subject         verb

Whose     is        that car?             verb       subject

Do you know whose   that car     is? subject    verb

Whose book   is       this?     (or Whose     is      this book?)

verb   subject                        verb       subject

I don’t know whose book    this        is.    OR

  subject   verb

I don’t know whose    this book     is.

 subject       verb Soru sözcüğüyle başlayan bir noun clause oluşturabilmek için, bu sıraladığımız kuralları dikkate alarak, örneklerde kullandığımız soru sözcüklerinin yanı sıra diğer bütün soru sözcüklerini de kullanabiliriz: which, how, how many, how much, how often, how long, etc.

1-2     NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH “WHETHER OR NOT” or “IF…OR NOT”

Yardımcı fiille başlayan bir soruyu noun clause’a dönüştürürken, noun clause’un başına “whether” ya da “if” getirilir ve soru cümlesi, düz cümle biçimine çevrilir. “Or not” whether’dan hemen sonra gelebilir (whether or not) ya da noun clause’un sonunda yer alabilir (whether … or not). Ancak “or not” “if”den hemen sonra kullanılmaz. Sadece noun clause’un sonunda yer alabilir (if…or not). Her iki cümlede de “or not” kullanmayabiliriz ve bu durumda anlam değişmez.

–    Is she coming to the party?

–     I wonder  whether she is coming to the party or not.

whether or not she is coming to the party.

whether she is coming to the party.

if she is coming to the party or not.

if she is coming to the party. (Onun partiye gelip gelmeyeceğini merak ediyorum.)

Eğer “noun clause” cümlede özne durumunda ise sadece “whether” kullanılır, “If” bu şekilde cümle başında kullanılmaz.

Whether she is coming to the party or not   isn’t certain yet. Whether or not she is coming to the party isn’t certain yet. Whether she is coming to the party isn’t certain yet.                                              (Onun partiye gelip gelmeyeceği henüz belli değil.)

   Do we have to return our assignments by Monday?

–    I don’t know whether we have to return our assignments by Monday.

–   May I leave early today?

–   I’d like to learn if I may leave early today.

–   Can you help me with my English homework?

–   I wonder if you can help me with my English homework.

–   Did she pass the exam?

–    I don’t know whether or not she passed the exam.

NOTE:     “Whether or not” kalıbının koşul cümlesinde ve noun clause’da kullanımı arasındaki farklılıklara ve Türkçe’ye çevirisine dikkat ediniz.

1-   “Whether or not”, koşul cümlesinde yan cümleyi, noun clause’da ise cümlenin öznesini ya da nesnesini oluşturur.

I will go to the theatre whether he comes with me or not. (Conditional) (O gelse de gelmese de, tiyatroya gideceğim.)

I don’t know whether he will come to the theatre with me or not. ( Noun Clause) (Onun benimle tiyatroya gelip gelmeyeceğini bilmiyorum.)

2-   “Whether or not” koşul cümlesinde kullanıldığı zaman bazı tense kısıtlamaları vardır:

future tense kullanılmaması gibi. “Whether or not” noun clause’da kullanıldığı zaman tense

kısıtlaması yoktur.

She would support him whether he were (was) right or not. (conditional)

I don’t know whether he was right or not. (noun clause: “he”den sonra “were” kullanılmaz.)

The result will be the same whether we attend tomorrow’s meeting or not. (conditional: “whether” in bağlı bulunduğu cümlede future tense kullanamayız.) (Yarınki toplantıya katılsak da katılmasak da sonuç aynı olacak.) I haven’t decided yet whether I will attend tomorrow’s meeting or not. (noun clause) (Yarınki toplantıya katılıp katılmayacağıma henüz karar vermedim.)

1-3   NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH “THAT”

Düz cümleleri noun clause biçiminde kullanırken, noun clause’un başına “that” getirilir. Eğer noun clause cümlede nesne durumundaysa “that” kullanmayabiliriz.

Statement:        She doesn’t like pop music.

Noun clause:    We know that she doesn’t like pop music.                            We know she doesn’t like pop music.

(Onun pop müziğini sevmediğini biliyoruz.)

Statement:        He is the best of all.

Noun clause:    I’m sure that he is the best of all.                                                           I’m sure he is the best of all.

Eğer noun clause cümlede özne durumundaysa, noun clause’un başındaki “that” kaldırılamaz.

Statement:        He committed the crime.

Noun clause:      That he committed the crime is obvious.                                     (Suçu onun işlediği açık.)

Statement:       He can’t win the election.

Noun clause:    That he can’t win the election is known.                                        (Onun seçimleri kazanamayacağı biliniyor.)

Ancak “that clause”un bu şekilde cümlenin başında özne olarak kullanılması pek yaygın değildir. Onun yerine, cümleye “It” ile başlayıp noun clause’u ortada kullanmak daha yaygındır.

It is obvious that he committed the crime.

It is obvious he committed the crime.

(Suçu onun işlediği açık.)

It is known that he can’t win the election.

It is known he can’t win the election.

(Onun seçimleri kazanamayacağı biliniyor.)

Statement:        She will pass the exam.

Noun clause:    That she will pass the exam is certain.

It is certain that she will pass the exam.

(Onun sınavı geçeceği kesin.)

“That clause”u yaygın olarak:       

a)     Bazı sıfatlardan sonra

b)     Bazı isimlerden sonra

c)     Bazı fiillerden sonra

d)     “The fact” ile kullanabiliriz.

a)        “That clauses” after certain adjectives:

Sorry, glad, happy, afraid, surprised, disappointed, pleased, sure, etc. gibi duygu ya da tavır bildiren sıfatlardan sonra “that clause” kullanabiliriz.

Statement:       You passed the exam.

Noun clause:      I’m glad (that) you passed the exam.

Statement:        I hurt his feelings.

Noun clause:      I’m sorry (that) I hurt his feelings.

Statement:        She couldn’t get the job.

Noun clause:     I’m surprised that she couldn’t get the job.

Sonu -ing ve -ed ile biten bazı sıfatlardan sonra “that clause” kullanımı oldukça yaygındır. Surprised, amazed, pleased gibi sonu -ed ile bitenler, ancak bir canlının duygularım ifade edebileceği için “I, You, We, They, Peter, My mother” gibi öznelerle kullanılırlar. Surprising, amazing, pleasing gibi sonu –ing ile bitenler ise olayların durumunu ifade ettikleri için özne olarak “it” gerektirirler.

It is very surprising that she was dismissed from her job.

(İşinden atılması çok şaşırtıcı.)

I’m very surprised that she was dismissed from her job.

(Onun işten atılmasına çok şaşırdım.)

‘It’s pleasing that you’ve made good progress in English.

(İngilizce’de iyi bir ilerleme kaydetmeniz memnuniyet verici.)

I’m pleased that you’ve.made good progress in English.

(İngilizce’de iyi bir ilerleme kaydetmenize memnun oldum.)

True, strange, fair, unfair, unfortunate, obvious, apparent, too bad, likely, unlikely gibi sıfatlarla da “that clause” yaygın olarak kullanılır.

It’s likely (that) there will be another rise in prices soon.

It’s apparent/obvious (that) some small businesses will go bankrupt after the recent economic crisis.

It’s unfair (that) women still don’t have the same rights as men.

It’s true (that) smoking gives rise to certain respiratory diseases.

b)        “That clauses” after certain nouns:

Miracle, pity, shame, wonder, relief, a good thing, fact, belief, theory, impression gibi isimlerden sonra “that clause” kullanabiliriz.

It’s a wonder (that) she survived_the accident.

It’s a miracle (that) the child didn’t get killed when he fell from the fifth floor.

It’s a widely accepted belief (that) the two major conservative parties should be united to come to power.

It’s my impression (that) television reduces the interest in reading.

(Benim izlenimim o ki televizyon, okumaya olan ilgiyi azaltıyor.)

It’s a great shame (that) some nations spend an enormous amount of money on arms while others starve to death.

It’s a good thing (that) your parents are quite understanding to you on this occasion.

“That clauses” after certain verbs:

Bazı fiiller, kendilerinden sonra noun clause alabilirler. Bu cümlelerde noun clause, yüklemin nesnesi durumundadır

I know his         ambition.

  noun

I know       (that) he will try anything to attain his ambition.

noun clause

I will prove his   innocence.

noun

I will prove         that he is innocent.    

noun clause

(Onun masum olduğunu ispatlayacağım).

Yaygın olarak “that clause” alan fiiller şunlardır:

acknowledge                                  fear                                 realise (wh)

add                                                feel                                 reckon

admit                                             find out (wh)                  recognize

advise                                            forget (wh)                      recommend

allege                                             guess                               remark

announce                                       grumble                          remember (wh)

answer                                           guarantee                        remind

appear                                            happen                            reply

argue                                              hear (wh)                        report

arrange (wh) *                               hope                               request

assume                                           imagine (wh)                   resolve

assure                                            imply                              reveal (wh)

beg                                                 indicate                           say (wh)

believe (wh)                                   inform                            see (wh)

claim                                              insist                               seem

command                                       know (wh)                      sense (be aware of)

complain                                        learn (wh)                       show (wh)

confess                                          mean                               state (wh)

confirm                                          notice (wh)                     stipulate

consider (wh)                                 object                              suggest (wh)

declare                                           observe                           suppose

decide (wh)                                    occur to + object            suspect

demand                                          order                               teach

demonstrate                                   perceive                          tell (wh)

deny                                              point out                         think (wh)

determine                                       predict                            threaten

discover                                         presume                          turn out

doubt (wh)                                     pretend                           understand (wh)

estimate (wh)                                 promise                           urge

expect                                            propose                           warn

explain (wh)                                  prove (wh)                      wish

                                                                                             wonder (wh)

 

*       Yanında (wh) bulunan fiiller, bir soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether ile başlayan bir noun clause da alabilirler.

The teacher claims that he cheated during the exam.

I assume that the meeting will have to be cancelled.

Everybody in the   company thinks   that   Mr.   O’Neil will make   a successful manager.

The result of the exam indicates that you didn’t study hard enough.

He never admits that he has made a mistake.

She will soon realise that she has just lost   the chance of making a career by rejecting this post.

Appear, seem, happen, occur ve turn out fiilleri özne olarak “It” kullanmayı gerektirir.

It appears that we will face terrible conditions on this expedition.

It seems to me that this child will be an artist when he grows up.

(Bana öyle geliyor ki bu çocuk büyüyünce ressam olacak.)

It occurs to me that his action was deliberate.

It turned out that he had a number of accomplices in the robbery.

“Yapacağımız” bir şey için söz vermek anlamına gelen “promise” ve “bir şeyin olacağını önceden tahmin etmek” anlamına gelen “predict” fiilleri, noun clause’da future tense kullanmayı gerektirir.

She promises that she will be more careful next time.

The villagers predict that the harvest will be good this season.

Temel cümlenin yüklemi past tense ise noun clause’da “will“in past biçimi “would” kullanılır.

She promised that she would be more careful next time.

(Bir dahaki sefere daha dikkatli olacağına söz verdi.)

The villagers predicted that the harvest would be good this season.

Beg, command, decide, demand, determine, order, resolve, urge, insist ve suggest fiilleri ile noun clause’da daha çok “should” kullanılır. Temel cümlenin yüklemi past tense olduğunda da noun clause’daki “should” aynı kalır.

I suggest that you should go to a doctor.

(Doktora gitmeni öneririm.)

He demanded that I should be on time for work.

(İşe vaktinde gelmemi istedi.)

We decided that we  should work overtime to meet the increasing demand.

The doctor insists that I should stop smoking.

d)       Noun clauses with “the fact”

Bir “that clause”u çoğu zaman “the fact that” biçiminde kullanabiliriz. “The fact that’li cümle, özne ya da nesne durumunda olabilir.

Statement:       She couldn’t pass the exam. That disappointed us.

Noun clause:   The fact that she couldn’t pass the exam disappointed us.

(Onun    sınavı    geçememesi    bizi    hayal    kırıklığına uğrattı.)

Statement:       The Independence War was won with great difficulty.

Noun clause:    Yesterday in   class   we   discussed   the   fact   that   the Independence War was won with great difficulty.

Statement:       She cheated in the exam. That made the teacher furious.

Noun clause:    The fact that she cheated in the exam made the teacher furious.

Eğer “the fact that” cümlesi, son örnekte olduğu gibi, cümlenin öznesi durumundaysa, “the fact that” yerine sadece “that” de kullanabiliriz.

That she cheated in the exam made the teacher furious.

Eğer “that clause”, bir preposition’ın nesnesi durumunda ise bu noun clause yalnızca “that” ile başlatılamaz. Bu durumdaki bir “noun clause” “the fact that” kullanmayı gerektirir. (Bkz. 1-4)

We are not worried about the fact that she comes home late from work.

1-4   NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION

Bir preposition’dan sonra noun clause gelebilir.

She takes no notice of my    warnings.

noun

She takes no notice of    what I say.

noun clause

Your question isn’t related to    this subject.

noun

Your question isn’t related to   what we are discussing now.

noun clause

She is very excited about    the holiday resort.

noun

She is very excited about    where we arc going to spend our holiday.

noun clause

She hasn’t told me anything about   her decision.

noun

She hasn’t told me anything about whether she will come or not. (“if” bu şekilde bir preposition’dan sonra kullanılmaz.)                                                               (Gelip gelmeyeceği konusunda bana bir şey söylemedi.)

She is very concerned about   the firm’s financial problems.

noun

She is very concerned about     whether the firm can overcome its financial problems.

noun clause

“That clause” bir preposition’dan sonra “the fact that” biçiminde kullanılır.

Statement:       He was devastated by the tragic news.

Noun clause:   Yesterday we   talked   about   the   fact   that   he was devastated by the tragic news.

Statement:       She is the author of two well-known books.

Noun clause:    I’m interested in the fact that she is the author of two well-known books.

Statement:       Her boss will award her with a raise in salary.

Noun clause:    She is very excited about the fact that her boss will award her with a raise in salary.

1-5   TENSE   RELATIONS   BETWEEN  THE  MAIN  VERB  AND   THE   NOUN CLAUSE

Noun clause’un tense’i ile temel cümlenin tense’i arasındaki ilişkiyi iki bölümde inceleyebiliriz.

a)       Temel cümlenin yüklemi Present Tense ise,

b)       Temel cümlenin yüklemi Past Tense ise.

a)        Noun clause as the object of a verb in Present Tense

Eğer temel cümlenin yüklemi “I think, I have thought” gibi bir present tense ise ya da “I will say, I’m going to say” gibi bir future tense ise, noun clause’un tense’i ile aralarında mantıklı bir uyum olması gerekir. Yani yüklemin kısıtlayıcı bazı özellikleri yoksa eğer (örneğin suggest, recommend, promise, predict gibi fiiller belli tense’leri gerektirir), noun clause’un tense’i present, past ya da future olabilir.

Statement:       He goes abroad very often.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he goes abroad very often.

Statement:        He is going/is going to go/will go abroad soon.

Noun clause:     I think (that) he is going/is going to go/will go abroad soon.

Statement:        He has just gone abroad.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he has just gone abroad.

Statement:        He went abroad last week.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he went abroad last week.

Statement:       He had just left the office when I got there.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he had just left when I got there.

Temel cümlenin yüklemi present olduğu zaman noun clause’da Past Perfect kullanımı, “after, before, by the time, etc.” gibi zaman bağlaçları kullanarak zamanı netleştirdiğimiz takdirde mümkündür. Yüklem present iken noun clause’da “will’in past biçimi “would” kullanılmaz. Ancak, “would like, would prefer, would rather” gibi anlamı present ya da future olan yapılar ve 2. ve 3. type “if clause” ile kullanılan “would” ve “would have done” kullanılabilir.

I think (that) she would succeed if she tried.

I think (that) she would have succeeded if she had tried.

I think (that) she would rather go to the theatre than to the cinema.

I think (that) she would like to be invited to the party.

I think (that) they had just shipped the order when we called to remind them.

Bu tense kuralları, soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether/if ile başlayan noun clause’lar için de geçerlidir.

I don’t know    when she will leave Istanbul.                                                                   why she left so hurriedly.                                    if she wants to come with us.             whether she heard the news.                   what she has been doing there for an hour. who left the office last yesterday.

I have discovered      why she refused our invitation.

when she will leave on holiday.                               how she managed to persuade him.     which countries she has been to.

She will find out      what he was doing there at the time.          why he wants to resign.                               how long he has been living in this city. which one he would rather choose. whether he will attend the meeting or not.  if he completed the job he had been given.

They haven’t announced yet    where the party will be held.

who took over the firm.                                          what has been going on here.                           who/whom they are going to award the              prize to.

b)        Noun Clause as the object of a verb in Past Tense

Temel cümlenin yüklemi “I thought, I had thought” gibi Past ya da Past Perfect Tense ise, noun clause’un tense’i eylemin oluş zamanını ifade eden tense’in bir derece past biçimidir. Yani will yerine would, can yerine could, have done yerine had done, did yerine had done gibi.

Statement:       They have finished writing their report.

Noun clause:    I noticed (that) they had finished writing their report.

Question:         When will he come?

Noun clause:    He wondered when he would come.

Question:         Is she going to come with us?

Noun clause:    He wanted to know whether/if she was going to come with us.

I know (that) he can pass the exam without much effort.

(Fazla çaba harcamadan sınavı geçebileceğini biliyorum.)

I knew (that) he could pass the exam without much effort. (Fazla çaba harcamadan sınavı geçebileceğini biliyordum.)

I don’t know for sure what she bought for you.

(Sana ne aldığını kesin olarak bilmiyorum.)

I didn’t know for sure what she had bought for you.

(Sana ne aldığım kesin olarak bilmiyordum.)

I’ve just learnt (that) she is coming soon.

(Onun yakında geleceğini henüz öğrendim.)

I had just learnt (that) she was coming soon.

(Onun yakında geleceğini henüz öğrenmiştim.)

Ancak noun clause genel bir doğruyu ya da doğa kanununu ifade ediyorsa, temel cümlenin yüklemi past olduğunda da noun clause’un tense’i present olabilir.

After the experiment, we found out that different fluids have different boiling points.

Should, had better, ought to, would rather, would prefer ve would like, temel fiil past olduğumda da aynı kalır. May, might biçiminde, have to ve must ise had to biçiminde değiştirilir.

I think she would rather stay at home.

(Evde kalmayı tercih edeceğini zannediyorum.)

I thought she would rather stay at home.

(Evde kalmayı tercih edeceğini zannediyordum.)

I suggest that he should look for another job.

(Başka bir iş aramasını öneriyorum.)

I suggested that he should look for another job.

(Başka bir iş aramasını önerdim.)

She knows (that) she must/has to help her mother.

(Annesine yardım etmek zorunda olduğunu biliyor.)

She knew (that) she had to help her mother.

(Annesine yardım etmek zorunda olduğunu biliyordu.)

1-6   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT NOUN CLAUSES

Noun clause’larda dikkat etmemiz gereken bir diğer nokta, fiillerin alabilecekleri noun clause tipleridir. Çünkü her fiil. üç tip noun clause alamayabilir. Sadece soru tipinde (soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether/if ilebaşlayan) noun clause alabilen, sadece “that clause” alabilen ya da her iki tip noun clause ile kullanılabilen fiiller vardır.

Örneğin, “zannetmek” anlamında “think” sadece “that clause” alabilir. Çünkü bir şeyin “ne zaman olacağını, nasıl olacağını, olup olmayacağını” zannedemeyiz. Ancak bir şeyin “olduğunu, olacağını” (that clause) zannedebiliriz.

I think (that) she will give up her job.

I don’t think (that) she will go on working under these conditions.

I thought (that) she would refuse our offer.

I didn’t think (that) she would accept our offer.

Ancak “think”, ”I can’t think” biçiminde kullanılırsa, “Bir neden düşünemiyorum, anlamıyorum” anlamına gelir ki soru sözcüğüyle başlayan bir noun clause alabilir.

I can’t think why she refused our offer.

I can’t think why she won’t come with us.

Ask, want to know gibi bazı fiiller ise “that clause” almazlar. Bu fiilleri ancak bir soru sözcüğüyle ya da wether/if ile başlayan noun clause’larla kullanabiliriz. Çünkü “bir şeyin olacağını (that clause)” soramayız. Bir şeyin “ne zaman olacağını, nasıl olacağını, nerede olacağını,” ya da bir şeyin “olup olmayacağını” sorabiliriz.

I will ask him what he will do with so much money.                She asks where we are going to meet.                                                  I asked him whether he liked the meal.                                       She wants to learn if I will join them.

Tell, understand, explain, know, etc. gibi fiiller ise üç tip noun clause ile de kullanılabilirler.

He told me (that) he couldn’t understand the lesson.

I will tell you tomorrow whether I will come with you or stay home.

He hasn’t told me yet where we are going to meet.

I know (that) she doesn’t trust me.

I know when she will leave on holiday.

I don’t know whether/if she will be interested in our offer.

She understood by his remarks (that) he wouldn’t lend her the money.

She didn’t understand why he had refused to lend her some money.

I couldn’t understand whether/if she was sincere in her attitude towards me.

Bu farklı kullanımları göz önüne alarak, örneklerde kullandığımız fiiller ya da yaygın olarak bilinenler dışındaki fiillerle karşılaştığınız zaman, fiilin alabileceği noun clause tipini belirlemede size önerebileceğimiz yöntem, temel cümlenin yüklemi ile noun clause’daki anlam arasında mantıksal bir bütünlük sağlamanızdır.

1-7   QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED by INFINITIVES

Soru   sözcüğüyle  ya  da   “whether” ile  başlayan  noun  clause’ları,  belli  kurallar  dahilinde kısaltarak, Question word + infinitive biçiminde ifade edebiliriz.

Kısaltma yapabilmemiz için öncelikle, temel cümlenin öznesi ile noun clause’un öznesi aynı olmalıdır.

I don’t know what I should do in this case.

I don’t know what to do in this case.

(Bu durumda ne yapacağımı bilmiyorum.)

Özneler farklı ise kısaltma yapamayız.

I don’t know what you should do in this case. (no change)

(Bu durumda ne yapacağını bilmiyorum.)

Eğer bu cümleyi “… what to do” biçiminde kısaltırsak, “… ne yapacağımı …” anlamına gelir ki cümlenin anlamını değiştirmiş oluruz.

Temel cümledeki yüklemin nesnesi ile (indirect object) noun clause’un öznesi aynı kişi ise yine kısaltma yapabiliriz.

I can tell you how you can get to the station.              I can tell you how to get to the station. (İstasyona nasıl gideceğini söyleyebilirim.)

Can you show me how I can start this machine?                        Can you show me how to start this machine?                          (Bu makinayı nasıl çalıştıracağı bana gösterebilir misin?)

Whether” ile başlayan noun clause’ları da aynı kurallara göre kısaltabiliriz, (“if” bu şekilde kısaltma için kullanılamaz.)

I can’t decide whether I should stay home or come with you. I can’t decide whether to stay home or (to) come with you.

They wondered whether they should buy an expensive present or a

cheap one.                                                                                                        They wondered whether to buy an expensive present or a cheap one.

Kısaltma yaparken, noun clause’da kullanılan tense’i de dikkate almalıyız.  Bu kısaltma her tense ile mümkün değildir. Should ya da can/could ile kurulmuş cümleleri kısaltabiliriz.   

She told me where I could get fresh vegetables.                             She told me where to get fresh vegetables.

I don’t know who /whom I should invite to the party.                        I don’t know who/whom to invite to the party. I think I know how I can overcome this situation.                     I think I know how to overcome this situation

1-8   “-EVER” WORDS in NOUN CLAUSES

WHOEVER }
mean any person WHICHEVER } mean any thing
WHOMEVER WHATEVER
WHEREVER

means any place WHENEVER means any time

HOWEVER means any way (manner)

%d blogcu bunu beğendi: