a) WISH: Wish" in sözcük anlamı "istemek, dilemek' tir. Bu açıdan "want' ve "would like" ile aynı anlamı taşır. Ancak "wish" bunların içinde daha çok resmi ortamlarda kullanılanıdır. "Wish" ten sonra bir başka fiile geçebiliriz.
– Who do you wish to see, Sir? (wish to do something)
I wish to see the manager.
– The Prime Minister wished the Opposition to be more reasonable about the new tax system. (wish someone to do something)
- "Wish" ten sonra bir isim gelebilir. Ancak "wish" in bu kullanımı kısıtlıdır. "Want" ve "would like" tan sonra herhangi bir ismi kullanabiliriz. "/ want/would like some coffee. I want/would like a ticket to Ankara" gibi. "Wish"i ise, ancak "şans, mutluluk, başarı dilemek" gibi yapılarda kullanabiliriz.
Wish me luck in the exam, (wish someone something)
I wish you a swift recovery.
I sent a card to my parents and wished them a Happy New Year.
- "Wish" ten sonra bir cümle (that clause) gelebilir. Bu cümlenin tense'i, present ya da future tense olamaz. Mutlaka gerçek durumu ifade eden cümledeki tense'in bir derece past biçimi olmalıdır: do yerine did, can yerine could, did ve have/has done yerine had done gibi. ("Want" ve "would like" tan sonra bu şekilde cümle gelmez.)
– She isn't here now. I wish she were here now. (Keşke o şimdi burada olsaydı.)
– We don't have enough money. I wish we had enough money. (Keşke yeterince paramız olsaydı.)
– l can't help her. I wish I could help her. (Keşke ona yardım edebilseydim.)
b) WISH CLAUSES
1. A wish about the present
"Wish + subject + past tense", kişinin, içinde bulunduğu anda hoşuna gitmeyen olayları, memnuniyetsizliğini ifade eder. "Be" fiili için bütün öznelerle "were" kullanılır. "Wish" ten sonra "that" kullanabiliriz. Ancak that kullanmadan cümleye geçmek daha yaygındır.
- Ali isn't as tall as his friend Ahmet.
Ali wishes (that) he were as tall as his friend Ahmet. (Ali is sorry that he isn't as tall as his friend Ahmet.)
- I am very busy now, so I can't help you.
I wish I weren't so busy now. (It's a pity that I'm very busy now.)
- I don't know where he is, so I can't contact him.
I wish I knew where he was. (It's a pity that I don't know where he is.)
- She doesn't trust me. I wish she trusted me.
- I have to stay home today. I wish I didn't have to stay home today.
- I can't do anything to relieve the situation.
I wish I could do something to relieve the situation.
2. A wish about the past
"Wish + subject + past perfect", geçmişte gerçekleşmiş olan olaylardan duyulan pişmanlığı ya da o olaylardan dolayı yakınmayı ifade etmek için kullanılır.
- He wasn't here yesterday, so he missed the party.
I wish he had been here yesterday.
- I had to work yesterday, so I couldn't go to the theatre with them.
I wish I hadn't had to work yesterday.
- I couldn't get up early yesterday, so I was late for my date.
I wish I could have got up/had been able to get up early yesterday.
- I didn't have enough money on me, so I couldn't lend him any.
- I wish I had had enough money on me.
I was driving very fast at the time of the accident, so the person I hit got seriously injured.
I wish I hadn't been driving so fast at the time of the accident.OR
I wish I had been driving more slowly at the time of the accident.
3. A wish about the future .
Wish clause'larda "would" un kullanımı belli kurallara bağlıdır. Temel cümle ile (I wish, she wishes, etc.) yan cümlenin özneleri aynı ise (I wish I.., She wishes she…), temel cümlede "would" kullanamayız. Çünkü "would", içinde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte memnun olmadığımız ya da hoşumuza gitmeyen bir olayı bir başkasının değiştirmesini istediğimiz anlamını ifade eder. Bu nedenle, iki cümlenin özneleri farklı olduğu zaman (I wish you would.., She wishes they would…) "would" kullanabiliriz.
- I'm sure it will be a wonderful picnic. I wish you would come too. (/ want you to come.)
- You are driving too fast. I wish you would slow down. (I want you to slow down.)
- She is thinking about studying abroad, but I don't want to be away from her.
I wish she would change her mind. (/ want her to change her mind.)
- It's raining heavily, and I don't want to go out in the rain.
I wish it would stop raining. (I want the rain to stop.)
Eğer geleceğe yönelik bir ifade kullanmak istiyorsak ama iki cümledeki özneler aynı ise "could" ya da simple past tense kullanabiliriz.
- I have to work tomorrow.
I wish I didn't have to work tomorrow.
- She can't come with us tomorrow, and she is disappointed about this.
She wishes she could come with us tomorrow.
- I don't think I will have spare time tomorrow to help you, but I wish I could help you.
c) IF ONLY
"If only" de "I wish" ile aynı anlamdadır ve aynı tense kurallarına göre kullanılır. Ancak "if only" biraz daha dramatik (daha üzücü) olayları ifade ederken kullanılır.
If only he hadn't been so seriously injured! .
If only I knew where she was living now!
If only we could do something to deaden her pain!
If only you would drive more slowly!
"If only" run bağlı bulunduğu cümle bir temel cümleye doğrudan bağlanabilir. Bu kullanım, "then/in that case" gibi, bir geçiş sözcüğü olmadan "I wish" için mümkün değildir. •
If only I had known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you.
If only you would drive more slowly, I would feel more relaxed.
(I wish you would drive more slowly; then/that way, I would feel more relaxed.)
If only I knew where she was living now, I could write to her.
"If only" kalıbında, "if ile "only" ayrılabilir ve "only" cümle içinde farklı yerlerde kullanılabilir.
1. "Be" fiilinden sonra:
If only he were more hard-working! If he were only rnore hard-working!
2. "Modal" yardımcı fiillerinden sonra:
If only you would drive more slowly! If you would only drive more slowly!
If only we could do something to deaden her pain!
If we could only do something to deaden her pain!
3. Asıl fiilden önce:
If only I knew where she was living now! If I only knew where she was living now!
4. Active cümlede "had/hadn't" dan önce ya da sonra:
If only I had known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you.
If I had only known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you.
If I only had known that you were in the hospital, I would have come to visit you.
5. Passive cümlede "had/hadn't" dan önce:
If only he hadn't been so seriously injured!
If he only hadn't been so seriously injured!
d) WOULD RATHER
"Would rather" kullanarak "I wish" ile aynı anlamı veren cümleler elde edebiliriz. Bu anlamda "would rather", yaygın olarak özellikle konuşmacı ile yan cümledeki özne farklı kişilerse kullanılır.
I'd rather you were by my side at this difficult moment, (wish about the present)
I wish you were by my side at this difficult moment.
I'd rather he didn't come to the party next weekend, (wish about the future)
I wish he wouldn't come to the party next weekend.
I'd rather we hadn't stayed out so late last night, (wish about the past)
I wish we hadn't stayed out so late last night.
e) IT'S (HIGH) TIME/IT'S ABOUT TIME
"It's (high) time/it's about time", "… yapmanın zamanı çoktan geldi/…yapmanın zamanı geldi de geçti bile" gibi anlamlar verdiği için, bu kalıplan kullanarak "I wish" ile aynı anlamda cümleler üretebiliriz. Çünkü, "….yapmanın zamanı çoktan geldi." ve "Keşke artık …yapsan." ifadelerinin her ikisi de, bir yakınma, bir dilekte bulunma ifade etmektedir.
"It's (high) time/It's about time" dan sonra gelen cümlede sadece Simple past kullanılır ve present ya da future bir dilek ya da istek ifade edilir. Geçmişteki bir dilek ya da isteği bu yapılarla ifade edemeyiz. "Bir şeyin olmasının zamanı çoktan geldi." anlamından dolayı, bu kalıplarla olumsuz yapı kullanmak da mümkün değildir.
It's (high) time she learnt how to take care of herself. ;
I wish she would learn how to take care of herself.
It's about time someone taught you a lesson.
I wish someone would teach you a lesson.
It's about time you could ride a bike.
I wish you could ride a bike.
"It's time (for someone) to do something", "…yapma zamanı geldi" anlamını verir ve "it's (high) time/it's about time" gibi, bir gecikme ya da yakınma ifade etmez.
I've had a lovely time tonight, but it's time (for me) to go. (The time has now arrived for me to go.) (…, ama artık gitme zamanı geldi.)
I've had a lovely time tonight, but it's (high) time I went (I should probably have left before this.) (…, ama çoktan gitmiş olmalıydım.)
AS IF/AS THOUGH
"As If/as though" "sanki/gibi anlamını verir. Look, seem, sound gibi fiillerle çok sık kullanılır. Eğer as if/as though ile gerçek bir olay hakkındaki izlenimimizi ifade ediyorsak, kullanacağımız tense, gerçeği ifade eden tense olmalıdır.
- There are dark clouds in the sky. It seems as if/as though it is going to rain. (Yağmur yağacak gibi görünüyor.}
- The travel agent praised the holiday resort a lot. It sounds as if we are going to have a nice holiday.
- Look at Sue! She isn't wide awake enough today.
She looks as if she didn't sleep well last night. (Sanki dün akşam iyi uyumamış gibi görünüyor.)
- The streets are quite clean today. It seems as if they have just cleaned them.
- You aren't in a hurry to prepare dinner. It seems as if you had eaten just before I arrived.
- We haven't told her the bad news, but she is talking as if she knows it. It's likely that she heard about it from Sally.
- This problem is rather difficult, but you seem as if you can solve it by yourself.
- Look at those children in the playground. They are laughing happily. They seem as if they are having a good time.
- She didn't promise me, but it seems as if she will help me.
- Eğer temel cümledeki fiil past time'a ait ise (She seemed …. She was talking …. It had seemed…, etc.), "as if/as though" dan sonra gelen cümlenin tense'i present ya da future tlme'a ait bir tense olamaz. Ancak, gerçekte kullandığımız tense'in bir derece past biçimini kullanabiliriz: do yerine did, did ve have/has done yerine had done, will yerine would, can yerine could, am/is/are doing yerine was/were doing gibi…
- There were dark clouds in the sky. It seemed as if it was going to rain.
- She wasn't wide awake enough yesterday. She looked as if she hadn't slept
- well the previous night.
- The streets were quite clean. It seemed as if they had Just cleaned them.
- We hadn't told her the bad news, but she was talking as if she knew it. Perhaps she had heard about it from someone else.
- The problem was rather difficult, but he seemed as if he could solve it by himself.
- The children were playing and laughing happily in the playground. They seemed as if they were having a good time.
- She hadn't promised me, but it seemed as if she would help me.
- "As If/as though" ile gerçekteki izlenimimizi ifade etmiyorsak, sadece bir benzetme yapıyorsak, o zaman gerçeği ifade eden cümlenin past biçimi kullanılır ve bu cümlelerde bir hayal (imagine/unreal situations) ifade edildiği için, "be" fiilinin past biçimi olarak bütün öznelerle "were" kullanımı tercih edilir.
- I am not their daughter, but they treat me as if I were their daughter. (Bana kızlarıymışım gibi davranıyorlar.}
- She speaks as if she knew everything. (In truth, she doesn't know everything.) Sometimes she talks to her husband as if he were a child. (He isn't a child.)
- She is always complaining as if she had no money. (In fact, she has a lot of money in her bank account.)
- Bu tür cümlelerin temel cümlesindeki fiil past tense olduğunda da, "as If/as though" lu cümlenin tense'i değişmez.
- They treated me as if I were their daughter.
- She spoke as if she .knew everything.
- She talked to her husband as if he were a child.
- She was always complaining as if she had no money.
- I was exhausted. I felt as if a truck had run over me.
- She spoke English and German as if they were her mother tongue.
- Bazen "as if/as though" ile ifade edilen durumun "real" ya da "unreal" olması, konuşmacının o konuda sahip olduğu bilgiye bağlıdır.
- She looks as if she is rich, (real situation)
- He is trying to impress people by spending more money than he should spend. He acts as though he were rich, but I know that he only earns enough for a modest life, (unreal situation)
- She talks about art as though she has studied it before, (real situation)
He talks about art as if he had studied it before, but he is just being – pretentious. He doesn't really know what he is talking about, (unreal situation)
- "Unreal" durumlardan söz ederken, özellikle konuşmacı kendisinin o anki duygularını ifade ediyorsa, hem present hem de past tense'lerin kullanılması mümkündür. Dilbilgisi kuralları açısından past tense'lerin kullanılması gerekir, ancak duygulara biraz daha dramatik bir anlam katmak için, present tense'ler bu biçimde yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır.
I'm completely exhausted. I feel as if a truck had/has run over me.
I'm so happy! I feel as though I were/am floating on air!
What's the matter? Your face is all white! You look as if you had/have seen a ghost!
- Informal, özellikle de American, English'de, "as if/as though" yerine "like" kullanımı çok yaygındır.
– I'm really tired. I feel like I've been hit by a truck. What's wrong? You look like you've just seen a ghost!
Ancak bu kullanım, yazı dilinde doğru olarak kabul edilmemektedir. Özellikle, çoktan seçmeli bir sınavda seçeneklerde her ikisi ile de karşılaşırsanız, dilbilgisi kurallarını uygulamanız gerekir: "like" tan sonra bir isim, "as if/as though" dan sonra bir cümle gelir.
It looks like rain.
p style="margin-left:72.25pt">It looks as if/as though it's going to rain