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Nouns Articeles Quantifiers Pronouns

Okuma Süresi:194 Dakika, 28 Saniye

Nouns Articeles Quantifiers Pronouns

Nouns Articeles Quantifiers Pronouns

 

İngilizcede isimler sayılabilir (countable) ve sayılamaz (uncountable) olmak üzere ikiye ayrılır. Sayılabilir isimler rakamlarla ifade edebileceğimiz, çoğul yapabileceğimiz isimlerdir: a house, two students, only one problem, another day, three years, etc. Sayılamaz isimler, rakamlarla ifade edemeyeceğimiz, genellikle kütle halinde katı maddeleri, sıvı, gaz ya da toz halindeki maddeleri ve soyut kavramları karşılayan isimlerdir: cheese, meat, water, milk, pollution, air, salt, sugar, happiness, luck, etc.

1-1 COUNTABLE NOUNS

Sayılabilir isimler, tekil (singular) ya da çoğul (plural) biçimde kullanılır. Düzenli isimlerin çoğul biçimi, sözcüğün sonuna -s takısının eklenmesiyle elde edilir: a book-books, a door-doors, a baby-babies, a course-courses, etc.

a) The spelling of -s in Regular Plural Nouns

chair- chairs

ruler-rulers

girl-girls

Pek çok isim çoğul yapılırken sonuna sadece -s takısı alır .

 

bush-bushes

Clutch-clutches

address-addresses

quiz-quizzes

box-boxes

-sh, -ch, -s, -z ve -x ile biten isimler çoğul yapılırken, -es eklenir.

-z ile biten sözcükleri -s eklenirken z çift yazılır.

 

boy -boys

play -plays

tray-trays

 

Sonu -y ile biten isimlerde, -y'den önce bir sesli harf varsa, sadece -s eklenir.

 

enemy-enemies

discovery-discoveries

cry- cries

 

-y'den önce bir sessiz harf varsa, -y, i'ye dönüşür ve -es eklenir.

 

EXERCISE l    :      Put into the plural.

Example: A tulip is a flower. Tulips are flowers.

1-     A device operated by electricity or gas and found in the home is called a home appliance. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

2-     A puppy likes to sleep in a basket ……………………………………………………………

3-     A ball is more popular with a boy than it is with a girl. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4-     A dentist works in a surgery.  ……………………………………………………………………………………….

5-     This wax was used to make a candle. …………………………………………………………………………….

6-     The soldier dug a trench. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

7-     A fez usually has a tassel. ……………………………………………………………………………………………

8-     Obstinate and slow, the ass is a symbol of stubborn stupidity. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9-     A small bakery will find rtns new regulation difficult to adapt to. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

10- A pearl forms in an oyster. ………………………………………………………………………………………….

EXERCISE 2:      Add "-s" or "-es" to the nouns given.

1-   face ………………………………………       11- pie ………………………………………

2-  rush ………………………………………       12- beam …………………………………..

3-   trip ………………………………………..       13- class ……………………………………

4-   key ……………………………………….       14- horse …………………………………..

5-  prince ……………………………………       15- dye ……………………………………..

6-   wedge ……………………………………       16- patch …………………………………..

7-   branch …………………………………..       17- graze …………………………………..

8-   voice …………………………………….        18- toy ………………………………………

9-   fox ……………………………………….        19- axe ………………………………………

10- taxi ………………………………………        20- pass ……………………………………..

b) Irregular Plural Nouns

Bazı isimlerin çoğul biçimini oluştururken, sözcükteki sesli harf değişikliğe uğrar.

man-men

mouse-mice

foot-feet

woman-women

die-dice

tooth-teeth

Child ve ox, sonuna -en takısı alır.

child-children         ox-oxen

 

Sonu -o ile biten sözcükleri üç gruba ayırabiliriz.

a) Sadece -s alanlar:

 

 

kilo-kilos

photo-photos

piano-pianos

radio-radios

solo-solos              

studio-studios       

zoo-zoos

tattoo-tattoos

b) -es alanlar:

 

 

potato-potatoes      

tomato-tomatoes   

hero-heroes

negro-negroes

c) Hem -s hem -es alanlar:

 

zero-zeroes/zeros

tornado-tornadoes/tornados                 

volcano-volcanoes/volcanos

mosquito-mosquitoes/mosquitos

Sonu -f ya da -fe biçiminde biten isimler çoğul yapılırken, önce -f, -v'ye dönüşür. Ondan sonra -es eklenir.

 

knife-knives

wife-wives

half-halves

loaf-loaves

leaf-leaves

life-lives

shelf-shelves

thief-thieves

Sonu -f ile biten bazı isimlerde -f değişmez. Sadece -s eklenir.

 

roof-roofs

cliff-cliffs                 

sniff-sniffs             

belief-beliefs          

chief-chiefs

Bazı isimlerin tekil ve çoğul biçimleri aynıdır.

deer

fish

sheep

series

means

species

Özellikle Latince kökenli olan isimlerin çoğul biçimleri farklı kurallara göre elde edilir.

a) criterion-criteria phenomenon-phenomena

 

b) analysis-analyses                                thesis-theses                                       basis-bases                                        crisis-crises                                         oasis-cases

 

c) bacterium-bacteria datum-data                   medium-media

 

Explanations:

Tekil ve çoğul biçimi aynı olan isimler, tekil anlamda kullanıldığı zaman tekil fiil, çoğul anlamda kullanıldığı zaman çoğul fiille kullanılır.

There is       a     sheep in the meadow. There are some sheep in the meadow.

The telephone is a means of communication.                          The telephone and the telegram are means of communication.     

EXERCISE 3:    Write the plural forms of the given words.

1- handkerchief…………………                    11- sheriff…………………………..

2- wolf…………………………….                     12- loaf………………………………

3- stadium ………………………                      13- crisis ……………………………

4- ox ………………………………                     14- phenomenon ………………..

5- policewoman ………………                      15- bow ……………………………

6- reindeer ……………………..                      16- hood …………………………..

7- foot …………………………..                      17- booth ……………………………

8- shoot ……………………….                        18- hoof……………………………….

9- patio …………………………..                     19- demo ……………………………

10- fish …………………………                       20- mouse……………………………

1-2 UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Sayılamaz isimler, rakamlarla ifade edemeyeceğimiz, sayamayacağımız isimlerdir. Bu isimlesin çoğul biçimi yoktur ve tekil fiil ile kullanılırlar. A/an, one gibi sözcükleri bu isimlerle kullanamayız.

This money is yours.

Our furniture is rather old.

The scenery along the Bosphorus is magnificent.

Sayılamaz isimleri şu şekilde gruplandırabiliriz:

a) Nouns denoting whole groups made up of similar items:

baggage/luggage, clothing, food, fruit, furniture, jewellery, junk, equipment, machinery, postage, scenery, traffic, money, ammunition, etc.

Bu gruptaki isimler, birbirine benzer nesnelerden oluşan grup isimleridir. Genellikle, bütün grubu ifade eden isim uncountable, grubu oluşturan tek tek parçalar ise countable olur.

Examples:          furniture— uncountable

chair, armchair, sofa, table, etc. — countable

fruit — uncountable

apple, orange, pear, peach, apricot, etc. — countable

jewellery — uncountable

ring, bracelet, necklace, earrings, etc. — countable

ammunition — uncountable  

pistol, rifle, gun, etc. — countable

b) Substances:

Solids: meat, cheese, butter, bread, ice, glass, iron, silver, gold, etc.

Fluids: water, milk, beer, wine, soup, blood, oil, etc.

Gases: pollution, air, steam, oxygen, etc.

Particles: salt, sugar, pepper, rice, wheat, com. flour, dirt, dust, sand, etc.

c) Abstract nouns: Pek çok soyut isim uncountable olarak kabul edilir.

advice, anger, assistance, behaviour, conduct, courage, education, employment evidence, fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality, importance, intelligence, information, knowledge, justice, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, poetry, pride, progress, significance, truth, violence, wealth, work, homework, time, energy, news, vocabulary, etc.

d) Gerunds: swimming, diving, running, cooking, etc.

e) Recreation: chess, tennis, football, etc.

f)  Fields of study: history, literature, psychology-, chemistry, etc.

g) Languages: Turkish, English, German, Portuguese, etc.

h) Natural Phenomena: dew, fog, hail, heal, humidity, lightning, rain, snow, thunder, weather, wind, sunshine, gravity, etc.

 

 

EXERCISE 4    :     Add final -s/-es to the nouns in bold type if necessary.

Example:         I can see that you haven't wiped several of the table.                                                         I can see that you haven't wiped several of the tables.

What I didn't like about Jakarta was the pollution.

The scenery in Switzerland was so beautiful. We crossed lots of tiny stone bridge, drove through several picturesque valley and stayed in three tiny village where we tasted the local food.

After we filled up the tank with petrol, we piled the luggage into the car. There were two large suitcase, three rucksack and a pile of sports equipment.

I am making some biscuit later today. I will need some flour, some egg, some apricot, some sugar and some butter.

A great deal of evidence was found in the house. The policeman found some fingerprint, a few hair and some blood.

Most of all, he enjoys ball game such as handball and basketball.

As a nation, we produce too much garbage and much of it, such as can, bottle and newspaper, could be recycled.

Take some warm clothing camping with you. I suggest some sweater, some sock and coat.

Being successful in life means having the courage to take opportunity and having a little luck.

We took grandmother a basket of fruit in hospital. It was full to the brim with apple, banana, grape and orange.

We are trying to save energy at the moment. We make sure we turn all the light off when not needed, take more shower more bath and keep the heating turned down low.

1-3 COUNTABLE OR UNCOUNTABLE

Bazı isimler,  hem countable hem de uncountable olarak kullanılabilirler. Ancak farklı bir anlam ifade ederler.  

iron:                This cupboard is too heavy, because it's made of iron. (iron – demir, uncountable)                                                                                                                                  It's easier to get creases out with steam irons. (irons = ütüler, countable)

glass:               There may be some glass on the floor, because the window got broken, (glass = cam uncountable)                                                                                                                             We need some more glasses for the party. (glass = bardak, countable)

paper:              She wastes a lot of paper while writing compositions. (paper = kağıt, uncountable) We always buy two papers at the weekend. (two papers (newspapers) = iki gazete, countable)

experience:       It's difficult to get a job without experience. (experience = deneyim, uncountable)                We had some wonderful experiences on our trip. (experience – olay, countable)

work:               It's really difficult to find work after the recent economic crisis. (work – iş, uncountable)                                                                                                                     Have you read all the works of that author? (work = eser, countable)

noise:               Noise is a kind of pollution too (noise = gürültü, uncountable)                                                          We heard a loud noise down the river. (noise = ses, countable)

Bu şekilde kullanabileceğimiz diğer bazı isimler şunlardır:

light                       (gün ışığı – uncountable),                                       light  (elektrik, ışık -countable)

lamb                      (kuzu eti – uncountable),                lamb                (kuzu – countable)

chicken                  (tavuk eti – uncountable),               chicken            (tavuk – countable)

country                 (kır,taşra – uncountable},               country           (ülke – countable)

time (zaman – uncountable) but can take a/an in expressions like have a nice time, have a good time, etc.)

time (kez, kere – countable)

Birden fazla çeşit, tür ifade ederken, sayılamaz isimleri çoğul olarak kullanabiliriz.

We have no food at home. (uncountable)

Grains and vegetables are useful foods.

There is some fruit in the bowl. (uncountable)

Oranges and apples are winter fruits.

Cheese is a rich source of calcium. (unc.)

They sell twenty different cheeses in their shop.

EXERCISE 5:       Add final -s/-es to the nouns in bold type if possible.

Cotton and linen are similar material, but the latter creases much more easily.

I made a skirt for myself, and I've got just enough material left to make a belt.

I've been to America six time in my life.

Do you think three hours is ample time to write our report?

During the American literature course, we studied various work of Walt Whitman.

How am I supposed to finish all this work when I'm distracted by all that noise from the street outside?

My car had been making some strange noise when it broke down in the country last week.

Because of the scandal about British beef, we have been eating a lot of lamb lately.

My uncle, who raises lamb on his farm, hopes to sell a lot of them for the Kurban Bayram.

As the natural light faded, we turned the light on.

My mother has two iron. An old fashioned one and a modern steam one.

He is a good manager because he has European management experience.

Two years after his return home, the soldier was still under the influence of all the bad experience he'd had during the war.

Italy and Spain are two of the country which attract the most foreign tourists.

I want to replace the cupboard in my kitchen, which is made of iron, with one made of wood.

1-4 POSSESSIVE NOUNS

a)  İngilizcede iyelik bildirmek için 's ve of kullanılır. Genellikle 's canlı varlıklar için, of ise cansız varlıklar için kullanılır.

Mr. Brown's office                       my sister's room

the manager's opinion                  the cat's tail

Jack's sisters                                 the dog's ears

the legs of the table                       the handle of the door

the end of the film                         the effect of the pollution

b)  's bazen cansız varlıklar için de kullanılır. Özellikle, government, company, institute gibi organizasyon isimleriyle ya da city, town, world, Turkey, England gibi sözcüklerle 's ya da of kullanabiliriz.

the company's financial situation        =the financial situation of the company

world's population                              =the population of the world

Turkey's foreign investments              =the foreign investments of Turkey

the city's biggest problem                    =the biggest problem of the city

c)  Düzenli (sonu -s ile biten) çoğul isimler için çoğul takısı -s den sonra sadece apostrophe (') kullanılır. Sonu -s ile bitmeyen düzensiz çoğullarda ise apostrophe "s" ('s) kullanılır.

singular                                                  plural

my son's room (oğlumun odası)              my sons' room (oğullarımın odası)

Mr. Brown's car                                      the Browns' car     

the baby's cot                                          the babies' cots

a housewife's duties                                housewives' duties

a child's story                                          children's stories

a deer's horns                                          deer's horns

a woman's purse                                     women's purses

Bazı uzun tanımlamalarda insanlar için of kullanılabilir.

Do you know that woman's house?

Do you know the house of that woman who is talking to your mother?

d) 's zaman sözcükleriyle de kullanılır: today's paper, tomorrow's meeting, next week's programme, etc.

This year's conference will be held; in Ankara.

Can you remember Monday's classes?

A week's holiday, two weeks' holiday, three hours' rest, etc. gibi süreç bildiren yapılan apostrophe "s" ile belirtiriz.

Two hours' sleep will do me good, (iki saatlik uyku…)

Our work is nearly one hour's drive from here, (arabayla bir saatlik yol…)

Subject Pronouns                       Possessive adjectives                    Possessive Pronouns

I                                                  my                                                    mine

You                                            your                                                  yours

He                                               his                                                     his

She                                             her                                                    hers

It                                                 its                        (possessive pronoun olarak kullanılmaz)

We                                              our                                                    ours

You                                            your                                                  yours

They                                           their                                                  theirs 

 

e)  My, your, his, our, etc. gibi sözcükler iyelik sıfatlandır (possessive adjectives) ve bir isimle birlikte kullanılırlar: my mother, his opinion, your ideas, etc. Mine, yours, his, ours gibi sözcükler iyelik zamirleridir (possessive pronouns) ve tek başlarına kullanılırlar.

-Whose book is this?

-It's my book.     OR    It's mine.

-Is that Jack's car?

-Yes, it is his car.     OR    It is his.

-Are these your books?

-Yes, they are our books.     OR    They are ours.

Özel isim ya da diğer isimler, kendilerinden sonra başka bir isim olmadan 's ya da apostrophe ile bitebilirler.

– Whose bag is this?

– it's Ayşe's bag.     OR    It's Ayşe's.

These are the children's books.     OR     These books are the children's.

This is my sisters' room.     OR    This room is my sisters'.

Possessive adjective ile isim arasında, vurguyu arttırmak için, own kullanabiliriz.

Is this your own book or did you borrow it?

It's my own book, (or It's my own.)

Benim kendi kitabım.

Don't do what others say. You should have your own ideas. (Senin kendi düşüncelerin olmalı.)

Own, of ile de kullanılabilir.

She doesn't want to share her room with her brother.

She wants her own room. = She wants a room of her own.

She has very nice ideas of her own. (Kendisinin çok güzel düşünceleri var.)

EXERCISE 6:        Use apostrophe "s" ('s), apostrophe (') or of to show the possessive case of the nouns. In same cases more than one use is possible.

< >the floor/the cage ………………………………..a month/holiday  …………………………………..Noel/cousin/wife …………………………………..Noel/cousins/wives …………………………….the deer/antlers ……………………………………the bracket/the mirror ……………………………………the children/books ………………………………..two minutes/silence ………………………………the cockpit/the aeroplane ……………………………………the subject/the essay ………………………………..Turkey/the mountains …………………………..the telephone company/the service charges …………………………………….the umbrella/the customer who's just left………………………………………..the doctor/surgery …………………………………………the population/the wish …………………………………………the result/my colleagues/efforts ………………………………………………………the con sequences/last night/decision ……………………………………………….the dolphins/tricks ……………………………………….the cover/the sofa ………………………………………the tops/the trees ………………………………………a) Belirtisiz article a/an, sadece sayılabilir tekil isimlerle kullanılır. Çoğul ya da sayılamaz isimlerle bu article'ı kullanamayız.

Sessiz harfle başlayan isimler a, sesli harfle başlayanlar ise an alır: a teacher, a table, a suggestion, an application form, an engineer, an eraser, etc.

"h"  harfi  bazı   sözcüklerde  "a"  biçiminde  okunur,   "u"  harfi  ise  bazı  sözcüklerde  "yu" biçiminde telaffuz edilir. Bu durumda harfin yazılışı değil, okunuşu temel alınır.

an honest man                                  a university student

an hour                                             a European country

an honorable person                         a universal fact

b) A/an genellikle bir nesnenin ne olduğunu ifade ederken ya da kişilerin mesleğini söylerken kullanılır.

I am a teacher.

His father is an accountant at a big firm.

Nigeria is a country in Africa.

It's an awful day today.

A sparrow is a bird.

Sayılabilir tekil isimleri bu şekilde belirtisiz nesne biçiminde kullanırken, tek başlarına kullanamayız. Mutlaka a/an ile kullanmamız gerekir. Sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle sayılamaz isimler ise genel anlamda kullanıldıklarında, tek başlarına kullanılırlar.

My sister and I are teachers.

His parents are accountants at a big firm.

Nigeria and Zambia are countries in Africa.

I like oranges.

She is very fond of animals.

People of all ages should drink milk.

Money can't be a solution to even problem.

Paper has become rather expensive after the recent rises in prices.

Most women like to wear jewellery.

Sayılabilir çoğul bir ismi ya da sayılamaz bir ismi genelin içinde bir grup, bir miktar ifade edecek şekilde kullanırken, her ikisi için de some Kullanabiliriz. Some + plural noun, çoğul bir fiil, some + uncountable noun tekil bir fiil gerektirir.

Some people like money excessively.

I need to buy some clothes.

There are some apples in the fridge. Will you bring them?

There is some milk in the fridge.

I need to borrow some money to buy that car.

You should have some experience for this job.

 

EXERCISE 7:       Add a or an where necessary.

< >………. ostrich is ……….. bird winch has …….. very long neck.My sister isn't……….. vegetarian, but she doesn't eat ………. meat because she doesn't like it.My best friend is ………. accountant and her husband works as ………. sales representative for ……….. manufacturing company.Coca Cola bottles used to be made out of………. glass, but now they are made out of ………. plastic…………. gossiping is ………. habit which I don't approve of……….. uncompromising manager isn't necessarily ……….. heartless one.Running ………. mile every night will build up ……….. strength in your legs.She won't be in her office for ……….. week as she has gone on ……….. training course.When he was younger, he had ………… moustache and ………. beard……….. security is …………important consideration for anyone who owns ………. business.I first read about Bix Beiderbecke in …….. article about him in ………… magazine.We went swimming in ……… lake in ………. remote area of Turkey……….. exercise is as important as ………. nutrition for ………. healthy lifestyle.At first glance, badminton might seem like ……….. easy game, but it requires players to maintain ……….. great concentration and make ………. split-second decision when making ………. shot.         In ………. autumn, we sometimes take ……….. short break at………. hotel in the country.I need ………. paper so that I can write …….. letter.Would you like ……… cup of tea, and ………. cake with it?The engine is getting hot. You might need to add …….. oil to it……….. children don't take any notice of what their parents say.Generally speaking. I don't enjoy ………. sport, but there are ……… games which I don't mind playing.The Browns have ………… beautiful flowers in their garden.My mother prefers to be given …….. plant in ………. pot to ……… bunch of flowers; which eventually die.     ……… people feel that………. boxing is ………. violent and dangerous sport and that  it should be abolished. It has, however, endured in one form or another since ancient times and continues to have ………. enthusiastic following.I can give you ……….. lift if you want to do ……….. shopping today.There are ……… fish in the river at the moment, so ………… fishing there should be ……… fun………… vitamin tablets aren't necessary if you eat………… fruit every day.Always walk down the street with ……… friend and never talk to ………… strangers.Let's put………. bread in ………. bag for the ducks on the pond.There are ………. beautiful places around Shrewsbury and ……… Sunday mornings, we take our car and find……. nice spot for ………… picnic.You'll find ………. bag of flour in the cupboard and ……… eggs in the refrigerator, if you want to make ………. cake for your guests!

a) Belli bir nesneden söz ediyorsak the kullanılır. The sayılabilir tekil ya da çoğul ve sayılamaz isimlerin hepsiyle kullanılır.

Yesterday, I bought a blouse and a skirt. The blouse was reasonably cheap, but the skirt was rather expensive.

Yukarıdaki örnekte, blouse ve skirt isimlerinden ilk kez söz ederken a kullandık. Ancak, aynı

nesnelerden ikinci kez söz ederken the kullandık. Çünkü artık hangi etek ve bluzdan söz ettiğimiz bellidir.

A newly married couple moved into the flat next to ours last week. The man looks over fifty but the woman can't be more than twenty-five.

She served us meat and rice at the dinner last night. The rice was really delicious but the meat wasn't very well-cooked.

b) Kullandığımız ifadede dinleyici için net olmayan, bilinmeyen bir nesne ya da kişiden söz ediyorsak a/an kullanılır. Ancak hangi nesne ya da kişiden sözeltiğimiz ifademizde belli oluyorsa the kullanılır.

She was reading a book when I went to see her.

She was reading the book I'd giren her when I went to see her.

Are you still looking for a job?

Do you think you'll get the job you applied for last week?

Can you give me an apple out of the bowl? (herhangi bir elma)

Can you give me the apple just at the top? (en üstteki elma, belli bir elma)

c) Konuşmanın geçtiği ortamdaki nesnelerden söz ederken the kullanılır.

Don't forget to turn off the light before you go to bed. (the light in this room)

Can you close the door please ? (the door to this room )

Can you give me a lift to the airport? (the airport of this town)

The ceiling leaks on rainy days, (the ceiling of this house)

d) Dünyada ya da belli bir ortamda tek olan şeyler için the kullanılır.

What is the highest mountain in the world? (dünyada bir tane "en yüksek dağ" vardır.)

The only person she can trust is her mother.

The earth is becoming hotter because of the hole in the ozone layer.

The Prime Minister is going to make a speech on TV.

Oslo is the capital of Norway.

e) Breakfast, lunch ve dinner ile normalde article kullanılmaz.

I usually eat lunch at 2 o'clock.

What shall we eat for dinner?

Ancak bu sözcükleri bir sıfat tamlamasında kullanıyorsak, a/an, specific olarak kullanıyorsak the kullanılır.

We had a wonderful dinner together.

l left home after a hasty breakfast.

The breakfast we had at that hotel was awful.

Meal ile a kullanılır. Ancak specific anlamda the kullanımı da mümkündür.

After the meeting we went to £ restaurant, and had a meal together.

I haven't seen him since the meal we had with his friends.

f) Cinema ve theatre ile the kullanılır.

Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

I haven't been to the theatre recently.

Televizyondaki programlardan söz ediyorsak, television ile the kullanılmaz. Ancak cihaz olarak televizyondan söz ediyorsak the kullanılır.

I can't watch television very often.

I remember watching this film on television before.

Will you please turn down the television?

Let's turn off the television and have a chat.

Radio ile the kullanılır.

I listened to the news on the radio.

g) Sea, sky, ground, country/countryside (taşra, kır anlamında) sözcükleriyle the kullanılır.

My son dropped his ball from the balcony and it fell to the ground.

There are black clouds in the sky. I think it's going to rain'

He bought a house in the country after his retirement, and is now living there.

I'd like to own a house by the sea.

The children are swimming in the sea.

Ancak, denizde yolculuk ifade ederken be at sea yapısıyla the kullanılmaz.

The sailors were bored because they had been at sea for months.

Space "uzay" anlamındaysa the ile kullanılmaz. "Boş yer, boşluk" anlamındaysa the ile kullanılır.

People are very interested in what is going on in space.

I'm not a good driver, so I can't park the car if the space isn't big enough.

h) Sayılabilir tekil bir ismi the ile, bütün bir türü ifade edecek şekilde kullanabiliriz.

The whale is the largest mammal.

The nightingale sings beautifully.

The willow is my favourite tree.

Bu sözcükleri, the kullanmadan, çoğul biçimde kullandığımızda da anlam aynı olur.

Whales are the largest mammals.

Nightingales sing beautifully.

Willows are my favourite trees.

Müzik aletlerinden, çeşitli icatlardan ya da aletlerden söz ederken the + singular noun kullanılır.

The aeroplane is the fastest means of transport.

Thanks to the telephone, the world seems to have become smaller.

He knows how to play the guitar.

The computer is the most important invention of our age.

Bu örneklerde gördüğünüz gibi, the aeroplane, the telephone gibi ifadeler genel olarak uçak, telefon anlamını vermektedir. Belli bir uçak, telefon, gitar, vs. den söz ederken the, herhangi bir uçak, gitar vs. den söz ederken a/an de kullanabiliriz.

The plane from Berlin has just landed, (a specific plane)

A plane crashed in the storm last night.

Can you bring me the guitar? (konuşmanın geçtiği ortamda belli bir gitar)

I want to buy a guitar. (herhangi bir gitar)

i) Bazı sıfatlar, isim kullanmadan, the ile kullanıldığında, bir grubu ifade eden çoğul bir anlam kazanır. Bu yapı ile daima çoğul fiil kullanılır.

The old should be respected. (Yasalara saygı gösterilmeli.)

The poor have become poorer since the recent crisis.

Special schools must be founded for the disabled.

Bu anlamı sıfattan sonra çoğul bir isim kullanarak da verebiliriz.

Old people are usually looked after by their children in our country. (The old are …………..)

Unemployed people have no social security. (The unemployed have ……………)

Bu yapıyı tekil bir anlam ifade etmek için kullanamayız. Eğer tekil bir anlamda kullanmak istiyorsak, man, woman, child, person, etc. gibi bir isimle tamamlamamız gerekir.

An old woman is living in the flat next to ours.

The old man living upstairs is rather bad-tempered.

I couldn’t help feeling sorry when I saw a blind child begging.

j) Ulus isimlerini the ile kullanarak, bütün bir ulusu ifade eden çoğul bir anlam verebiliriz.

The Japanese are very industrious people. (Japanese people ………)

The English are thought to be cold.

The French are interested in art.

Bu sözcükler o ülkenin dilini ifade ediyorsa, the kullanılmaz ve tekil fiil alır.

Japanese is said to be easy to learn. (Japonca ……….)

English is becoming a world language.

French is no longer so attractive as it used to be.

Turk, American, German, Russian, etc. gibi bir ülkenin insanını ifade eden sözcükler çoğul kullanıldıkları zaman sonuna -s takısı alır.

Turks are still known as barbarians by some Europeans,

k) The with geographical names:

Kıta isimleri the ile kullanılmaz.

Asia        Africa        Europe        North America

Tek ülke isimleri the almaz.  Ancak ülke adıyla birlikte union,  republic,  kingdom, etc. gibi sözcükler varsa the kullanılır.

Turkey     France       Bulgaria      China        Russia

the Republic of Turkey              the United Kingdom

the United States of America      the Soviet Union

East, west, north gibi yön bildiren   sözcüklerle bölgeleri belirtirken the kullanılır.  Ancak bunların sıfat biçimleri ile (eastern, western, northern, etc.) the kullanılmaz.

the Middle East                           the Far East

the east of Turkey (eastern Turkey)

the south of Italy (southern Italy)

 

Tek tek ada ve dağ isimleriyle the kullanılmaz. Ancak takımadalar ve sıradağlar çoğul bir isimle the alırlar.

Mount Everest             Mount Ağrı            Sicily               Bermuda

the Alps                       the Andes                                             

the Canary Islands/the Canaries

Göl isimleri the almaz. Ancak okyanus, deniz, nehir ve kanal isimleri the ile kullanılır.

Lake Superior                                            Lake Van

the Mediterranean Sea                               the Black Sea

the Nile                        the Mississippi       the Kızılırmak

the Suez Canal                                           the Panama Canal

the Indian Ocean                                       the Pacific Ocean

EXERCISE 9:       Add a/an, the or some where necessary. In some cases more than one answer is possible.

< >Has……….. parade come past yet? I got caught in ……… traffic in ……… centre of town and was afraid I had missed it.One of ………. earliest official recognitions of ………. endangered species problem in ………. United States was ……… Buffalo Protection Act of 1894.Diabetes is ………… disease which occurs when ……… body does not produce enough insulin or when ……._ body's cells cannot use ………. insulin that is available even if there is …… sufficient amount.I think I need ……….. advice about where to put this painting? Should I put it on ………. shelf above ……….. fireplace, or hang it on ……… wall in ………. hall?……… bullfight is relentless. If……… matador is injured, another replaces him, and ……… bull is killed at ……… end of each matchLook! Your old school friend is on ……… front page of…….. paper because she's won …….. medal at…….. Olympic Games. ……… new salesman has already made ………. sale. He is either ……… extremely lucky man, or he has ………. extensive experience in sales.I got ……… sand in my shoe when I walked along ………. beach near my home this morning and now I have…….. blister on my heel.Omar Khayyam became ……… man of two reputations: In his own time, he was acknowledged as ………. brilliant scholar who had mastered ……… mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, law, medicine and history. To ……… modern world, he is ………. author of ……… small volume of remarkably beautiful poetry.I found ……… gold chain on ……… seat at …… restaurant where I work. We haven't found out who it belongs to yet.Apparently, there are ………. similarities between………. Welsh and ……… language spoken by…….. people on…….. island of Minorca.Lots of boats have sunk in ……. sea around……… Bahamas, ………. group of 700 islands off…….. coast of America……….. gold is one of………. most precious ……… metalsin ………. world.The last time there was ……… flood in Shrewsbury. ……… river broke its banks in several areas of…….:. town………. market place and ………. shops were flooded. We were lucky as our shop was one of those which weren't flooded………. No 9 bus runs until late in ……… evening, so you will have no problems getting ……… home.You'll be pleased to hear that grandmother has knitted you ………. cardigan to wear with ………. skirt I bought you.It's going to be ……… wonderful day. There isn't ……… cloud in…….. sky………. English politicians think……… Euro is ………. important currency in business while others are against joining it……….. eagles, which are among ……… rarest birds in ……… Britain, are more common in ……… United States of America.Sarah, can you lend me ……… money for…….. ice-cream?I prefer ……… lemonade made with …….. real lemon juice to any drink made with ……… artificial flavourings.I'm not particularly good at……… sport, but my brother is ……… skilful basketball player.Because of ……. overwhelming heat at …… moment, ……… mayor has advised ……. elderly and …….. mothers with young children to stay indoors.For centuries, London had been subjected to ……… danger of smog, long recognised as ……… potential cause of death, especially for ………. elderly people and those with severe respiratory ailments.Maria bought me ……… flowers for helping her set up ……… tables for …….. 5th Annual Burcot Ladies' Flower Show.Any, some, a lot of/lots of, hem sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle hem de sayılamaz isimlerle kullanılır. Many sadece çoğul isimlerle, much ise sadece sayılamaz isimlerle kullanılır.

Any daha çok soruda ve olumsuz cümlede kullanılır. Sayılabilir isimlerle kullanıldığında çoğul isim ve çoğul fiil, sayılamaz isimlerle kullanıldığında tekil fiil gerektirir.

– Are there any wild animals in this forest?

– No, there aren't any. (There aren't any wild animals in this forest.)      !

– Is there any milk at home?

– No, there isn't any. (There isn't any milk at home.)

Olumsuz cümlede not any yerine no kullanabiliriz. Ancak no sayılabilir tekil isimlerle de kullanılır. No kullanıldığında fiilin olumlu olduğuna, dikkat ediniz.

There are no wild animals in this forest.

There is no milk at home.

There was no bus at that hour, so we took a taxi.

(There wasn't a bus at that hour.)

Any olumlu cümlede kullanıldığında, herhangi bir, istediğin anlamını verir…….   Bu kullanımda any'den sonra sayılabilir tekil isim de gelebilir.

– Which dress should I wear to the party?

– You can wear any dress you like. (istediğin elbiseyi giyebilirsin.)

– Which bus should I take to Kadıköy from here?

– You can take any bus. All the buses from here go to Kadıköy.

-When shall I come to see you?

– It doesn't matter. Any day suits me. You can come any day you like. (Her gün/herhangi bir gün bana uyar. İstediğin bir gün gelebilirsin.)

 

Some, sayılabilir çoğul ve sayılamaz isimlerle olumlu cümlede kullanılır. Sayılabilir isimlerle kullanıldığında birkaç, sayılamaz isimlerle kullanıldığında biraz anlamını verir.

There are some people waiting at the bus-stop. ( … birkaç insan var.) There is some milk in the fridge. ( … biraz süt var.)

Some, sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle bazı anlamında da kullanılır.

Some people are not so optimistic as others. (Bazı insanlar…)

Some cars are convertibles. (Bazı arabalar ….)

Some, ikramda bulunurken ya da bir şey isterken soruda kullanılabilir.

Would you like some cake?

Can you lend me some money?

May I take some days off?

Can you send me some post cards from there for my collection?

A lot of/lots of, sayılabilir çoğul ve sayılamaz isimlerle genellikle olumlu cümlede çok anlamında kullanılır. Olumsuz cümlede ya da soruda çok demek için sayılabilir isimlerle many, sayılamaz isimlerle much kullanılır. Many'nin olumlu cümlede de kullanımı mümkündür. Ancak much'ın bu şekilde olumlu cümlede kullanımı çok enderdir.

– Were there many people in the queue? (….. çok insan var mıydı?)

– Yes, there were a lot of/lots of/many people in the queue.

(No, there weren't many people in the queue.)

– Was there much traffic on the way to work yesterday?

– Yes, there was a lot of/lots of traffic on the way to work yesterday.

(No, there wasn't much traffic on the way to work.)

Too many ve too much aşırılık bildirir ve olumlu cümlede kullanılır.

There is too much noise in big cities.

There were too many people at the party.

How many ve how much miktar sorarken kullanılır.

– How many people were there at the party?

– There were a lot.

– How much money do we have?

– We don't have much.

Some, any, many ve much sözcüklerim "of" lu bir tamlamada kullanırken, ismin önünde my, your, the, these, those, etc. gibi bir sözcük kullanmamız gerekir. Bunun nedeni belli bir grubun içinden bazıları, çoğu, vb. ifadelerini vermek içindir.

Some students don't attend classes regularly. (general)

Some of the students in this class don't attend classes regularly. (specific)

Many children suffer from loneliness in big cities. (general)

Many of the children in our street are older than my son. (specific)

I don't think any elderly people can bear these conditions, (general)

I don't think any of these elderly people can bear these conditions. (specific)

Many people can't spend much money on clothing. (general)

Much of this money will be spent on food. (specific)

A lot/lots'dan sonra bir isim geliyorsa, arada mutlaka of kullanılır. Bu isim general ya da specific olabilir.

A lot/lots of people have become unemployed because of the recession. (general)

A lot/lots of the people at the demonstration were those who had lost their jobs during the recent economic crisis. (specific)

"Of" lu tamlamada çoğul isimlerin yerine zamir (pronoun) olarak us, you, them, these ve those;

sayılamaz isimler için ise it, that ve this kullanabiliriz.

Some of us don't want to go there. Oazılanmız…..)

Many of them were involved in the case. (Onların çoğu…..)

Are any of you coming with us?

Some of these are yours.

– What did you spend the money on?

– Much of it was spent on advertisement.

EXERCISE 10:      Use many or much with the following words, making the words plural if necessary.

Example:     tree — many trees    wood — much wood

 

competence ……………

child ………………….

accident………………..

loaf………………….

intelligence …………….

research ………………..

report ………………….

researcher ……………..

lecture ………………….

computer ………………

hatred ………………….

crisis ………………….

pollution ……………….

job ………………….

work ………………….

 

violence……….

fight …………….

company ………

commerce …….

leader ………….

leadership …….

chaos …………..

lie……………….

pebble ………….

soil ……………..

generosity …….

conclusion ……

isolation ……….

entertainment.

park ……………

 

EXERCISE 11:    Add of where necessary.

Most …………. teenagers rebel against their parents to some …………. degree.

Most …………. the teenagers at the party were chatting together in the garden.

She spends a lot…………. time gossiping on the phone.

It will take quite a lot…………. my time to fill these forms in.

Do any …………. your employees know how to use the Internet?

Don't put any …………. drinks on your desk.

Some …………. the hysteria was caused by the media.

By the statements they used in their articles, some …………. journalists added to the hysteria.

Many …………. the explanations given by the product manager were confusing.

Much …………. confusion was caused by the product manager's complicated explanations.

 

3-2 FEW/A FEW, LITTLE/A LITTLE

Few/a few sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle kuLlaruhr ve birkaç, az anlamını verir. Little /a little ise sayılamaz isimlerle biraz, az anlamında kullanılır.

A few olumlu bir anlam taşır. Sözünü ettiğimiz nesnenin sayıca az ama yeterli olduğunu ifade eder. Few ise olumsuz bir anlam taşır. Sözünü ettiğimiz nesnenin sayıca çok az olduğunu, yeterli olmadığım ifade eder. Only a few ve very few, few ile aynı anlamdadır.

I have a few close friends in Istanbul, and we have a very good time together. (birkaç tane ama yeterli)

I have few friends in Istanbul, so I feel lonely from time to time. (very few/only a few friends — çok az arkadaş, yeterli değil)

A few ile few arasındaki fark a little ve little için de geçerlidir.

We have a little milk. Let's make a pudding. (biraz süt, amacımız için yeterli)

We have little milk. We can't make a pudding. (very little/only a little milk, çok az süt, amacımız için yeterli değil)

Bu sözcükleri, ismin önünde the, my, his, this, these, etc. gibi bir sözcük kullanarak "of" lu bir tamlamada kullanabiliriz.

Few people are aware of the dangers of pollution. (general)

Few of the people living in big cities try to do anything about pollution.
(specific)          

Only a little of the vocabulary in this text is above your level. (specific)

  You will have to learn only a little vocabulary for this test. (general)

Few/a few of ile us, them, you, these, those; little/a little of ile it, that, this kullanabiliriz.

Few of us can be frank in certain situations. (Çok azımız…)

Very few of them were able to pass the exam. (Onların çok azı.. )

I can give you only a little of this. (bunun çok azını…)          

Too/so little ve too/so few, sahip olunan nesnenin çok az olduğunu ifade eder.

After the war people had too little money/so little money. (çok az para …)

You can't prepare your term paper. There are too few materials/so few materials. (çok az materyal …)

EXERCISE 12:     Complete the sentences with few/a few, little or a little.

There were too ………………. big waves today to make surfing fun.

………………. flowers in a vase always brightens a room up.

I had assumed there would be ………………. traffic congestion around the arena during the concert, but I hadn't expected to be stuck in traffic for an hour.

If I'm going to bake Susan a birthday cake; I'll need ………………. more flour. Will you pick some up from the shop?

He may have gone to one of the best schools of the country, but he has ………………..idea of how to behave in public.

There is ………………. evidence that he is guilty, so I'm sure he will be found innocent by the judge.

The charity was able to raise…………….. money for the cause because ……………….people attended the concert.

The expensive proposal had so ……………. advantages over the cheaper one that we couldn't justify spending such a large amount of money.

………………. is known about the origins of the Melungeons of North America, but they are believed to be mixed-race people with Native American and Mediterranean ancestors.

I have so ………………. chairs that I have to borrow some for my dinner party tonight.

I think we'll need ………………… more chairs for the dinner party. Do you think it's okay if I ask our next-door neighbour?

We have ………………. cake left from the reception. If you would like to take some home, ask me before you go.

There is ………………. sense in having new business cards printed now, if we are moving premises next month.

With only……………….. exceptions, such as vitamin D, which can be produced in the skin when the skin is exposed to sunlight, the body is unable to make vitamins, so they must be  supplied in the daily diet or through supplements.

I don't think she'll be very good at running her own business as she has ………………. self- discipline.

3-3 MOST, SEVERAL, PLENTY OF, ENOUGH

Most, plenty of ve enough, hem sayılabilir çoğul hem de sayılamaz isimlerle kullanılır.

Most, pek çok, çoğu anlamındadır. "Of" lu tamlamada kullanıldığı zaman ismin önünde the, my, his, these, that, this, it, etc. gibi bir sözcük kullanmak gerekir.

Most people are dissatisfied with the life they are leading. (general)

  Most of the people in Istanbul are those who migrated from Anatolia. (specific)

Most of the information in that book is inaccurate.

Most of the food we bought last week has gone bad.

Much ve many'nin superlative biçimi most ile (en çok) miktar sıfatı most arasındaki kullanım farkına dikkat ediniz. Superlative most başına daima the alır ve isim ile most arasında of kullanılmaz.

Out of all the students in the class. Sally has the most books. (en çok kitap…)

Of the three brothers, George has the most money. (en çok para…)

Plenty'den sonra isim geliyorsa arada of kullanılır. Plenty of yeterinden fazla, bol bol anlamını verir.

Let's drink some coffee before the film starts.

We have plenty of time.

There were plenty of vegetables at home, so I didn't buy any when I went shopping.

Enough'dan sonra normalde of kullanılmaz. Ancak specific bir isim kullanılmışsa enough ile ismin arasına of gelir.

We have enough money to eat out today.

You can take enough of this money, and leave the rest.

Several, birkaç, bazı anlamını verir ve sadece sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle kullanılır. Eğer specific bir isim kullanılırsa, several'dan sonra of gelir.

There were several houses in the valley. (Vadide birkaç ev vardı.)

He failed for several reasons. (Bazı nedenlerden dolayı /birkaç nedenden dolayı başaramadı.)

He borrowed several of my books.

Several of the houses in the slum area were pulled down the other day.

EXERCISE 13:    Add of where necessary.

There were several………….. objections at the meeting to the proposal to shut some …………… the overseas branches.

Most………….. the objections to the closures were related to job losses and employment.

When the coach collided with a lorry, several………….. people died instantly, and a few ………… the passengers taken to hospital died later of their injuries.

She spends a lot………….. money on perfume and makeup.

A lot………….. the money raised was given to the local hospital.

I don't know why the children can't find something interesting to watch. Now that we have  cable TV, they have plenty ………… channels to choose from.

Joe Black got the most………….. support from the voters.

Most………….. the crop was destroyed by a disease.

My son spends most………….. afternoons playing basketball with his friends, all ………….. whom have more ……… free time than he does and play more often.

Most………….. politicians are skilled at avoiding answering questions directly.

Most………….. the politicians at the meeting voted against the proposed new law.

In my opinion, not enough …………. the course was devoted to grammar.

Most………….. my wages are spent on bills and food.

Do we have enough ………….. money to buy Mum a present for her birthday?

I didn't find some ………….. his jokes funny at all, yet some …………. people from the audience laughed hysterically throughout the show.

3-4 ALL, WHOLE, NONE, HALF

All, sayılabilir tekil ve çoğul ve sayılamaz isimlerle kullanılır. Sayılabilir çoğul isimler genel anlamda kullanıldığı zaman direk all 'dan sonra gelebilir.

All people are equal by law.

All nations want to be independent.

All students are afraid of exams.

 

Specific bir isimle kullanıldığında all'dan sonra of kullanabiliriz. Ancak of kullanmadan da specific bir isim kullanmak mümkündür. Özellikle sayılabilir tekil isimlerle kullanıldığında of genellikle kaldırılır.

all of my students = all my students

all of this money    – all this money

all of the information I was given                     = all the information I was given

all of the people in the world                = all the people in the world

all of the houses in our neighbourhood = all the houses in our neighbourhood

all of these         = all these

all of this                       = all this

all my life, all the book, all the house, etc.

All, us, you, them ve it ile kullanıldığında of kaldırılamaz.

All of us want to live in comfort.

All of them were in favour of eating dinner out

All of it was spent thoughtlessly.

Ancak, personal pronoun+all yapısıyla of kullanılmaz.

all of us     = we all (subject), us all (object)

all of you   = you all

all of them = they all (subject), them all (object)

all of it       = it all

Bu yapıda all cümlenin öznesiyle kullanıldığında, yardımcı fiil yoksa özne ile yüklem arasında, yardımcı fiil varsa, yardımcı fiille yüklem arasında kullanılır.

All of them objected to our proposal

They all objected to our proposal.

All of them were bought by a German.

They were all bought by a German

She ate all of it.                 = She ate it all.

I wanted to see all of them.       = I wanted to see them all.
She invited all of us.                 = She invited us all.

Yardımcı fiille biten kısa cevaplarda all, özne ile yardımcı fiil arasında yer alır.

We are all willing to help you.

Who is willing to help me? — We all are. ( Hepimiz.)

Whole daha çok sayılabilir tekil isimlerle kullanılır ve bütün anlamındadır. The, my, his, this gibi sözcükler all'dan sonra, whole'dan ise önce gelir.

the whole house            = all the house

the whole book             = all the book

my whole life        = all my life

this whole chapter         = all this chapter

He spent his whole life / all his life in the village. (Bütün yaşamını….)

I read the whole book / all the book in just two days. (Bütün kitabı…)

"A whole …" yapısını "bütün bir …" anlamında kullanabiliriz.

He ate a whole chicken on his own. (a complete chicken =Bütün bir pilici tek başına yedi.)

 

All   ve   whole'un   zaman    sözcükleriyle   kullanımı   da   farklıdır.   All   zaman   sözcükleriyle

kullanıldığında the almaz: all day, all year, all night, etc.

Whole ise önüne the alır: the whole day, the whole year, the whole night, etc.

Yesterday, I spent the whole day/all day working at home.

She'll spend the whole year/all year preparing for the university exam.

All, bazı cümlelerde everything ve the only thing anlamına gelebilir.

All (that) I want is a little peace and quiet. = The only thing (that) I want is a little peace and quiet. ( Bütün istediğim ……….)

All I've eaten today is a piece of bread. = The only thing I've eaten today is a piece of bread. ( Bugün bütün yediğim ……………)

All you say is true. = Everything you say is true. ( Söylediklerinin hepsi ……. )

None, hiçbiri, hiç demektir; sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle ve sayılamaz isimlerle kullanılır. None kısa cevaplarda tek başına kullanılır. Ancak kendinden sonra isim kullanılacaksa, specific bir isim of ile gelir.

-How much money do you have? – None. (No money.)

-How many applicants arc there? – None. (No applicants.)

None of these books are suitable for a child.

None of the students were keen on having an exam that day.

None of this money belongs to you.

None of us/you/them/those/these/it/this/that kullanımı mümkündür.

There were a lot of applicants, but none of them were suitable for the job.
None of these can be eaten.     
None of it belongs to you.

None of kendisi olumsuz olduğu için cümlenin yüklemi olumlu olur ancak cümle olumsuz bir anlam  taşır. Sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle kullanıldığında fiil tekil ya da çoğul olabilir. Sayılamaz isimlerle kullanıldığında fiil daima tekildir.

None of these books are/is mine.

None of his relatives were/was helpful enough.

None of this information is accurate.   

None of the fruit was washed.

Half, yarısı anlamındadır ve sayılabilir tekil ve çoğul ve sayılamaz isimlerle kullanılır. Half dan sonra specific bir isim kullanılır. Half ile isim arasında of kullanabiliriz. Ama genellikle of kaldırılır. Us, them, you, it, gibi zamirlerle of kullanılır.

half of the students        = half the students       = half of them

half of the money  = half the money                = half of it

half of the book     = half the book                   = half of it

Half sayılabilir tekil ve sayılamaz isimlerle kullanıldığında tekil fiil; çoğul isimlerle kullanıldığında çoğul flil alır.

Half (of) this money is yours.

Half (of) the work has been completed.

Half (of) the film was censored.

Half (of) the students were against taking the exam that day.

Half (of) these books are my friend's.

Not all the books here are mine. Half of them belong to my friend.

Half (of) the money was spent on clothing, and half of it was spent on food.

EXERCISE 14:   Complete the sentences with all or whole.

Who left the door of the freezer open? ………….. the ice-cream has melted.

We had to listen to the driver's dreadful music the ………….. journey.

Anyone who spends his ………….. life caring for animals must have a compassionate character.

Seeing ………….. these ants must mean there is an ants' nest in the garden.

The supervisor will give you ………….. the help you need while you are training.

I couldn't believe my eyes when my son ate a/an ………….. watermelon on his own after dinner.

The………….. class expected Brenda to pass the examination.

Virtually ………….. the students in the class expected Brenda to pass the examination.

It has been really quiet. I've only had two customers in the shop ………….. day.

His ………….. family, including his cousins, nieces and nephews, attended his wedding.

EXERCISE 15:    In some of the following sentences, of is necessary. It is not possible in some, and optional in some others.

Examples:  All _______living things require food to survive.   (of is not possible here)

All ___(of)_the plants in my living room need to be watered today.(of is optional)

All ___(of)_ them must be watered today,  (of is necessary)

Please help yourself. All ………… this food has to be eaten today.

None ………… the plants on this stall look very healthy.  Let's go to the garden centre.

She spends half………… her time on the telephone to friends. No wonder she gets nothing done.

All ………… we could think of was leaving the hotel.

None ………… the rooms in the hotel had a balcony.

All ………… mountain rescue volunteers have to be dedicated and brave.

Three men were arrested, but none ………… them has been charged.

Our local football team won all ………… their home matches, but few ………… their away ones.

We worked all ………… night to finish our project.

Mr. Brown knows about half ………… his customers by name.

Due to an accident, the MI between Coventry and Northampton is closed and all ………… the traffic has been diverted.

I used to think that all ………. children liked ice-cream until I witnessed my niece refuse one.

If I had half………… her talent. I wouldn't be performing in a small town like this.

You will be pleased to hear that all………… our products come with a two-year guarantee.

I don't think I can eat all ……….. this sandwich on my own. Would you like half ………… it?

3-5 BOTH, EITHER, NEITHER

Both, either ve neither daima iki şeyden söz ederken kullanılır. Both, her ikisi; either, ikiden
ya o ya diğeri; neither ise ikiden hiçbiri anlamını verir. Üçü de yalnızca sayılabilir isimlerle
kullanılır.                                                                  

Both, çoğul bir isim ve çoğul bir fiille kullanılır. Both tek başına kullanılabilir, kendinden hemen sonra isim de alabilir.

There were two girls in the classroom. Both were reading something. = Both girls were reading something.

Both ile isim arasında the, my, these, etc. gibi bir sözcük varsa of kullanabiliriz.

Both of my parents/Both my parents are in Germany.

I have met both of your brothers/both your brothers.

Both of us/you/them yapısıyla of mutlaka kullanılır. Bu anlamı personal pronoun + both biçiminde de verebiliriz.

both of us           = we both (subject) — us both (object)

both of you         = you both

both of them       = they both (subject) — them both (object)

Cümlenin öznesi ile bu şekilde kullanıldığında both'un cümle içindeki yeri, eğer yardıma fiil yoksa özne ile yüklem arasında; yardımcı fiil varsa yardımcı fiille yüklem arasındadır.

Both of us want to help you      = We both want to help you.

Both of them were injured        = They were both injured.

Both of you can help him         = You can both help him.

-Which of these pullovers would you like to buy?

-I'll buy both of them/I'll buy them both.

She invited both of us/She invited us both.

 

Yardımcı fiille biten kısa cevaplarda both, özne ile yardımcı fiil arasında yer alır.

– Which of you can speak English?

– We can both speak English.   OR   We both can.

Either ve neither tek başına kullanılabilir ya da kendilerinden sonra sayılabilir tekil isim alabilirler. Bu durumda fiil daima tekildir.

– Which of these apples would you like?

– I can take either / either apple. (It doesn't matter, this or that apple.)

– Which of those two girls is your friend?

– Neither is my friend. / Neither girl is my friend.

Either of ve neither of dan sonra specific çoğul bir isim gelir. Bu durumda fiil tekil ya da çoğul olabilir. Either of ve neither ofdan sonra us, you, them, these, those gibi pronoun'lar kullanabiliriz.

Either of those dresses is (are) suitable for the party.

Neither of my parents approves (approve) of my smoking.

Neither of them knew the way to our house.

We both know English. Either of us can translate the letter for you.

I think neither of them is (are) married.

Either, olumsuz bir cümlenin öznesi durumunda kullanılamaz. Ancak olumlu bir cümlenin ya da soru cümlesinin öznesi olarak kullanılabilir.

Either of these solutions will work.

Can either of you speak English?

Either, olumsuz bir cümlenin nesnesi durumunda kullanılabilir. Bu durumda olumsuz bir fiil+either ile olumlu bir fiil+neither aynı anlamı verir.

I will invite neither of them. = I won't invite either of them.

I have read neither of those books. = I haven't read either of those books.

 

NOTE:     Both ve neither ile all ve none arasındaki ayrıma dikkat ediniz. Both ve neither daima iki şeyden söz ederken kullanılır. All ve none ise, sayılabilir isimlerle kullanıldığında, en az üç ya da daha fazia öğeden oluşan bir gruptan söz eder.

They have two daughters. Both of them are attending university.

Neither of them is (are) a graduate yet.

They have three daughters. All of them are single.

None of them is (are) married yet.

 

EXERCISE 16:   Complete the sentences with both, either, neither, all or none.

< >Aunt Victoria was really upset because someone had broken into her house and stolen …………….. of her jewellery.You could send your daughter to a course preparing students for the University Entrance Exam, or pay for her to have private lessons. ……………..  option guarantees that she will pass the exam, of course, but……………. will enhance her chances of success.Apparently, …………….. of the audience understood the joke because nobody laughed.I'm short-sighted in …………….. eyes, but the left is much worse than the right.We were given two prices for the night to Thailand: economy and business. Unfortunately, …………….. price was within our budget.The museum is open to me public on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, but I'm afraid ……………… of these will be very suitable for me to go there this week.Our history teacher has decided to give us another exam because ……………… of us, except Sandra, who is very hard-working, got rather low marks.Because ………………. of the students except Sandra, who scored a high grade, managed to get a good mark, the teacher made them retake the exam.My mother has an original Elvis record, but regrettably, …………….. sides are scratched.Thus, …………….. side of the record plays all the way through without getting stuck.Why don't you come over on Sunday? I will be at home working in the garden …………….. day, so we'll have a lot of time for chatting.The Shrewsbury Flower Show is held on the second Friday and Saturday iri August-…………….. days are quite spectacular with show-jumping, music and fireworks.There were about eight patients in the ward, but Morag felt lonely because …………….. the others were much older than her.Unlike all other species of deer, …………….. male and female caribou have antlers. …………….. of the garden was in the shade, so we thought it inadvisable to sit outside in the strong afternoon sun.There is a man at the corner. I ihink he is waiting for someone. (herhangi bir adam, birisi)

You said two men would be waiting for me, but there is one man (only one man) at the corner, (bir tane adam, bir kişi)

Give me an apple, (herhangi bir elma)

Give me one apple, (bir tane elma, iki ya da daha fazla değil)

One zamir olarak kişi, insan, anlamında da kullanılır.

Naturally, one faces difficulties when adapting to a foreign culture.

(Doğal olarak insan yabancı bir kültüre uyum sağlamada zorluklarla karşılaşır.)

Each, hem sıfat hem de zamir olarak kullanılır. Every ise sadece sıfattır ve kendinden sonra mutlaka bir isim gelmelidir. Each, herbiri anlamını verir ve sözünü etliğimiz gruptaki her bir öğeyi tek tek düşündüğümüzü ifade eder. Every de buna yakın bir anlam ifade eder ancak every, öğeleri tek tek değil, bir bütün olarak düşündüğümüzü vurgular. Bu açıdan every, hepsi anlamına daha yakındır.

Each student has to prepare a term paper.

Every student has to prepare a term paper.

We talked about the picnic with the students. Each will bring something to eat.
(each tek başına kullanılabilir.)

One/only one, each ve every specific bir isimle 'of lu tamlamada kullanılabilir. Bir grubun içinden biri, herbiri ifade edildiği için bu isim mutlaka sayılabilir çoğul bir isimdir. Ancak fiil yine tekildir.

One of the students was late today.

Only one of my students got a low grade in the exam.

Each one of the children is going to be given a prize. (Each of the children is)

Every one* of the students has to take this exam.

* Bitişik yazılan everyone ile every one of + plural noun arasındaki aynma dikkat ediniz.

Everyone, herkes anlamına gelen belgisiz zamirdir.

Everyone wants to live in comfort. (Herkes rahat yaşamak ister.)

Every one of the exam papers was checked carefully. (Sınav kağıtlarının her

biri dikkatle kontrol edildi.)

One/only one, each (one) ve every one sözcüklerini of + us, them, you, these, those biçiminde kullanabiliriz.

There are many contestants. One of them is going to be the winner.

Each (one) of you is responsible for the situation.

Every one of us must help him.

 

Each of us/you/them yerine we/you/they each kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda fiil çoğul olur. Yardımcı fiil yoksa each, özne ile yüklem arasında; yardımcı fiil varsa, yardımcı fiil ile yüklem arasında yer alır.

Each of us has a duty. = We each have a duty.

Each of you has a duty. = You each have a duty.

Each of them has a duty. = They each have a duty.

Each of them has received a prize. = They have each received a prize.

Every zaman sözcükleriyle de kullanılır: every day, every year, every summer, every two hours, every four years, etc.

Most people buy a newspaper every day.

We try to go to the cinema every week.

Elections are held every four years in Turkey. (her dört yılda bir…)

These tablets should be taken every six hours. (her altı saatte bir)

EXERCISE 17:    Choose the correct one of the words given in parentheses.

< >Each (zone/zones) at the Millennium Dome, in London, (has/have) a different theme. The teacher gave (each/every) of the groups a subject related to China to research.According to astrologers. (every/all) one of the signs of the zodiac (influence/influences) human behaviour differently. The Earth turns on its axes once (each/every) 24 hours.(All/Every) banana (tree/trees) produces a single bunch of fruit.One of the (actor/actors) in the play (is/are) the son of a friend of mine.We (each/every) (has/have) to be very supportive during this sad time for her.(Each/Every) of us (has/have) to be supportive to help her through this difficult time.Did they (each/every) realise the full implications of their actions?It seems as if (each/every) other day a catastrophe happens somewhere in the world.a number of, a great/large/small number of, a great/good many, and numbers (two, three, etc.)

A number of (a group of), bir grup … anlamındadır. Great, large, small gibi sözcüklerle bu grubun büyüklüğünü ifade edebiliriz.

A number of students are waiting to see you. (Bir grup öğrenci …)

A small number of people live in luxury in Turkey. (Az sayıda insan …)

A large/great number of people live in poverty. (Çok sayıda insan …)

 

A great / a good many, bir hayli, oldukça çok anlamındadır.

A great/good many people are in danger of being infected by the bacteria in the polluted water.

They have spent a great/good many years abroad, and now they have difficulty adapting to the customs here.

İki ve ikiden büyük rakamların hepsini sayılabilir çoğul isimlerle kullanabiliriz. Eğer specific bir isim kullanıyorsak, rakamdan sonra of gelir.

Three students were late for the class this morning.

Three of my students were late for the class this morning.

b) With uncountable nouns:

a large/a great/a small amount of, a good/a great deal of

A large amount of / a large quantity of, çok miktarda; a small amount of, az miktarda anlamında kullanılır. A good/great deal of ise bir hayli, oldukça çok anlamını ifade eder.

Try to put a small amount of money aside every month for the future.

A great amount of money is bring spent on arms. 

To start a new business in these economic situations takes a great/good deal of courage.

c) With both countable plural and uncountable nouns:

Hardly any ve almost no "hemen hemen hiç" anlamına gelir.

There were hardly any/almost no objections to our proposal.

She had hardly any/almost no money on her, so she couldn't eat lunch out.

d) A friend of mine, some relatives of hers, etc. gibi yapılarda, of dan sonra possessive noun/pronoun (mine, yours, hers, ours, his, Ayşe's, my father's, my sisters', etc.) kullanılır.

An old friend of mine is coming to see me tomorrow. (Eski bir arkadaşım…) Some students of hers are very clever. (Onun bazı öğrencileri…)

Many friends of his are living abroad. (Onun pek çok arkadaşı…)

A friend of my brothers' is helping them in the shop. (Kardeşlerimin bir arkadaşı)

a friend of mine = one of my friends

two relatives of hers = two of her relatives

some friends of my sister's = some of my sister's friends
a friend of my brothers' = one of my brothers' friends

3-8 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE WITH QUANTIFIERS

Much ve many'nin comparative biçimi more, superlative biçimi most'dur. Few düzenlidir ve fewer, fewest biçiminde çekimlenir. Little ise less ve least biçiminde çekimlenir.

The government should spend more money on the housing problem.

I expect more members will be present at this meeting than were at the previous one.

Fewer tourists are expected this year because of the terrorist attacks in the seaside resorts.

Of all the students, she had the fewest mistakes in the exam.

There would be less pollution if the government imposed some regulations on the factories.

Daha önce, sıfat ve zarflarda karşılaştırma yaparken, karşılaştırmanın derecesini arttırmak için much, azaltmak için a little kullanıldığını görmüştük.

She is more hardworking than me.

She is a little more hardworking / much more hardworking than me.

(Benden biraz daha çalışkan/benden çok daha fazla çalışkan…)

Bu  derecelendirmeyi isimlere ilişkin yaparken,  ismin  sayılabilir ya da sayılamaz olduğuna dikkat etmemiz gerekir. Sayılabilir isimlerle a few more/many more; sayılamaz isimlerle a little more/much more kullanabiliriz.

I have bought some books on this subject, but I need a few more (books). (birkaç kitaba daha…)

Some people have become unemployed since the economic crisis, but we fear that many more people will lose their jobs if the situation doesn't improve, (daha pek çok insan…)

I don't think this money will be enough to buy that shirt.

I need a little more money. (biraz daha para…)

There will be much more pollution if we continue to be indifferent to the problem. (çok daha fazla kirlilik…)

Any more, some more, no more  gibi sözcüklerin kullanımına dikkat ediniz. Şu örnekleri inceleyelim:

Can I have some rice, please? (sofrada ilk kez pilav isterken)

Can I have some more rice, please? (tekrar isterken: biraz daha pilav)

We don't have any money. (hiç yok)

We don't have any more money. = We have no more money.

(Daha fazla paramız yok. Vardı, bitti.)

Do you have any books on this subject? (Hiç var mı?)

Do you have any more books on this subject other than these?

(Bunların dışında, daha var mı?)

Any more'un bir anlamı da "artık” demektir.  Bir eylemi geçmişte yaptığımızı  ama  artık yapmadığımızı ifade etmek için any longer ile aynı anlamda kullanabiliriz. Her ikisi de olumsuz • cümlede kullanılır.

She used to be interested in football, but she isn't interested in it any more/any longer.

They used to live in Ankara, but they don't live there any more/any longer.

Olumsuz fiil + any longer yerine olumlu fiil + no longer kullanabiliriz. (No more, bu şekilde fiillerle kullanılmaz; isimlerle kullanılır: (no more tears, no more food, etc.)

She used to smoke a lot, but she doesn't smoke any more/any longer. = She no longer smokes. (Artık sigara içmiyor.)

No longer, yardımcı fiil bulunan cümlelerde, yardımcı fiilden sonra gelir.

She isn't interested in music any more /any longer. = She is no longer interested in music.

 

TEST YOURSELF 1

The instructor told the young climbers to hold on to the rope with ……… hands.

A) both                             B) every                                           C) all                             D) each

E) either

The noise of the gunshot rang through the trees and the birds flew off in ……… directions.

A) all                        B) each                                     C) either                   D) every      

E) whole

This train doesn't stop at ………. station along the way, but it stops at…….. of the main ones.

A) all/either                       B) every/most                           C) each/much            D) both/some

E) few/all

Unfortunately, our local library had ………books on the subject, so I'm going to the city library tomorrow hoping to find …….. more.

A) much/a little                 B) a little/a lot                             C) little/many         D) a few/much

E) few/some

There has been ……. fruit on the pear tree in our garden this year, so we won't be giving …….. away.

A) a little/many                 B) all/each                              C) little/much              D) every/some

E) much/either

…….. players have won this competition before, so …….. of them could win today.

A) A few/all           B) Each/ every                           C) Every/no           D) Both/either

E) None/neither

A lot of people rushed to the area, but most of …….. failed to find …….. gold.

A) them/any          B) they/much                           C) theirs/many          D) him/some

E) his/none

The children have had quite ……. excitement for one day.  I think it's time they went to bed.

A) few                  B) all                                           C) more                             D) little

E) enough

He thought he would get the contract, but a business competitor of ……… got……… .

A) he/itself             B) his/it                                                 C) us/his                 D) yours/its

E) him/them

They gave the idea ……… consideration before accepting it.

A) several                         B) only a few                         C) a great deal of         D) much of

E) a good many

Look! One of ……. in the race……. .

A) stallion/have fallen

B) the athletes/had fallen

C) the horses/has fallen

D) children/are falling

E) the competition/was falling

My daughter got a better mark for her last French written composition because there were …….. mistakes in it.

A) little                  B) much                                    C) many                  D) fewer

E) the least

In the USA, the number of representatives in government varies according to the population o a state, but there are two senators for ………. state.

A) both                  B) some                                   C) neither                  D) each

E) all

……… employees voted against the strike even though they were dissatisfied with the pay rise.

A) Several of         B) Plenty                                C) Much of                 D) Half

E) A good many

After …….. wins at amateur level, he'll be ready to race professionally.

A) almost none     B) any longer                         C) a few more             D) much

E) plenty

Tea and coffee contain caffeine, which is harmful, so the doctor told me to avoid drinking …….. .

A) both of them        B) much of it                               C) all of them     D) some of it

E) neither of them

Decades ago the notion of landing a spacecraft on ……… moon would have seemed ………. impossible feat.

A) a/—                   B) some/a                                    C) the/an    D) -/-

E) —/the

If there is ……… food in the world for everyone, why do so ………people die of starvation?

A) little/much         B) enough/many                     C) much/few              D) any/a lot of

E) less/more

Of the two shops in the village, ……… sold sun cream, so he had to keep a long-sleeved shirt on all day.

A) no                     B) both                                  C) none            D) neither

E) either

The best goal of the match was ……… but …….. was pretty spectacular as well.

 

A) my/theirs          

B) my brother/I                           

C) him/mine          

D) the forward's/your    

E) Simon's/yours

The new dress my sister bought didn't fit ……… so she gave it to

A) she/you             B) her/me                                 C) hers/mine             D) mine/hers

E) herself/ours

He felt as if ……… world was watching and waiting for him to make a mistake in the play, but in fact, it was only the village boy scout club.

A) all                     B) every                                   C) most                     D) a lot of

E) the whole

She had ………. reasons to dislike her job, but I don't know exactly why she left.

A) a little                B) much                               C) a whole                    D) some of

E) plenty of

The company is so stable that you can buy shares in it with almost ………. risk of losing any money.

A) any                   B) none                           C) no                                 D) few

E) much

Two smartly dressed doormen stood at …….. side of the hotel's entrance.

A) either                B) whole                             C) all      D) every

E) both

We rang ………. hotels before we found ……… with vacant rooms.

A) several/one                  B) much/a little                          C) each/some           D) every/any

E) the whole/much

The teacher said that we could write on ………. sides of the paper, but to start a new page for ………. question.

A) either/every       B) both/each                          C) some/all      D) all/some

E) the whole/any

………. of seagulls followed the tractor as the farmer ploughed the field.

A) Many more                  B) Almost all                           C) Only some             D) A large number

E) Hardly any

It takes ……… of dedication to become a top class athlete.

A) enough              B) nearly every                      C) a great deal             D) many more

E) each one

If Richard had ……… patience, he would have ………. arguments with the manager.

A) little/much         B) enough/little                         C) less/plenty           D) more/fewer

E) a few/less

………. cashier underwent the company's training scheme before starting to work here.

A) A great many   B) Several                              C) Both           D) All

E) Every

Up until recent years, blacks in tie Southern USA suffered ……..injustice.

A) several              B) plenty                                C) a lot of                   D) a great marry

E) fewer

After the oil spill from the huge tanker, the ……… beach was covered in thick black oil.

A) whole                B) all                                     C) many           D) every

E) much

We can see Shrewsbury Town football pitch from the window of our shop. Yesterday, I was watching ……… team play through the window, but stopped when ……..customer came in.

A) any/a                 B) a/the                                   C) a/—           D) the/a                                

E) —/the

In 1991, the remains of ……..Neolithic hunter, which were 5,300 years old, were discovered high in …….. Alps.

A) the/—                B) a/some                                     C) —/a      D) a/an

E) a/the

Do you know ……… name of ……… American author Bill Bryson's latest book?

A) a/—                   B) a/an                                 C) the/the          D) the/—

E) —/an

Celebrating the end of one year and the start of a new one is an age-old religious, social, and cultural observance in almost …….. part of the world.

A) all                     B) every                               C) either            D) neither

E) whole

………. albatross, ………. largest and most majestic seabird, has ………wing span of over nine feet.

A) —/the/—           B) The/a/the                           C) An/— /the   D) The/the/a

E) An/a/a

If I had ……… fabric left, I could make a dress, but I think I've only got…….. to mate a skirt.

A) a great deal/one      

B) plenty/a few                        

C) a few more/much   

D) a number of/some

E) a little more/ enough

Cyanide leaked into …….. Mersey Canal, and …….. nine-mile stretch of …….. canal was affected

A) the/the/a                  B) —/—/a                            C) a/a/-                    D) — /the/—

E) the/a/the

I went into town specially to buy a jacket for the Christmas party, but I didn't see ……… that I liked.

A) a few                      B) any                                   C) all                     D) much

E) some

As …….. British athlete in this discipline reached the qualifying time, Britain won't be represented in this event at the Olympics.

A) no                           B) few                                   C) little                  D) hardly any

E) fewer

Throughout the history of the country, …….. French, along with most of the other peoples of the world, have paid little attention to the quality of ……… natural environment.

A) some/ —                 B) a/them                                C) the/their                       D) —/its

E) many /theirs

Diamonds have ……… uses. In addition to the obvious use in jewellery, they have ……… number of industrial applications.

 

A) much/any          B) many/a                                C) plenty of/the       D) some/each

E) more/every

…….. the painters have achieved so far is to make the office look more of a mess than it did this morning.

A) The whole            B) Some                                  C) All                                 D) None

E) A little

Let's go somewhere for a cup of tea. I don't want to go in any more shops as I've spent ……. already.

A) several              B) a lot of                             C) a few                       D) many more

E) too much

Despite all ……… efforts, neither Susan's composition nor …….. was good enough to impress the teacher.

A) ourselves/me     B) us/myself                                 C) ours/my                      D) our/mine

E) us/ourselves

The richness of Asia's cultures is reflected in ……./arts and literature.

A) theirs                 B) it                                              C) its                     D) them          

E) itself

The teacher said that if Joseph caused …….. trouble in class, she would send his mother a letter.

A) any more                     B) far fewer                          C) a number of             D) so many

E) several

Herman Melville's book 'Moby Dick' tells of the adventures of captain Ahab, who loses …….. leg in his struggle with …….. whale.

A) the/the               B) a/a                                      C) —/any                   D) any/the

E) some /a

 

A: Which of these wallpaper designs would you like in the living room?

B:  ……….. .   ……….. look horrible. Why can't we just paint the walls?'

A) All/None           B) Neither/Both                         C) Either/Whole       D) None/Some

E) Every/Each

I wonder if …….. of our neighbours would look after our cat while we are away.

A) the whole          B) few                                      C) little                     D) either

E) every

………. of the competitors was badly affected by the extreme heat and passed out.

A) Some                B) No                                      C) A few        D) One

E) All

I would like her better if she showed ………. consideration for others.

A) fewer                B) several                               C) a little         D) too much

E) many

I'm glad we bought the new lawn mower. Now I can mow the lawn using ……… the effort.

A) fewer                B) none                                  C) much          D) all

E) half

Smog may appear brownish in colour when it contains high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, or it may look blue-grey when it contains large amounts of ozone. In …….. case, prolonged exposure will damage lung tissue.

A) both                  B) either                                  C) none          D)all

E) some

In ……….. mid-1970s, people became aware of the phenomenon called ………. acid rain.

A) the/—                B)—/an                                 C) a/an  D) a/the

E) the/an

The word deafness is used to describe ………. degree of hearing loss, though it is most commonly used where there is ……… total inability to hear.

A) some/much                  B) the/some                              C) a/many      D) every/none

E) any/a

Although the Australian author Peter Carey's first three novels were well received, his fourth book received ……… criticism than acclaim.

A) too many          B) any longer                          C) far more    D) plenty of

E) so much

 Despite the scarcity of arable land, ………. the population in the Middle East is engaged in farming.

A) a lot more         B) almost none                           C) so much              D) a good deal of

E) a great many of

 

 

4- INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Person

Thing

 

someone

anyone

no one

everyone

 

somebody anybody nobody everybody

 

something anything

nothing everything

 

 

 

-one ve -body ile biten sözcükler arasında anlam farkı yoktur. Her iki grup da insanlar için kullanılır. -thing ile biten sözcükler cansız varlıklar için kullanılır. Özne olarak kullanıldıklarmda bu sözcüklerin hepsi tekil fiil alır.

Everybody needs love.          

Everything is in order.                                                                
I think something is wrong with him.

Some ve any'nin kullanımıyla ilgili kurallar someone, anybody, something, etc. gibi sözcükler için de geçerlidir.

We need someone/somebody to help us. (affirmative)

Does anybody/anyone here speak French? (interrogative)

She doesn't want anyone /anybody to learn her secret. (negative)

Something must be doing without delay. (affirmative)

Has anything been dome about it? (interrogative)      

I don't want to hear anything about it. (negative)

İkramda ya da ricada bulunurken ya da yanıtın büyük bir olasılıkla "evet" olacağını talimin ettiğimiz sorularda something/someone kullanabiliriz.

Why are you looking in my purse? Are you looking for something? (Bir şey mi arıyorsun?)

Would you like something to drink?

No, thanks. I don't want to drink anything.

Can you give me something to read?

No ile başlayan sözcükler olumlu fiille kullanılır. Ancak cümlenin anlamı olumsuzdur.

She didn't tell me anything. – She told me nothing.

I didn't see anyone/anybody there. – I saw no one/nobody there.

Anyone/anybody ve anything olumsuz cümlede özne olarak kullanılmaz. Bunun yerine no one/nobody ve nothing ile olumlu bir fiil tercih edilir.

Nobody/no one wants to be in his position.

Nothing has been done so far.

Anyone/anybody ve anything olumlu cümlede kullanıldığı zaman herhangi biri, herkes, herhangi bir şey, her şey anlamını verir.

Anyone/anybody can do that. (Onu herkes/herhangi bir insan yapabilir.)

– What shall I buy for him?

– Well, it doesn't matter. You can buy anything. (Herhangi bir şey alabilirsin.)

 

Somewhere, anywhere, nowhere ve everywhere gibi zarfları da bu grupta inceleyebiliriz.

I can't find my glasses. I put them somewhere, but

I don't remember where. (affirmative)

Have you seen my glasses anywhere? (interrogative)

I don't want to go anywhere tonight. (negative)

You can't find such a cheap restaurant anywhere. = You can find such a cheap restaurant nowhere.

Hand-made rugs are found in abundance in Turkey. You can find them everywhere.

Nobody, nothing vb, olumsuz bir özneyie başlayan bir cümlenin devamında any, anybody, anything vb. bir sözcük kullanabiliriz. Nobody, nothing gibi sözcükler kullanamayız. Çünkü, özne cümleyi olumsuz yapmıştır ve bir cümlede iki tane olumsuzluk kullanılmaz.

Nobody did anything. (nothing kullanamayız.)

Nothing was given to anyone. (no one kullanamayız)    

Nobody wants to go anywbere. (nowhere kullanamayız.)

No one had any money. (no money kullanamayız.)

Without da olumsuz bir anlam taşıdığı için kendinden sonra gelen sözcük olumsuz olamaz.

He must have entered the house without anybody seeing him.

He left home without saying anything.

Something, nothing, someone, everyone, nowhere, etc. gibi sözcükleri "else" ile birlikte kullanabiliriz.

I don't think Alice can help us. We must find someone else. (Başka birini bulmalıyız)

We didn't like the place where we spent our holiday last year. We want to go somewhere else this year. (Başka bir yere…)

She only said she was going. Nothing else.

EXERCISE 18: Complete the sentences with someone, anyone, anything, nothing, anywhere, etc.

We are looking for …………………………… in Cornwall to spend our holiday. Can your parents suggest …………………………… nice there?

There is ……………………………for ………………………… to do at Centre Parks, but if there is …………………… you particularly need, please enquire at our customer service desk.

They recorded …………………… he said, but they didn't find…………………… on the tape which could help them convict him.

We weren't in a hurry, so we let ………………….. else disembark before we did.

I don't think you'll find a shop that sells Russian caviar …………………… in this city.

Don't believe …………………… you read in that newspaper. They just make all their stories up.

………………….. in the Senegalese village spoke English, but fortunately, we found …………………… who spoke French, which my husband speaks fluently, and the man explained the way to the waterfall.

You must list …………………… you worked during the past ten years on the application form.

The worst thing about our neighbourhood is that there is …………………… for the children to play, but the council have promised to do …………………… about it next year.

He is extremely competitive. He hates …………………… getting a better mark than his.

I really like visiting my grandparents. …………………… in the world are visitors so warmly welcomed, and they expect absolutely …………………… from us in return. In addition, ………………….. can make a tastier cheesecake than my grandmother.

I looked at …………………… in their file, but I couldn't find …………………… that mentioned an agreement about interest rates.

You need to ask ………………………. you trust, perhaps a friend or a relative, for an opinion.

There was …………………… the rescue team could do to save the sailors trapped in the submarine.

A: Didn't …………………… do …………………. to help the injured cat?

B: No, …………………… bothered to stop and help. …………………… just walked past and looked in the opposite direction in order not to see it.

 

5- REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

Singular

Plural

I

You

He

She

It

 

myself yourself himself

herself

itself

 

We

You

They

 

ourselves

yourselves

themselves

 

Indefinite pronouns                              

one

oneself

 

Bir yüklemin Öznesi ile nesnesi aynı ise vani eylemi yapanla, eylemden etkilenen kişi aynı ise reflexive pronoun kullanılır. Tekil you için yourself, çoğul you için yourselves kullanıldığına dikkat ediniz.

Janette cut the bread. (Janette, subject; the bread, object)

Janette cut herself. (Janette, subject; herself, object; the same)

We enjoyed ourselves very much at the party.

I blamed myself for the fight.

Reflexive pronoun bir preposition'dan sonra gelebilir.

Look at that woman over there.

She is talking to herself. (Kendi kendine konuşuyor.)

Take goad care of yourselves. (Kendinize iyi bakın.)

 

Ancak preposition, öznenin eylemden etkilenmesini değil de yer ifade ediyorsa, object pronoun (me, you, him, etc.) kullanılır.

She must take plenty of money with her.

We'll keep it as a secret between us.

I don't think he has enough money on him.

Feel ve relax fiillerini Türkçeye kendini (iyi) hissetmek, kendini rahatlatmak biçiminde çeviriyoruz. Ancak bu fiiller İngilizcede reflexive pronoun ile kullanılmazlar.

I felt better after I took some medicine. (İlaç aldıktan sonra kendimi daha iyi hissettim.)

You must know how to relax. (Kendini rahatlatmasını bilmelisin.)

Wash, dress ve shave (yıkanmak, giyinmek, traş olmak) fiilleri normalde reflexive pronoun ile kullanılmaz. Ancak dry (kurulanmak) reflexive pronoun ile kullanılır.

I washed and dressed quickly. (Çabucak yıkanıp giyindim.)

Dry yourself thoroughly before you put on your clothes. (Giysilerini giymeden önce iyice kurulan.)

Reflexive pronoun, özneyi ya da nesneyi vurgulamak için de kullanılır. Özneyi vurgularken, reflexive pronoun özneden hemen sonra ya da fiilden sonra (eğer varsa nesneden sonra) gelebilir.

She herself told me the news. = She told me the news herself.

Haberi bana kendisi verdi.

Jack himself came. = Jack came himself.

Jack kendisi geldi.

Reflexive pronoun nesneyi vurgularken nesneden hemen sonra gelir.

I spoke to Jack himself. (Jack'in kendisiyle konuştum.)

She demanded to see the manageress herself. (Yöneticinin kendisini görmek istedi.)

Nesneyi ya da özneyi vurgularken reflexive pronoun'un yerine dikkat ediniz. Çünkü anlam değişikliğine yol açar. Şu örnekleri inceleyelim.

I spoke to Jack himself. (Jack'in kendisiyle konuştum.)

I myself spoke to Jack. (Jack ile kendim konuştum.)

By myself, herself, etc. "kendi başına, tek başına, yardımsız" anlamını verir. Şu iki cümle arasındaki ayrıma dikkat ediniz:

I myself cleaned the house. = I cleaned the house myself.

Evi kendim temizledim. (Not someone else; bir başkası değil.)

I cleaned the house by myself.

Evi tek başıma/yalnız temizledim. (I cleaned the house alone/without help.)

By myself, herself, etc. anlamında on my own, on her own, etc. kullanabiliriz.

He lost his wife last year and he has been living by himself/on his own/alone since. (O zamandan beri tek başına/yalnız yaşıyor.)

I was sitting by myself/on my own/alone in a corner.

(Bir köşede tek başıma yalnız oturuyordum.)

 

 

EXERCISE 19:    Complete the sentences with myself, himself, ourselves, etc. or with my own, his own, our own, etc.

At Christmas, we always buy a large box of Belgium chocolates. I particularly enjoy the ones with nutty centres, while my sister has …………………….. favourities. She loves the strawberry and orange creams.

The plan put forward by the residents committee has …………………….. problems. It is very expensive and may not offer a long-term solution.

We supervise the construction …………………….. to ensure that the work is carried out to the highest specifications.

The children seem to be enjoying …………………….. in the sand. It was a good idea to bring them here.

I didn't want to go down the hillside on the toboggan by ……………………… so my friend and I rode together on the same sledge.

The camera …………………….. is quite reasonably priced, but the replacement films are much more expensive than standard films.

If only she hadn't gone to Thailand on …………………….. .  It is a dangerous country to wander around alone in. 

My cousins have …………………….. tennis courts, so we are always round their house in the summer.

My sister built this wardrobe all by …………………….. by following the instructions in a library book.

If you don't believe me, why don't you ask her ……………………..?

In his autobiography, he describes …………………….. as a man who happened to be in the right place at the right time.

Instead of listening to what others said, I spoke to him …………………….. in order to understand how he was feeling.

My mother told my friends to make …………………….. at home and to consider …………………….. one of the family while they were with us.

I expect that you'll all do your homework by ……………………… without getting any help from anyone.

Because his advertising budget is very limited, he designs …………………….. advertisements.

 

6- SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT

Bir cümlenin öznesiyle yüklemi arasında, tekillik-çoğulluk açısından bir uyum olması gerek­mektedir. Tekil özne tekil bir fiil, çoğul özne çoğul bir fiille kullanılır.

The child was very excited about going to the zoo. (singular)

The children were very excited about going to the zoo. (plural)

6-1 BASIC SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT

a) Özne, and ile bağlanmış isimlerden oluşuyorsa, çoğul fiil alır.

Ali is coming with us.

Ali and Ayşe are coming with us.

Water is vital for humans.

Water and bread are vital for humans.

Or ile bağlanmış öznelerde, yükleme yakın alan isim temel alınır.

His sister or his parents are going to help him.

His parents or his sister is going to help him.

Özneden sonra iki virgül arasında gelen açıklamalar Özneyi etkilemez.

The president, with two of his guards, has now entered the room.

The Smiths, without their naughty son, are coming to ours.

b) Özne sözcük öbeğinden oluşuyorsa, bu öbekteki temel isim yüklemi belirler.

The students in the canteen seem to have forgotten the time.

The results of the research are going to be published soon.

Your method of solving problems is quite different from mine.

The article about the increase in crimes of violence was written by a well-known writer.

The use of computers has increased rapidly in recent years.

c) Özne gerund ise tekil fiil alır. Ancak iki gerund and ile bağlanıyorsa, çoğul fiil alır.

Swimming is my favourite sport.

Swimming and running are my favourite sports.

Washing vegetables with this polluted water is dangerous.

Bazen bir gerund'dan sonra and ile bağlanmış iki isim gelebilir. Bu durumda gerund tek olduğu için fiil yine tekildir.

Making pies and cakes is my mother's hobby.

Putting his toys and stuff away was my son's responsibility.

d) Someone, something, nothing, anybody, etc. gibi özneler tekil fiille kullanılır.

Has anybody applied for the job?

Nothing has been done yet

 

6-2    SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY

a) Sayılabilir çoğul ve sayılamaz isimler için ortak kullanılan some, any, a lot of, etc. gibi sözcüklerle, sayılabilir çoğul bir isim çoğul fiil, sayılamaz isim ise tekil fiil gerektirir.

A lot of money was spent on this project.

A lot of people have become unemployed.

Bu sözcükler "of" lu tamlamada kullanıldığında da aynı kural geçerlidir.

Some of this money is yours.

Some of my students are working in part-time jobs.

All (of) the fruit was eaten.

All (of) the students were waiting excitedly for the results of the university exam.

None of + sayılamaz isim tekil fiille, none of + sayılabilir çoğul isim tekil ya da çoğul fiille kullanılır.

None of this information is accurate.  
None of the students is/are eager to have an exam today.                               

b) Every, each, either ve neither kendinden sonra sayılabilir tekil isim ve tekil fiil alır.

Every student has to write a composition.

Each child was given a present.

Either method is suitable. 

Neither method was suitable for our aim.

Either of ve neither of dan sonra çoğul isim gelir. Fiil tekil ya da çoğul olabilir.

Either of the methods is/are suitable.     

Neither of the methods was/were suitable for our aim.                           

Every one of ve each (one) of dan sonra, da çoğul isim gelir. Ancak fiil tekildir.

Every one of the students has to write a composition.

Each (one) of the children was given a present.

Each ve every içeren özneler, and ile bağlanmış birden fazla isimden de oluşsa, yine tekil fiil alır.

Each chair and table in the cafe was counted carefully.

Almost every businessman and employee was affected by the economic crisis.

 

c) One-third (üçte biri), two-thirds (üçte ikisi), fifty per cent (yüzde ellisi), etc. gibi ifadeler çoğul isimle kullanıldığında çoğul fiil, sayılabilir tekil ya da sayılamaz isimle kullanıldığında ise tekil fiil alır.

Almost one-third of the students have passed the exam.

Two-thirds of the earth's surface is covered with water.

Three-fourths (three-quarters) of the money was wasted thoughtlessly.

About forty per cent of the students have passed the exam.

More than fifty per cent of the world's population is living in terrible conditions.

d) The number "sayı" anlamındadır ve tekil fiille kullanılır.

A number "bir grup, çok sayıda" anlamındadır ve çoğul fiil gerektirir.

The number of students taking the university exam is increasing with each year. (Üniversite sınavına giren öğrencilerin sayısı her yıl artmaktadır.)

A number of students want to see you. (Bir grup öğrenci sizi görmek isüyor.)

6-3 SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT WITH THERE IS / THERE ARE

Sayılabilir   tekil   ve   sayılamaz   isimlerle   there   is/was/has   been,   çoğul   isimlerle   there are/were/have been kullanılır.

There have been many advances in computer technology recently.

There has been great progress in computer technology recently.

There was a little boy at the comer crying.

6-4 COLLECTIVE NOUNS (TOPLULUK İSİMLERİ)

Common collective nouns are:

cast               crew              gang                       jury                  school

class              crowd           government            public              team

committee     family           group                     stall                  audience

 

           

a)  Topluluk isimleri, topluluk bir bütün olarak düşünüldüğünde tekil fiil; topluluğu oluşturan bireyler düşünüldüğünde ise çoğul fiil alır. Ancak American English bu anlamda da daha çok tekil fiil kullanır.

A football team consists of eleven players.

The team seems/seem happy with the result (Takımdaki oyuncular düşünülüyor.)

The class is too large. We have to divide it into two.

Our class is/are going on a picnic next week. (Sınıftaki öğrenciler kastediliyor.)

 

b) People, police ve cattle daima çoğul fiille kullanılır.

Those people are waiting to see the manager.

The police are trying to catch the leader of the gang.

Those cattle belong to ray grandfather.

6-5 NOUNS THAT ARE ALWAYS PLURAL

Glasses, pants, pyjamas, jeans, shorts, tights, trousers, scissors, tweezers, tongs gibi sözcükler daima çoğul olarak kullanılır ve çoğul fiil gerektirir.

My jeans have worn out. I need a new pair.

Those trousers are really nice.

Bu isimleri a pair ile kullandığımızda tekil fiil gerekir.         
 

A pair of jeans costs more than three million liras.

6-6 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH SOME IRREGULARITIES

a) Bazı isimler, sonunda -s olmasına karşın, tek bir nesneyi ifade ettikleri için tekil fiille kullanılırlar.

The United States is very attractive for some people.

The United Nations hasn't döne much to help the Bosnians.

Mathematics was my favourite subject in high school.

News sonunda -s olmasına karşın, sayılamaz bir isimdir ve tekil bir fiille kullanılır.

The news was rather disappointing.

b) Zaman, para miktarı ve mesafe bildiren sözcükler özne olarak kullanıldıklarında genellikle tekil fiil alırlar.

Twenty million liras is too much for that house.

Four hours of study is enough for one day.

Six-hundred kilometers is too far to drive without stopping.

c) Ulus ismi ve lisan biçimi aynı olan isimler the ile kullanıldığında ulusu ifade eder ve çoğul bir fiille kullanılır. Lisan isimleri ise the almaz ve tekil fiille kullanılır.

Japanese is becoming popular in Turkey. [Japonca …)

The Japanese are warm people. (Japonlar…)

d) Bazı sıfatlar başına the alarak, çoğul bir anlam kazanır ve o Özelliği taşıyan bütün bir grubu ifade eder: the poor, the rich, the disabled, the handicapped, etc. Bu sözcükler özne olduğunda çoğul fiil gerektirirler.

The poor don't have any social security in Turkey.

The old usually fail to tolerate the young. (Yaşlılar … gençler …)

 

EXERCISE 20: Use is or are for the given subjects.

 

The taxi drivers ……..

These scissors ……

Each of the wheels ……….

Either design ………

Nobody at our office ……..

Pathology ………

Dutch ……….

The Dutch ……….             

The unemployed ……

Either of the goalkeepers …….

Neither photocopier ………

One-third of the voters ……  

Two days ……….

Half of the pencils ……….

Half of the paint ……….

The number of students ……….

A large number of elephants …….

These deer ………..

The craftsman and his apprentice ……   

Their father's job ………. .

The procedures she followed ……….       

The aim of these regulations …………

One of the supermarkets ……….  

The student whom we admired ……….    

Both of his legs ……….

 

Fifteen percent of the land …….

One hundred and fifty pounds ……

My daughter's shoes ……….

Their children's playground ……..

This morning's news …….

Pollution these days ……….

Every athlete and coach  ……….

My children arid their cousin ……….

The owner or the managers ……….

The style in handbags ……….

The teachers or the headmaster ………..

The minority of builders …………

The architect, with his technical advisors,

The architect, the chief builder and the carpenter ……….

The findings of the committee……….

Irrigation of the fields in the area ……….

Our report ……….   

My reports ……….

None of this research ……….

None of these surveys ………..

The wealthy ……….

A lot of money ………..

Four-fifths of their production

His desire for his son ……….

Our desires in life……….

 

EXERCISE 21:     Choose the correct answer in parentheses.

His opinion about the company's new products (wasn't/weren't) considered by the committee.

Most of the competitors, including the world champion, (was/were) angry about the decision.

The grief of losing a loved one in such a tragic accident (was/ were) felt by everyone with relatives on board the submarine.

When Norman is painting, nothing (distract/distracts) him from his work.

The owner of the boat yard, with some of his sales representatives, (is/are) making a presentation at the boat show.

Everyone attending the opening (was/were) impressed with the restoration.

The number of fans who (was/were) waiting for Brad Pitt to arrive (was/were) unbelievable.

Outfits made from Şile cheesecloth, which (is/are) produced on hand looms, (is/are) paraded on famous models during the Şile Festival.

The tiles on the wall of Rüstem Paşa Mosque (was/were) applied in 1561.

Every applicant who (was/were) successful in the first interview (was/were) given a final interview.  

Copying and other forms of cheating (is/are) taken very seriously by the examination committee.

Each contestant in the hairdressing competition (was/were) given forty-five minutes to create a style.

Sarah, as well as her sisters, (attend/attends) private music lessons.

Britain seems a small, crowded island, but, according to statistics, 93 percent of the land (is/are) rural.

Two-thirds of the employees (work/ works) full-time and the remainder (work/works) on a part-time basis.

There (remain/remains) a lot of racial prejudice in the country.

There (remain/remains) a lot of measures which could be taken to prevent racial prejudice.

There (was/were) at one time, a lot of fish in this river.

Over half the players in the national team (is/are) from the same league club.

Some of the old inns where travelling merchants stopped in this region, which (is/are) situated on the old silk road from China to Europe, (is/are) open for tourists.

 

 

7- PRONOUN AGREEMENT

Bir cümlenin öznesiyle devamındaki zamirler arasında bir uyum olması gerekir.

Ayşe brought her book.

Ali brought his book.

Ali and Ayşe brought their books.

7-1    Bazı fiiller* kendilerinden sonra object pronoun (me, him, etc.) alır.

I saw Ali. / I saw him.

She promised her parents she'd pass the exam. / She promised them she'd pass the exam.

Bu fullerin öznesiyle nesnesi aynı kişi olduğunda, nesne için reflexive pronoun (myself, herself, etc.) kullanılır.

She promised herself she'd pass the exam.

7-2   Bir preposition'dan sonra normalde object pronoun kulianihr. Ancak özne-nesne aynı ise reflexive pronoun kullanılır.

I looked at the children. / I Hooked at them.

I looked at myself in the mirror.

I was talking to my brother. / I was talking to him.

I was talking to myself.

Preposition yer bildiriyorsa, özne-nesne aynı bile olsa, object pronoun kullanılır.

He looked around him, a bit surprised.

I haven't got enough money on me.

Comparative yapılarda than ve as'den sonra iki kullanım vardır.     

My sister is shorter than me.

My sister is shorter than I am. (I, ikinci cümlenin öznesi durumunda)

I like children as much as him.

I like children as much as he does.

7-3    Someone, nobody, etc. gibi sözcükler tekil kabul edilir ve daima tekil fiille kullanılır.                      Ancak devamındaki pronoun tekil ya da çoğul olabilir.

Everybody has his own ideas/their own ideas.

Someone has forgotten his/their wallet.

Bu sözcükler tag question yapısıyla kullanıldığında question tag bölümünde they kullanılır. Ancak, something, nothing gibi sözcükler için tag bölümünde it kullanılır.

Someone is going to help you, aren't they?

Nobody has done the homework, have they?

Something is wrong with him, isn't it?

Nothing has been done yet, has it?

*   Kendinden sonra object pronoun alan fiilleri 7. sayımızda Gerund-Infinitive konusunda ayrıntılı olarak bulabilirsiniz.

 

 

8- FORMS of "OTHER"

Other, "başka, diğer" anlamına gelir.

8-1 WITH SINGULAR NOUNS

Another, sıfat ya da zamir olarak, belirtisiz nesne durumundaki tekil isimler için kullanılır ve "herhangi bir başka, bir diğeri" anlamını verir.

Tomorrow is not suitable for me.

Coıne another day please. (başka bir gün ….)

This sweater is a bit too big.     

Can you show me another (one) please? (başka (bir tane) ….)

The other, belirtili nesne durumundaki tekil isimler için sıfat ya da zamir olarak kullanılır.

There are two books on the table. One is mine, and the other book is yours.

(Geriye bir kitap, belli bir kitap kaldı.)

Diğer kitap senin.        

Do you see those three girls at the comer?

Two of them are from England. The other is German.

Diğeri Alman.

Adjective

Pronoun

another book

the other book

 

another

the other    

 

8-2 WITH PLURAL NOUNS

Belirtisiz nesne durumundaki çoğul isimlerle other sıfat, others zamir olarak kullanılır. Belirtili nesneler içinse the other sıfat, the others zamir olarak kullanılır.

Antalya and Alanya are attractive summer resorts in the south. Other summer resorts in the south are Kemer and Kaş.

Sayısı belli bir grubun içinde geri kalan bütün öğeleri sayıyorsak, the other + plural noun ya da the others kullanılır.

She has visited five European countries. One is Germany. Another is England and the other countries/the others are Italy, France and Switzerland.

 

Adjective

Pronoun

other books

the other books

others

the others    

 

 

8-3   Other, some, any, many gibi sözcüklerle de kullanılır.

This book on women's liberation is very good.

Do you have any other books/any others on this subject?

Bu konuda başka kitapların var mı?

Besides this financial problem, we have many other problems /many others.

In addition to this, we hare to consider some other factors.

8-4 EACH OTHER and ONE ANOTHER

Each other and one another, "birbirimize, birbirinize" anlamını verir.

When we met on the street, we greeted each other/one another. (Birbirimizi selamladık.)

They are a happily-married couple. They love each other/one another. (Birbirlerini seviyorlar.)

8-5 EVERY OTHER + A SINGULAR NOUN

Every other, periyodik olan birşeyin bir atlayarak devam ettiğini ifade eder: every other day (gün aşın), every other line (bir satır atlayarak), every other week (iki haftada bir), etc.

I wash my hair every other day. (= every two days)

He comes to Istanbul every other month. (= every two months)

This meeting is held every other year. (= every two years)

8-6    Zaman, mesafe ve para miktarı bildiren sözcükler another ile kullanılır ve bu sözcükler çoğul olabilir : another ten minutes (bir on dakika daha), another ten kilometers (bir on kilometre daha), another ten dollars (bir on dolar daha).

I haven't finished writing my report yet. I need another half hour.

This money is not enough for a pair of jeans.

You should give me another five hundred thousand liras.

I'm not feeling tired. I can walk another two miles.

 

 

EXERCISE 22:    Complete the sentences with a form of other.

Johnny enjoyed the roll coaster so much that he wanted ………………….. ride on it immediately.

One shop owner in the shopping centre wanted to open on the public holiday, but  …………………… didn't.

My mother doesn't trust the doctor who is treating her, so she is going to visit …………………..  one.

I'm anxious about my exam results, but I have to wait………………….. two weeks before they are released.

I didn't spend as much as ………………… in the group on souvenirs, so I brought some money back with me from my holiday.

Some aromatherapy oils havç a calming effect on the mind and body, whereas …………………… such as rosemary oil, are invigorating.

I think this washing machine will suit our needs better than ………………….. in the shop because, in addition to normal washing programmes, it has ………………….. features, such as a programme for delicate clothes and a 'quick-wash' cycle.

Have you had any ……………… ideas about where you would like to go for your holidays?

The two divers relied completely on ………………….. .  If one's air tank failed, ………………….. would have to share his.

I had never heard such disgusting language. Every ………………….. word he used was a swear word.

There are two airports in the Midlands. One is used mainly for charter flights by holiday companies and domestic flights, and ………………….. is used for scheduled international flights.

He took the job with the electricity company in the end because ………………….. one he applied for involved working unsociable hours.

Vandalism is one problem, among many …………………… which seems to be a result of  urbanisation.

I don't know whether to get………………….. book from the library in case I finish this one before next week.

I'm going to fail my art history exam. I can remember a lot about one impressionist painter, Renoir, but I can hardly remember anything about………………….. artists the same movement.

 

 

EXAMPLES  FROM  ÖYS/YDS

One of…………….. has to take the responsibility  for setting up  the experiment.

A) their                        B) him                              C) us   D)your

E) me

 (ÖYS 1991)

I spent the …… summer working to save  money for my school fees.

A) rest                          B) every                            C) most          D) whole

E) all

(ÖYS 1991)

We can, if you agree, watch the sunset ………. time when Jane and Mary are free, too.

A) other                       B) another                            C) rather                             D) such

E) certain

(ÖYS 1991)

I have bought …….. new shirt which matches ………. jacket I bought last  week.

A) some/a                    B) the/a                              C) a/the                                 D) some/the

E) an/some

(ÖYS 1992)

We have already filled in …………… application forms but Mary is still trying to complete……… .

A) my/her                    B) ours/his                       C) her/your      D) our/hers

E) us /theirs

(ÖYS 1992)

You can take……….. of these two elective  courses; they are ………. very interesting.

A) both/either              B) both/all                          C) either/both            D) one/either

E) neither/all

(ÖYS 1992)

……….. of the candidates ……… an opportunity to discuss his point of view.

A) All/wants                B) Each/wants              C) Every/want                 D) Whole/want

E) Many/wants

(ÖYS 1992)

Could you lend me ……….. more? I've spent …….. money you gave me yesterday.

A) any/some                B) some/the                           C) the/the   D) —/some

E) some/—

(ÖYS 1993)

I am  so lonely and bored in this town; ……… ever invites me ……… .

A) nobody/anywhere

B) no one/nowhere

C) anyone/nowhere

D) anybody/somewhere

E) everyone/anywhere

(ÖYS 1993)

Don't blame ……….. for keeping you waiting. It was entirely ………. fault.

A) ours/his                   B) mine/their                     C) her/them                D) him/my

E) them/ours

(ÖYS 1994)

Your bicycle goes much faster than ………. because it's a lot lighter.

A) mine                       B) him                               C) us                          D) their

E) our

(ÖYS 1995)

I had to pay …….. for these shoes than I expected to.

A) the most                  B) far more                                     C) very much           D) too many

E) fewer

(ÖYS 1995)

I can remember the main plot of the novel but almost …….. of the details.

A) none                       B) anything                                C) little  D) less

E) all

(ÖYS 1995)

No one knows exactly how people learn a language although a great deal of research has been carried out on the subject.

A) İnsanların nasıl dil öğrendiğe konusunda araştırma yapanların hiçbiri konuyu tam olarak bilmemektedir.

B) İnsanların dil öğrenme becerileri konusunda pek çok araştırma yapılmıştır, ancak hiç kimsenin konuyla ilgili kesin bir yargusı bulunmamaktadır.

C) İnsarılann nasıl dil öğrendiği tam olarak bilinmediği için araştırmaların çoğu bu konu üzerine yapılmaktadır.

D) Hiç kimsenin, insanların nasıl dil öğrendiği konusunda yapılan araştırmalardan haberi yok

E) Konuyla ilgili birçok araştırma yapılmasına rağmen, hiç kimse insanların nasıl dil öğrendiğini  kesin olarak bilmiyor.

(ÖYS 1996)

……… car is out of order, so they want to come with us in ………. .

A) Their/ours               B) His/my                        C) Hers/theirs              D) Her/your

E) They/yours

(ÖYS 1997)

I don't like to go to the cinema twice on ……… day.

A) such                        B) same                            C) the other                D) the same

E) many

(ÖYS 1997)

He was an extremely entertaining speaker, so we all enjoyed ….. even more than we had expected to.

A) ourselves                B) us                              C) himself         D) themselves

E) them

(ÖYS 1998)

John has told me that one of ……..articles and two of …….. have been accepted for publication in the journal.

A) theirs/her                 B) mine/their                        C) your/my             D) his/yours

E) hers/ours

(ÖYS 1998)

Our side won, but only because …… on the other team was playing at all well.

A) some                       B) anybody                     C) everyone                 D) someone

E) nobody

(ÖYS 1998)

Though the cloakroom was very crowded, she managed to find …….. coat fairly quickly, but it took me a long time to find …… .

A) theirs/our                B) his/its                        C) our/us            D) her/mine

E) hers /theirs

(YDS 1999)

He turned down the offer on grounds of health, but I think there were …… reasons behind his decision.

A) any                         B) another                             C) such                  D) some other

E) any other

(YDS 1999)

…….. bicycles are all red, ……. is the only blue one.

A) Theirs/yours            B) Others/his                 C) Ours/hers                  D) The other/mine

E) Your/him

(YDS 2000)

If Clara says she won't lend, you …… calculator, then I'll lend you.

A) hers/ours                 B) his/me                         C) her/mine                 D) their/him

E) your/his

(YDS 2001)

 

TEST YOURSELF 2

1-40. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere uygun düşen kelime ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.

I always use King Edward potatoes for roasting, but……… other quality potatoes will be fine for salads.

A) any                         B) the whole                   C) a little           D) much

E) none

< >…….. who enjoys spicy food will love Indian cuisine and there are …….very nice Indian restaurants in Birmingham.A) No one/each           B) Everyone/all               C) Someone/any          D) Anyone/some

E) One/none

< >'Sunny Delight' looks like real orange juice, but there is actually very ………. natural juice in it.A) much                      B) less                             C) more            D) fewer

E) little

< >……… other month, the managers of the overseas branches meet to assess the firm's situation.A) All                          B) Some                        C) Every D) Each

E)Any

 

< >Witnessing the impact of an asteroid was something the scientist had dreamt of for ……… of his professional career.A) a few                      B) many                              C) most        D) several

E) any

< >On that night during WW II there were ……… fires in the London docks that……… sky over London glowed red.A) both/some               B) too much/any            C) several/each             D) a few/every

E) so many/the whole

< >We bought the wardrobe in kit form and assembled it…….. because it was much cheaper that way.A) ours                        B) ourselves                        C) our own                          D) its own

E) itself

< >He managed to open his parachute, but broke his leg on ………. branch before he hit………. ground.A) a/the                        B) some/—                    C) the/a  D) the/some

 E) —/other

< >………. the relatives of the passengers could do was sit and wait for further news of the accident.A) The whole               B) Each                             C) Every                    D) All

E)Any

< >Although ………. in the team expected to win the tournament, ………. was really excited, and was looking forward to competing in the event.A) someone/anything

B) no thing/ everything

C) anything/anybody

D) no one/everyone

E) nowhere/someone

< >Except for a century of Christian dominance during the Crusades, Palestine remained under Muslim control, ………. Arab or Turkish, from the 7th to the 20th century.A) both                        B) none                             C) neither       D) some

E) either

< >………. ever appreciates ………. the     hard work I do to ensure that this office runs smoothly.A) Everyone/every

B) No one/whole

C) Nobody/all

D) Someone/each

E) Anyone/some

< >Doris mentioned this morning that she had renewed ……… house insurance, which reminded me to renew …….. .A) its/your                   B) herself/mine                C) itself/hers               D) her/ours

E) hers/myself

< >Peter's subject was much more interesting than ………. but your posters were better than ……… .A) yours/his                 B) himself/our                     C) his own/him       D) mine/he t          

E) them/myself

< >Once bought mainly by youngsters, ……… motorcycles these days are purchased by mature adults.A) almost half              B) many more                     C) much more                     D) plenty

E) any longer

< >………. of the scheduled ferries will be leaving for Calais today, but ………. extra services have been arranged to Zeebrugge in Belgium.A) All/whole                B) None/a few                     C) Much/many                    D) A few/plenty

E) The whole/all

< >……… front of the car is smashed including …….. front head lamps, so it is unsafe to continue to drive.A) Every/either            B) Each/some                     C) Another/all           D) All/neither

E) The whole/both

< >There is unrest in ……… African countries at the moment, such as Sierra Leone and Ethiopia.A) the whole                B) every                         C) a number of             D) a little

E) a large amount

< >The book about the married life of the footballer David Beckham and ………. wife, Victoria, a singer, will probably be a best seller, despite the couple …….. being against its publication.A) his/themselves        B) him/himself                      C) himself/them     D) his own/their

E) its/itself

< >I can smell ……….. gas in ………. kitchen.A) a/a                           B) —/the                                                  C) any/—                    D) —/a

E) some/ —

< >You have made a great start. Don't let ………. stop you now!A) nowhere                  B) nothing                        C) anything                 D) no one

E) somewhere

< >I wish I had ………. more free time to spend with my family.A) a little                      B) enough                         C) a lot of       D) several

E) a few

< >Creative subjects form ………. essential part of ………. children's education.A) an/ —                      B) any/a                           C) the/a           D) —/the

E) — /some

< >If ………. player acts violently towards ……….. the referee has the right to dismiss the offender.A) anyone/one

B) others/him

C) another/themselves

D) one/another

E) somewhere/each other

< >With the new system, ………. time is used more efficiently, allowing the company to focus on strategic issues.A) anyone                    B) something                    C) no one's     D) everywhere

E) everyone's

< >As ………. of the waiters who work there wants to take the responsibility of managing the restaurant, we will have to advertise for ………. -A) both/anyone

B) all /everywhere

C) the whole/anything

D) none/everyone

E) neither/someone

< >All the recommendations in the proposal ……… to save ……… money.A) is/its                        B) are /you r                    C) was/your                 D) were/itself

E) is /ours

< >As the manager ……… won't he here this week, I expect we'll have to sort this problem out on ……. .A) him/ourselves         B) his/ours                       C) himself/our own                 D) his own/us

E) he/our

< >'Boeuf en Croute', which means beef in a crust in ……… French, is very similar to ……… English dish called. Beef Wellington.A)—/an                        B) the/an                        C)a/-      D) a/the

E) the/—

< >It was such a shame! My mother-in-law put ……… food on the table, but because I was recovering from the flu, I ate hardly ……… of it.A) all/much                  B) several/little                        C) plenty of/none            D) a lot of/any

E) a little/some

< >……… American state has ………. motto. For example, Idaho's motto is, "It is Forever."A) Every/Itself             B) Each/its own               C) All/theirs                 D) Most/them

E) Some/their

< >At the beginning of the 20th century, some plastics were made with milk protein, casein, but apart from by button-makers, casein plastics are ………. use today.A) plenty of                 B) a number of                  C) every                                D) of little

E) a few

< >Only …….. of Ottawans can claim Canadian origins. Most are of British or French ancestry, or a combination of ………. .A) a great deal of/neither

B) a little/all

C) some/the whole

D) a minority/both

E) a few/none

< >He fell and broke bis leg when skiing off the marked piste, but fortunately, he was spotted, quite by chance, by ………. skier, who informed the rescue service immediately.A) himself                   B) any more                    C) anywhere                D) several

E) another

< >Of all the athletes in the world, only a small percentage ……… for the Olympics.A) qualifies                  B) is qualifying                 C) qualify       D) has qualified

E) is going to qualify

< >Mismanagement of land created the worst drought in United States history. Farmers from North Dakota to Texas suffered during the 'Dust Bowl' and ……… left the region.A) half of them            B) one another                C) everywhere D) much of it

E) a great deal

< >The landlord of the bar whose customers raised the money for charity ………. the cheque to the hospital.A) is awarding             B) are awarding                C) have awarded        D) is being awarded

E) has been awarded

< >Would you like ………. packed lunch to take with you on …….. journey?A) the/a                        B) a/the                            C) — /some                 D) the/any

E) some/ —

< >……… new record brings the band more success. They have become ……… of the most successful American rock bands ever.A) All/every                 B) Both/some                    C) Each/one               D) Some/another

E) Most/the whole

< >……… language is hard for a child. Children of ……… cultures learn their own language easily by listening and talking.A) All/none                  B) Others/both                C) No /an          D) A few/most

E) Every/either

< >

41-50. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulunuz.

In the Swiss yodelling style of singing, a high, light tone is sung alternately with a low, full tone.

A) Swiss yodelling is different from other techniques of singing because low, full tones are sung alternately with high, light ones.

B) Each Swiss yodel consists of some low full tones and a number of high light ones.

C) Yodelling, a kind of singing marked by the speed of tone changes, is a traditional Alpine music.

D) The technique of singing known as Swiss yodelling consists of two tones being sung alternately, one high and light, and the other low and full.

E) Swiss folk musicians in Alpine regions are known for their yodelling, which combines a number of dill eren t tones.

< >She does her best to protect her sons from the press as they both dislike publicity.A) Because she is so famous, the press also show an interest in her sons, but they both hale publicity.

B) Because neither of her sons enjoy public attention, she tries her utmost to shield them from the press.

C) Despite her great efforts to safeguard her sons from the media, they have both received a lot of unfair publicity.

D) Both her sons hate the publicity they have been getting from the press, so they have asked her to try and stop it for them.

E) She does her best to encourage publicity for herself, but her sons don't like press coverage.

< >We use plant oil in the kitchen for several purposes, of which enriching pastry is one and frying foods is another.A) Plant oil has many more uses besides the culinary ones, such as making cakes and pastries richer.

B) Plant oil has a lot of uses, the most common of which are culinary uses, such as enriching pastry and frying foods.

C) Our use of plant oil for several culinary functions includes adding richness to pastry and frying foods.

D) Frying food and enriching pastry are the two most important functions plant oil can serve.

E) We most commonly use plant oil to enrich pastry, but it has many other uses, such as for frying foods.

< >Before a railroad is built, the builders usually consider several alternative routes and carefully study each route.A) The builders of a railroad normally consider various possible routes, which are all given careful consideration, prior to starting construction work.

B) The builders of the railroad considered the features of every possible alternative route before they did any physical work.

C) Considering the number of alternative routes that are possible, it will take careful consideration to decide •where to start the construction.

D) Before a route for the railroad is chosen, the builders ought to give every alternative route their careful consideration.

E) In order to choose the best route, the builders should have carefully considered alî the alternatives and opted for the one with the best features.

< >I think the garden looks fine, but Jo believes it needs a little more colour.A) Do you agree with Jo that the ' garden looks fine, or do you think it needs slightly more colour?

B) Although Jo thought the garden needed a little more colour, we were generally satisfied with the way it looked.

C) Jo and I agree about just how much colour we should have in the garden.

D) If I were doing this job, I would use more colour in the garden, while Jo would use less.

E) While Jo thinks the garden requires slightly more colour, I am happy with the way it looks.

< >Little of our class time was taken up with administrative tasks.A) We used too much time during the lesson dealing with administration.

B) You shouldn't use a lot of class time to deal with administrative issues.

C) We used a small amount of class time dealing with administration.

D) We shouldn't have dealt with administration tasks during the lesson.

E) The majority of class time was taken up doing administration,

< >During the course, you will be able to borrow books from the university library, but as a professional teacher, you will be expected to buy your own copy of important texts.A) While studying on this course, you can either borrow books from the university library or buy your own personal copy, which is more professional.

B) It is best to borrow books for this course from the university library, but, if you wish, or feel it more professional, you can buy the most important books.

C) The university library has most professional leaching books that you will need while studying this course, but there are one or two that, you will have to buy yourself.

D) Books will be available to you on loan from the university library during the course, but as a professional teacher, you should own a personal copy of key texts.

E) The university keeps a limited number of the important books for this professional teaching course, so if a book is not available for loan, you will be expected to buy it yourself.

< >The destruction caused by the first atom bomb was unlike anything seen in the world before.A) The kind of devastation the first atom bomb produced had never before been seen on the Earth.

B) The most powerful bomb which has ever been exploded on the Earth was the atom bomb.

C) The first atom bomb caused more devastation than the total of all the bombs which had been dropped previously.

D) Nobody thought the first atom bomb would cause as much devastation to the Earth as it did.

E) The first atom bomb caused more devastation than everyone in the world had expected.

< >Each of our hotel rooms contains its own bathroom, a colour television and air conditioning.A) Our hotel room has its own bathroom, a colour television and air-conditioning.

B) There is a bathroom, a colour television and air-conditioning in all of our hotel rooms.

C) Not every room in the hotel has its own bathroom, but they all have a colour television and air-conditioning.

D) There is a bathroom, a colour television and air-conditioning in most of the rooms in our hotel.

E) Our hotel is equipped with a colour television, air-conditioning and a luxury bathroom.

< >Many people believe that no book has had a more powerful influence on American history than "Uncle Tom's Cabin".A) The book "Uncle Tom's Cabin" bas had a most powerful influence on many of the characters in American history.

B) It is thought by many that "Uncle Tom's Cabin" has had the strongest influence of any book on the history of America.

C) There are few books in the history of American literature that have had  such a powerful effect on people as "Uncle Tom's Cabin".

D) Nobody would dispute the fact that the most powerful influence of any book on American history was created by the novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin".

E) In my opinion, the book which has had the most powerful influence on American history is the novel "uncle Tom's Cabin".

 

 

< >

51-55. sorularda, verilen Türkçe  cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

Şarkı söyleyerek, dans ederek ve tüylerini teşhir ederek erkek kuş, eş olarak kendisini seçmesi konusunda dişi kuşu ikna etmek için gösteri yapar.

A) The male bird sings, dances and displays his plumage in order to persuade the female that she should select him as her mate.

B) The male bird attracts a suitable female mate by displaying his plumage in an elaborate dancing and singing routine.

C) The female chooses a mate from the male birds which show off their plumage during a courting dance, during which they also sing.

D) The male bird attempts to attract a female by singing, dancing and showing off his plumage in a ritual fashion.

E) By singing, dancing and displaying t his plumage, the male bird shows off in order to persuade the female to choose him as her mate.

< >Okyanusa olan tutkusuyla Jacques Cousteau, denizin dibindeki gizli evreni dünyanın gözleri önüne sermiştir.A) Until Jacques Cousteau, with his passion for the ocean, revealed the underwater world, this was largely unknown to us.

B) With his passion for the ocean. Jacques Cousteau revealed to the world the hidden universe under the sea.

C) Jacques Cousteau succeeded in revealing the hidden universe that lies under the sea through his passionate love for the ocean.

D) Jacques Cousteau's passionate descriptions of underwater life helped us understand the hidden depths of the oceans:

E) Thanks to Jacques Cousteau's passionate love for underwater life, the world now knows more about the hidden universe under the sea.

< >Yağlıboyalarıyla tanınmasına ragmen Turner, İngiliz suluboya manzara resminin kurucularından biri olarak kabul edilir.A) Although he himself usually painıed landscapes in oils. Turner was instrumental in founding the English watercolour movement.

B) In addition to painting works of art in oil. Turner also painted some notable English landscapes in watercolour.

C) After Turner, whose English landscapes were mainly painted in oils. English artists began to use watercolour.

D) Although known for his oils, Turner is regarded as one of the founders of English watercolour landscape painting.

E) Apart from being one of the most well-known oil painters of his day. Turner was involved in early watercolour landscape painting.

< >Okuma-yazma oranını arttırmak için hükümet, ilköğretim sistemini tüm. ülkeye yaymaya çalışıyor.A) The rate of literacy in the country will be increased once the government has extended the elementary education system.

B) The government hopes that extending primary school education to the whole country will improve the rate of literacy.

C) In order to increase the rate of literacy, the government is trying to extend the elementary education system to the whole country.

D) The government is increasing the rate of literacy in the whole country by extending the primary school system.

E) The government could extend the primary school system to the entire country in order to improve the rate of literacy.

< >Aleut Adaları'nda neredeyse hiç ağaç yoktur ama adalar gür yetişmiş otlar ve pek çok çiçekli bitkilerle kaplıdır.A) There are hardly any trees on the Aleutian Islands, but they are covered with a rich growth of ' grasses and many flowering plants.

B) The Aleutian Islands have very few trees, yet they have many flowering plants and an abundant covering of grasses.

C) The Aleutian Islands are covered with a rich growth of grasses and many flowering plants, in addition to the many trees.

D) The vegetation of the Aleutian Islands is made up of many flowering plants, several grasses, but hardly any trees,

E) There is almost no vegetation on the Aleutian Islands, except for some flowering plants and a covering of grasses.

 

< >

56-60. sorularda,verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

Arabic, a Semitic language originally spoken only in the Arabian peninsula, spread with Islam.

A) Islamiyetle birlikte yayılan Arapça, önceleri sadece Arap yanmadasmda konuşulan Sami dillerinden biriydi.

B) Başlangıçta sadece Arap yarımadasında konuşulan bir Sami dili olan Arapça, İslamiyetle birlikte yayıldı.

C) Arap yarımadasında konuşulan ve Sami dillerinden olan Arapça, İslamiyetin etkisiyle çok yayılmıştır.

D) İslamiyet, sadece Arap yarımadasında konuşulan Sami dillerinden biri olan Arapçanm yayılmasını sağlamıştır.

E) Arap yarımadasında konuşulan Sami dillerinden biri olan Arapçanm yayılmasında İslamiyetin etkisi büyüktür.

< >Since they have few natural enemies to fear, elephants are usually peaceful and easygoing.A) Fillerin genel olarak sakin ve uysal olmaları, doğal ortamlarında onları korkutan düşmanlarının olmamasından kaynaklanır.

B) Genel olarak sakin ve uysal bir yapıya sahip fillerin, doğal ortamlarında onları korkutabilecek çok az düşmanı vardır.

C) Doğal olarak, sakin ve uysal  yaradılışlarından dolayı fillerin pek fazla düşmanı yoktur.

D) Filler ancak kendi doğal ortamlarında sakin ve uysaldırlar çünkü orada onları korkutan düşmanları pek fazla değildir.

E) Korkmalarını gerektiren çok az doğal düşmanları olduğu için filler genellikle sakin ve uysaldırlar.

< >Sign language is a means of communicating through body movements, especially through the hands and arms.A) Bir iletişim kurma aracı olan işaret dilinde vücut hareketleri, özellikle de eller ve kollar kullanılır.

B) Eller ve kollarla yapılan vücut hareketleriyle iletişim kurma aracına işaret dili denir.

C) Özellikle eller ve kolların çok kullanıldığı işaret dilinde, çeşitli vücut hareketleriyle iletişim kurulur.

D) İşaret dili vücut hareketleriyle, özellikle eller ve kollarla, ileüşim kurma aracıdır.

E) Vücut hareketleriyle iletişim kurulan işaret dilinde, özellikle eller ve kolların önemi büyüktür.

< >Vultures are believed to recognise dead animals by sight but also to some degree by smell.A) Akbabalar bir hayvanın ölü olup olmadığını sadece görüntüsünden değil kokusundan da anlarlar.

B) Ölü bir hayvanın görüntüsü kadar kokusunun da akbabaların onu bulmasına yardımcı olduğu düşünülmektedir.

C) Akbabalar bir hayvanın ölü olduğundan büyük oranda görüntüsünden, ama bir ölçüde de kokusundan emin olurlar.

D) Akbabaların ölü hayvanları görüntüden, bir ölçüde de kokudan tanıdıklarına inanılır.

E) Anlaşılan o ki, akbabalar ölü hayvanları görüntüsünden, ama büyük Ölçüde de kokusundan tanımaktadırlar.

< >Although Freud's theories were at first disputed, his work formed the foundation for treating psychiatric disorders by psychoanalysis.A) Freud'un teorilerine başlangıçta karşı çıkıldıysa da, onun çalışmaları psikiyatrik bozuklukları psikoanalizle tedavi etmenin temelini oluşturmuştur.

B) Psikiyatrik bozuklukların psikoanalizle tedavi edilmesinin temelini atmış olan Freud'un bu teorileri ilk zamanlar çok tartışılmıştır.

C) Freud'un, psikiyatrik bozuklukların psikoanalizle tedavi edilebileceği teorisi başlangıçta çok tartışıldığı halde, bugün temel tedavi yöntemi budur.

D) İlk zamanlar çok tepki almasına rağmen Freud, psikiyatrik bozuklukların psikoanalizle tedavi edilebileceği teorisinde ısrar etmiş ve çalışmalarını sürdürmüştür.

E) Psikiyatrik bozuklukların psikoanalizle tedavi edilebileceği teorisini ilk kez Freud ortaya atmış ve tepkilere rağmen bu ekolün temelini oluşturmuştur.

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

Sasha's pet dog has just had six …. She is looking for people who can offer them good homes.

A) lambs                      B) puppies                 C) kids       D) kittens

E) calves

Cameron fell off his bicycle and ………. both of his knees.

A) grazed                     B) splashed                    C) ground          D) grated

E) sliced

The deer hunters saw some …….. marks in the snow and followed them.

A) heel                         B) elbow                           C) hoof          D) flipper

E) nail

The crime squad have meticulously gathered the ……… that proved Mr. Swindle was running a drugs  operation.

A) justice                     B) provision                  C) prejudice                   D) evidence

E) assumption

The receptionist loves ………. about the private lives of other members of staff.

A) to counsel               B) to witness                       C) to dispute            D) to confide

E) to gossip

A mass of correspondence was exchanged between the two companies, but the finance manager of the supplier was …….. and would not reduce or cancel any of the charges.

A) academic                B) inestimable                 C) sympathetic             D) aggressive

E) uncompromising

I remember my father best with a ……… but he didn't always have one. He grew one when he was about forty.

A) lens                         B) beard                             C) pipe          D) limp

E) scar

The Kindergarten tries to prepare dishes that the children will enjoy. Of course ……… is also a high priority.

A) cultivation               B) growth                        C) nutrition                  D) famine

E) hunger

Sally told the policeman that she didn't recognise the man. He was a complete ………. to her.

A) newcomer               B) partner                          C) relative                 D) stranger

E) acquaintance

He was nominated to become deputy head teacher because of his enthusiasm and his ………. as a teacher.

A) arrogance                B) ignorance                              C) ancestry                    D) competence

E) snobbery

It was his ………. of his health that led him to discover his lung cancer at such an advanced stage.

A) stupidity                  B) mentality                    C) ignorance                D) intelligence

E) inferiority

The Vikings first came to the shores of Britain to rob coastal villages, but later a fair amount of ………. took place between them and the Angles and Saxons.

A) manufacturing        B) commerce                   C) earning        D) cultivation

E) relaxation

……… is about getting the best possible performance out of those you are in charge of and encouraging them to succeed.

A) Ownership              B) Fashion                        C) Selfishness            D) Apprenticeship

E) Leadership

The arrival of the pop star caused ………. among the awaiting crowd of fans.

A) madness                  B) insanity                         C) violence                           D) fever

E) hysteria

Tina worked as a reporter for a local newspaper before she was …….. by the TV Channel to read the news.

A) dismissed                B) fined                           C) disappointed                       D) hired

E) broadcast

Their ……… of the price increase in the holiday was that currency fluctuations had caused it.

A) explanation             B) construction                  C) illumination          D) exhibition

E) destination

There is always a significant amount of ……… in and around Birmingham between seven and nine in the morning, which causes commuters to waste a lot of time in traffic.

A) destruction              B) congestion                 C) construction             D) blockage

E) obstacle

My …….. to planning a picnic without planning any alternative was that, in September, the weather could be awful.

A) revelation                B) objection                     C) grievance                D) proposal

E) confirmation

The captors were ……… with the prisoners of war and treated them kindly.

A) jealous                    B) selfish                         C) compassionate        D) extravagant

E) greedy

The High Street is closed while the gas pipes are repaired, and traffic is being ………. around the outskirts of ……   the town.

A) deterred                  B) distracted                 C) influenced      D) diverted

E) avoided

The fingerprints left at the scene of the crime revealed the ………. of the murderer.

A) personality              B) emotion                      C) perception               D) identity

E) appearance

…….. we have been forced to cancel our next month's team trip to Poland.

A) Voluntarily             B) Regrettably                 C) Apologetically         D) Occasionally

E) Operationally

Her parents have been very ……… while she has been at medical school, which she has really appreciated.

A) destructive              B) critical                             C) supportive                      D) spiteful            

E) dependent

One of the ……… of introducing the Euro as a currency in the UK is that the national government loses some control over the money used within the country.

A) affections               B) injuries                       C) implications             D) imprints

E) appearances

One of the best ………. of this mobile telephone is that it can be connected to the Internet.

A) marks                      B) features                       C) tools           D) implements

E) utensils

There has been a lot of ………. in the city centre recently. Telephone boxes have been destroyed, bus shelters are covered in graffiti and litter bins have been set on fire.

A) vandalism               B) paganism                    C) trash            D) congestion

E) pollution

Alaska is so ……… populated that there is still about 2.6 square kilometres of land per person.

A) gloomily                 B) closely                        C) abundantly              D) nearly

E) thinly

I bought a selection of cream and brown clothes so that I would have a number of ………. from relatively few garments.

A) collars                     B) overalls                        C) uniforms               D) outfits

E) sleeves

Elephants, which are normally quite peaceful, become aggressive when their young are …..,.. as by lions.

A) threatened               B) planted                      C) deterred                    D) declared

E) publicised

Mark was disqualified from the examination because he had been caught …… .  He was copying his answers from the student sitting in front of him.

A) lying                       B) cheating                      C) stealing        D) glancing

E) spying

Lorenzo Piper Davis was the fest African American to play for the 'Boston Red Sox', but he was dropped from the team because of racial ……… . However, he s till became a star playing for the Birmingham Black Barons.

A) development           B) aggression                 C) feature          D) horror

E) prejudice

Diving has been a/an …….. sport since 1880, and it was included in the Olympics for the first time in 1904.

A) constant                  B) violent                        C) aggressive               D) excessive

E) competitive

A film I have been wanting to see for ages is on television tomorrow, but as I will be in my German class, I will have to …….. it and watch it later.

A) trace                        B) duplicate                      C) record        D) photocopy

E) project

When the President and his wife …….. from their official jet, they were met by the Ambassador and his wife.

A) ascended                 B) jumped                         C) boarded                            D) disembarked

E)escaped

You shouldn't have any problems understanding Onur because he can speak English …….. now.

A) fluently                   B) gracefully                      C) mercifully                        D) swiftly

E) dutifully

Upon her arrival, Maria was ………warmly by the family at the house where she would stay during her holiday in France.

A) placed                     B) greeted                        C) situated       D) nourished

E) supplied

Tougher gun laws would be …….. by a large proportion of the American population, especially school teachers and concerned parents.

A) positioned               B) widened                      C) frightened   D) welcomed

E) saluted

An experienced and qualified dressmaker will……… the trainees so that any mistake they may make will be noticed and rectified.

A) design                     B) supervise                       C) conduct               D) divert

E) fashion

She was absolutely delighted at her results and couldn't hide her …….. . In fact, she burst into tears of joy.

A) moods                     B) tones                             C) emotions                          D) melodies

E) dreams

We didn't have a particular aim for the afternoon, so we just ………. around the side streets of Bath, which is a beautiful town.

A) attended                  B) hopped                         C) skipped     D) crawled

E) wandered

 

ELS 2001/11     ANSWER KEY

Ex. 1 (pg.2).

1.Devices operated by electricity or gas and found in the home are called home appliances. 2.Puppies like to sleep in baskets. 3. Balls are more popular with boys than they are with girls. 4.Dentists work in surgeries.  5.These waxes were used to make candles.  6. The soldiers dug trenches. 7.Fezzes usually have tassels. 8.Obstinate and slow asses are a symbol of stubborn stupidity. 9. Small bakeries will find these new regulations difficult to adapt to. 10.Pearls form in oysters.

Ex. 2 (pg.3)

1.faces 2.rushes 3.trips 4.keys 5.princes 6.wedges 7.branches 8.voices 9. foxes 10.taxis 11.pies 12.beams 13.classes 14.horses  15.dyes  16.patches  17.grazes  18.toys 19.axes 20.passes

Ex. 3(pg.4)

1.handkerchiefs 2.wolves 3. stadiums (or stadia) 4.oxen 5.policewomen 6.reindeer 7.feet 8.shoots 9.patios  10.fish 11.sheriffs 12.1oaves  13.crises 14.phenomena 15.bows 16. hoods 17.booths 18.hoofs (or hooves) 19.demos 20.mice

Ex. 4 (pg.6)

1.scenery/bridges/valleys/villages/food 2.petrol/luggage/suitcases/rucksacs/equipment 3.biscuits/flour/eggs/apricots/sugar/butter 4.evidence/fingerprints/hairs/blood 5.games/handball/basketball 6.garbage/cans/bottles/newspapers 7.clothing/sweaters/socks/coats 8.courage/opportunities/luck 9.fruit/apples/bananas/grapes/oranges 10.energy/lights/shower/bath/heating

Ex. 5(pg.7)

1.materials 2.material 3.times 4.time 5.works 6.work/noise 7.noises/country 8.lamb 9.lambs 10.light/lights  11. Irons 12.experience 13.experiences  14.countries  15.iron

Ex. 6(pg.9)

1.the floor of the cage 2.a month's holiday 3.Noel's cousin's wife 4.Noel's cousins’ wives 5.the deer's antlers   6.the bracket of the mirror 7.the children's books 8.two minutes' silence 9.the cockpit of the aeroplane  10.the subject of the essay 11.Turkey's mountains/the mountains of Turkey  12.the telephone company's service charges (the service charges of the telephone company 13.the umbrella of the customer who's just left 14.the doctor's surgery 15.the wish of the population (the population's wish) 16.the result of my colleagues' efforts 17.the consequences of last night's decision  18.the dolphins' tricks 19.the cover of the sofa 20. the tops of the trees

Ex. 7(pg.11)

1. An/a/a 2.a/— 3.an/a/a 4.—/— 5.—/a 6.An/a 7.a/— 8.a/a 9.a/a 10.—/an/a 11.an/a 12.a/a 13.—/—/a 14.an/—/a/a 15.—/a/a

Ex. 8(pg.11)

1. some/a 2.a/some 3.some 4.Some 5.—/some 6.some (—) 7.a/a/a 8.Some/—/a./an 9.a/some 10.some/—/— 11.—/some 12.a/— 13.some/a 14.some/some/a/a 15.a/some/a

Ex.9 (pg.l5)

1.the/—/the 2.the/an/the/the 3.a/the/the/the/a 4.some/the/the/the (a)/the 5A/a/the/the 6.the/the/a/the 7.The/a/an/— 8.some/the/a 9.a/a/—/the/the/a 10.a/a/the

11.some/—/the/the/the 12.the/the/a/the  13.—/the/—/the 14.a/the/the (—)/The/some 15.The/the/— 16.a/the 17.a/a/the 18.Some/the/an 19.—/the/—/the 20.some/an 21.—/—/— 22.—/a 23.the/the/the/the/— 24.the/a/— (some) 25.the (some)/the (some)/the

Ex. 10(pg.l8)

1.much competence 2.many children 3.many accidents 4.many loaves 5.much intelligence 6.much research 7.many reports 8.many researchers 9.many lectures   10.many computers  11.much hatred 12.many crises 13.much pollution  14.many jobs  15.much work 16.much violence  17.many fights 18.many companies  19.much commerce 20.many leaders 21.much leadership 22.much chaos 23.many lies 24.many pebbles 25.much soil 26.much generosity 27.many conclusions 28.much isolation 29.much entertainment 30.many parks

Ex. 11 (pg. 18)

1.—/— 2.of 3.of 4.of 5.of 6.— 7.of 8.— 9.of 10.—

Ex. 12 (pg.19)

1.few 2.A few 3. a little 4.a little 5.little 6.little 7.1ittle/few 8.few 9.Little  10. few 11.a few 12.a little 13.little  14.a few 15.little

Ex. 13 (pg.21)

1.—/of 2.of 3.—/of 4.of 5.of 6.of 7.— 8.of 9.—/of/—  10.— 11.of 12.of 13.of 14.—  15.of/—

Ex.14 (pg.24)

1. All   2.whole   3.whole   4.all   5.all   6.whole   7.whole   8.all   9.all   10.whole

Ex.15 (pg.24)

1.(of). 2.of 3.(of)4.—5.of 6.— 7.of 8.(of)/of 9.—10.(of)   11.(of)   12.—   13.(of) 14.(of)  15.(of)/of .

Ex.16 (pg.27)

1.all 2.Neither/both (either) 3.none 4.both 5.neither 6.none 7.all 8.none 9.both 10.either 11.all 12.Both 13.all 14.both 15.None

Ex.17 (pg.29)

1.zone/has 2.each 3.every/influences 4.every 5.Every/tree 6.actors/is 7.each/have 8.Each/has 9.each 10.every

Ex.18 (pg.38)      (NOTE: -one ve -body ile biten sözcükler birbirlerinin yerine kullanılabilirler.)

1.somewhere/anywhere 2.something/anyone/anything 3.everything/anything 4.everyone 5.anywhere 6.anything 7. Nobody /someone 8. everywhere 9.nowhere/somethiııg 10.anyone (everyone) 11.Nowhere/nothing/no one 12.everything/anything 13.someone 14.nothing 15.anyone/anything/no one/Everyone

Ex.19 (pg.41).                                            

1.her own 2.its own 3.ourselves 4.themselves 5.myself 6.itself 7.her own 8.their own 9.herself 10.yourself 11.himself 12.myself 13.themselves/themselves 14.yourselves 15.his own

Ex.20 (pg.46)                                                            

1.are 2.are 3.is 4.is 5.is 6.is 7.is 8.are 9.are 10.is (are) 11.is 12.are 13.is 14.are 15.is 16.is 17.are 18.are 19.are 20.is 21.are 22.is 23.is 24.is 25.are 26.is 27.is 28.are 29.is 30.is 31.is 32.is 33.are 34.are 35.is 36.is 37.are 38.is 39.are 40.are 41.is 42.is 43.are 44.is 45.is (are) 46.are 47.is 48.is 49.is 50.are                     

Ex.21 (pg.47)

1.wasn't 2.were 3.was 4.distracts 5.is 6.was 7.were/was 8.is/are 9.were 10.was/was 11.are 12.was 13.attends 14.is 15.work/work 16.remains 17.remain 18.were 19.are 20.is/are

Ex.22 (pg.51)

1.another 2.the others 3.another 4.another 5.the others 6.others 7.the others/other 8.other 9.each other (one another)/the other 10.other 11.the other 12.the other 13.others 14.another15.the other

TEST YOURSELF 1

1.A       

2.A

3.B

4.E

5.C

6.D

7.A

8.E

9.B

10.C

11.C

12.D

13.D

14.E

15.C

16.A

17.C

18.B

19.D

20.E

2l.B

22.E

23.E

24.C

25.A

26.A

27.B

28.D

29.C

30.D

31.E

32.C

33.A

34.D

35.E

36.C

37.B

38.D

39.E

40.E

41.B

42.A

43.C

44.B

45.C

46.E

47.D

48.C

49.A

50.B

51.B

52.D

53.D

54.C

55.E

56.B

57.A

58.E

59.C

60.D

TEST YOURSELF 2

1.A

2.D

3.E

4.C

5.C

6.E

7.B

8.A

9.D

10.D

11.E

12.C

13.D

14.A

15.B

16.B

17.E

18.C

19.A

20.B

21.C

22.A

23.A

24.D

25.E

26.E

27.B

28.C

29.A

30.D

31.B

32.D

33.D

34.E

35.C

36.A

37.A

38.B

39.C

40.C

41.D

42.B

43.C

44.A

45.E

46. C

47.D

48.A

49.B

50. B

51.E

52.B

53.D

54.C

55.A

56.B

57.E

58.D

59.D

60.A

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

1.B

2.A

3.C

4.D

5.E

6.E

7.B

8.C

9.D

10.D

11.C

12.B

13.E

14.E

15.D

16.A

17.B

18.B

19.C

20.D

21.D

22.B

23.C

24.C

25.B

26.A

27.E

28.D

29.A

30.B

31.E

32.E

33.C

34.D

35.A

36.B

37.D

38.B

39.C

40.E

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS ANSWER KEY

1.C      2.D          3.B          4.C      5.D      6.C      7.B          8.B          9.A      10.D        11.A        12.B        13.A

14.E    15.A        16.D        17.A   18.D     19.E    20.D        21.D        22.D      23.C

 

 

Yazar Hakkında

Erdem OVAT

1985-1988 Dörtler Köyü İlköğretim Okulu 1988- 1993 Sakıp Sabancı İlköğretim Okulu 1993-1996 Orhan Çobanoğlu Lisesi 1997-2000 Almanya'da Turist 2001-2002 Vatani Görev Isparta Muş'ta yaptım 2002-2004 Açiköğretim Lisesinden Üstün Başarı 2005-2010 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Alman Dili Öğretmenliğinde Mezun Oldum 2010-2011 Halk Eğitim Merkezinde Almanca Öğretmenliğine Başladım 2011-2013 Çeşitli Özel Dersane ve Okullarda çalıştım 2013- .... Milli Eğitimde Almanca Öğretmeni olarak çalışmaya devam ediyorum
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