English

Relative Clauses

Okuma Süresi:195 Dakika, 32 Saniye

Relative Clauses

Relative Clauses

Relative clause, bir ismi tanımlayan cümledir. Ancak tek başına kullanılamaz. Bir temel cümleye bağlı olarak tanımladığı isimden sonra gelir. Bir ismi tanımladığı için relative clause "adjective clause" biçiminde de isimlendirilebilir.

 

 

Sıfat tanımladığı isimden önce gelir. Relative clause ise tanımladığı isimden sonra gelir.

The student who is the best in the classroom is Ayşe. (relative clause)

The best student in the classroom is Ayşe. (adjective)

The money which was stolen from the bank hasn't been found yet. (relative clause)

The stolen money hasn't been found yet. (adjective)

Relative clause'lar, tanımlayan (defining) ve tanımlamayan (non-defining) biçiminde ikiye ayrılır. Defining relative clause, bir ismi tanımlayarak diğerlerinden ayırt etmemizi sağlar. "The man" dediğimiz zaman karşımızdaki kişi hangi adamdan söz ettiğimizi anlayamaz. Ancak, "the man who is standing at the corner" (köşede duran adam) ifadesinde "the man" artık belli bir kişi durumuna geçmiştir.

Non-defining relative clause, zaten tanımlanmış bir isimden sonra gelir. "My father" dediğimiz zaman, karşımızdaki kişi kimden söz edeceğimizi zaten anlamış durumdadır. Eğer biz bu ismi bir daha tanımlıyorsak bu non-defining relative clause'dur. Yani o isim hakkında fazladan bilgi veren bir cümleciktir: "my father, who lives in Germany…" (Almanya'da oturan babam….)

The man who will come to see you tomorrow wants to do business with you. (Defining)           

Yarın seni görmeye gelecek olan adam seninle iş yapmak istiyor.

Mr. Jones, who will come to see you tomorrow, wants to do business with you. (Non-defining)

Yarın seni görmeye gelecek olan Mr. Jones seninle iş yapmak istiyor.

1- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

1-1 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE

Tanımlayacağımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede özne durumundaysa, onun yerine kullanabileceğimiz sözcükler who, that ve which dir. Who, sadece insanlar için, which bütün cansız varlıklar ve hayvanlar için, that ise hepsi için kullanılabilir. "Crowd, audience, class" gibi grup isimleri, insanlardan oluşmalarına rağmen, eğer kurumu kastediyorsak, tekil bir fiille that ya da which kullanmayı gerektirir. Ancak bu kurumu oluşturan bireyleri kastediyorsak, çoğul bir fiille who kullanılır ki bu kullanım defining relative clause için pek yaygın değildir.

A staff is inevitably inefficient. It is not well-trained.

A staff which/that is not well-trained is inevitably inefficient.

The staff are calling for a strike. They are dissatisfied with their conditions.

The staff, who are dissatisfied with their conditions, are calling for a strike.

I congratulated the student. She          go i the highest mark.

I congratulated the student who          got the highest mark.

that got the highest mark.

Can you repair the chair?   It is in the study room.

Can you repair the chair     which  is in the study room?

that     is in the study room?

Relative  clause  tanımladığı  isimden  sonra  gelir.   Bu   nedenle,   tanımlayacağımız  isim   temel cümlenin öznesi ise, relative clause özne ile yüklemin arasında yer alır.

The student is happy. She got the highest mark on the test.

The student who got the highest mark on the test is happy.

that got the highest mark on the test

The chair is broken. It is in the study room.

The chair which is in the study room is broken.

that is in the study room

Bazen tanımladığımız  isme  ait  başka  sözcükler  olabilir. Bu durumda  relative  clause, bu sözcüklerden sonra gelir.

There is someone at the door. He wants to see you.

There is someone at the door who wants to see you.

(Kapıda sizinle görüşmek isteyen biri var.)

Who, that ve which'den sonra gelen fiilin tekil ya da çoğul olması tanımladığı isme bağlıdır. Eğer isim tekil ya da sayılamaz ise tekil bir fiil: çoğul bir isim ise çoğul bir fiil kullanılır.

The person who lives next to us is an engineer.

The people who live next to us are very friendly.

The plate which is on the counter is dirty.

The plates which are on the counter are dirty.

The milk which is in the bottle is for the baby.

Relative clause ile temel cümlenin tense'i farklı zamanlara ait olabilir.

The man who was run over by a truck yesterday is in the intensive care unit now.

I don't think the chair which was broken yesterday can be repaired.

Ancak, bazı durumlarda, tense uyuşması gerekebilir. Örneğin "I congratulated the student …. " ifadesini "who gets the highest mark" biçiminde tamamlayanlayız. Çünkü "kutladım" diyebilmemiz için tanımladığımız ismin bir şey yapmış olması gerekir. Yani o da past time'a aittir.

I congratulated the student who got the highest mark.

I helped the woman who had difficulty carrying the heavy shopping bags.

They will give a prize to the person who wins the competition.

They gave a prize to the person who won the competition.

 

EXERCISE 1:    Combine the two sentences using the second sentence as a relative clause.

Example:            She watches the news programme. It follows her favourite soap opera.

She watches the news programme which/that follows her favourite

soap opera.

The police want to interview the man. He was driving a white van on the day of the murder. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Because I am worried about the consequences, I don't give my daughter food. It contains artificial sweeteners. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The army fired water cannon at the boys. They were throwing fireworks and acid at the soldiers. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

I'm sure the man is the new financial director. He's shaking hands with the chairman. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The cafe is more prestigious than the others in West Bromwich. It has just opened. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

      As they are so closely matched, the player will win. He has the most stamina. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

      I believe the man had mental problems. He planted the nail bomb in the bar. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

      Why did you buy a house? It is so far away from the centre. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

      The woman plays rugby. She does our accounts. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

I don't know if it's the cinema. It has ten different screens. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The gym is only ten minutes' walk from your house. It is offering a free month's membership.

The golf club is only open to members. It is behind the hotel. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

1-2 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB

Tanımlayacağımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede nesne durumunda ise insanlar için who, whom, that; cansız varlıklar, hayvanlar ve grup isimleri için which, that kullanılır.

The applicant is suitable for the job.

We interviewed her yesterday.

The applicant who        we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

whom we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

that we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

The book is very interesting.

I bought it last week.

The book which I bought last week is very interesting.

that    I bought last week is very interesting.

Tanımlayacağımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede nesne durumunda ise who, whom, that ve which relative sözcüklerini kullanmayabiliriz.

The applicant we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

The book I bought last week is very interesting.

The man was a sales representative.

We met him yesterday.

The man who     we met yesterday was a sales representative.

whom we met yesterday was a sales representative.

that     we met yesterday was a sales representative.

 Ø        we met yesterday was a sales representative.

The flat should have at least three rooms.

I'll rent it.

The flat that I'll rent should have at least three rooms.

which  I'll rent should have at least three rooms.

Ø         I'll rent should have at least three rooms.

EXERCISE 2:    Combine the two sentences using the second sentence as a relative clause.

The child is now a famous musician. Maria gave her private lessons. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I still haven't seen the car. James was given it by his new employer. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I don't really like the salesman. The company appointed him as head of the department. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I wonder where I have put my hair band. I use it to tie my hair back for work. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I want to play the same computer game. We played it yesterday. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The house is no longer for sale. We were hoping to buy it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The woman proved to be enthusiastic and a good learner. My husband hired her as a secretary. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I wonder what happened to the child. A cyclist ran over him in the park this morning. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1-3 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION

Tanımlayacağımız isim tanımlayan cümlede bir preposition'ın nesnesi durumunda kullanılmışsa, bu preposition relative clause'da da kullanılır.

The man wasn't satisfied with the deal.

I bought this car from him.

The man who    I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.

whom    I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.

that        I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.

Ø           I bought this car from wasn't satisfied with the deal.

The case is very important.       

I have told you about it.

The case which             I told you about is very important.

that      I told you about is very important.

Ø         I told you about is very important.

Tanımladığımız isme  ait preposition'ı  relative sözcüğünden  önce kullanırsak,  insanlar için sadece "whom", nesneler için ise sadece "which" kullanılır.

The man from whom I bought this car wasn't satisfied with the deal.

The case about which I told you is very important.

The girl is very messy. I'm sharing the flat with her.

The girl who     I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.

whom   I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.

that      I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.

Ø         I'm sharing the flat with is very messy.

The girl with whom I'm sharing the flat is very messy.

The chair doesn't look safe. You are sitting on it.

The chair which            you are sitting on doesn't look safe.

that                you are sitting on doesn't look safe.

Ø        you are sitting on doesn't look safe.

The chair on which you are sitting doesn't look safe.

EXERCISE    3 :    Combine the two sentences using the second sentence as a relative clause. Give all the possible patterns.

He failed the test. He was particularly worried about it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The ground was uneven. We played cricket on it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The lake is volcanic. We swam in it on our last holiday. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The man is very influential in business circles. I'm going to introduce you to him. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The waitress is always in trouble. The manager shouted at her. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The charity helps homeless children. My mother devoted her life to it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The condition is incurable. Susan's mother suffers from it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The boy at school is a notorious bully. Simon is really frightened of him. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The equipment was of inferior quality. We were supplied with it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

A part of the plan was removed at our last meeting. I objected to it. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1-4 USING "WHOSE" AND "OF WHICH"

Tanımladığımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede iyelik bildiriyorsa, hem insanlar hem de nesneler için "whose" kullanılır.

Do you know the man? His car was stolen.

Do you know the man whose car was stolen?

The man is our next-door neighbour. I want to buy his car.

The man whose car I want to buy is our next-door neighbour.

Can you repair the chair? Its legs are broken.

Can you repair the chair whose legs are broken?

The book was my friend's. I accidentally tore its cover.

The book whose cover I accidentally tore was my friend's.

Nesneler için "whose" yerine "of which" de kullanabiliriz. Ancak "of which" in defining relative clause'larda kullanımı çok enderdir. Daha çok non-defining relative clause'larda kullanılır.

This is the machine. I described its properties.

This is the machine whose properties I described.

This is the machine the properties of which I described.

 

The houses are being repaired now. Their roofs were damaged during the last storm.

The houses whose roofs were damaged during the last storm are being repaired now.

I can't open the door. Its handle is broken.

I can't open the door whose handle is broken.

Eğer tanımladığımız iyelik bildiren ismin kendine ait bir proposition’ı varsa, bu preposition'ı relative clause'un sonunda veya "whose"un önünde kullanabiliriz.

This is the man. Jake is going out with his daughter.

This is the man whose daughter Jake is going out with,

with whose daughter Jake is going out.

Do you remember the man? I told you about his love affairs.

Do you remember the man whose love affairs I told you about?

about whose love affairs I told you?

"Of which"li yapıda preposition, "of'un önündeki isimden önce yer alır.

The mountain is a part of the mountain range Bozdağ. You see snow on its top.

The mountain on the top of which/on whose top you see snow is a part of the mountain range Bozdağ.

EXERCISE     4   :     Combine the sentences using whose".

She is the lady. Her house was broken into last week. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

That is the sheep. Her lamb died. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Is that the stately home? They have opened its gardens to the public. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

We've booked our holiday with the only company. Its tours combine hiking with luxury hotel accommodation. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The man was her first husband. She still keeps his portrait above the fireplace. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

The candidate won by a small margin. I am strongly opposed to his ideas. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

What's the name of the legendary folk hero? His gang robbed from the rich to give to the poor. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

We've been asked to fell the oak tree. Its branches are hanging over the lane. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

It is an established company. Among its business clients are Adidas and Mars. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

We want to use the electric saw. Its cable reaches as far as the patio. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1-5 USING "WHERE"

Tanımladığımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede yer bildiriyorsa (dolaylı tümleç ise) relative sözcüğü olarak "where" kullanabiliriz.

I liked the seaside resort. We spent our holiday there (in that town) last summer.

I liked the seaside resort where we spent our holiday last summer.

Don't clean the room today. My son is studying in that room.

Don't clean the room today where my son is studying.

Yer bildiren bir ismi tanımlarken which ve that kullanabiliriz ya da hiçbir relative sözcüğü kullanmadan, relative clause getirebiliriz. Ancak, which ve that kullandığımızda ya da boş bıraktığımızda, o isme ait preposition'ı mutlaka kullanmak zorundayız.

I liked the seaside resort which            we spent our holiday in last summer.

that     we spent our holiday in last summer.

Ø         we spent our holiday in last summer.

in which   we spent our holiday last summer.

Don't clean the room today which        my son is studying in.

that      my son is studying in.

Ø         my son is studying in.

in which my son is studying.

This is the restaurant. I usually eat lunch there (at this restaurant.)

This is the restaurant which       I usually eat lunch at.

that           I usually eat lunch at.

Ø               I usually eat lunch at.

at which I usually eat lunch.

This is the restaurant where I usually eat lunch.

 

Bir yer ismi, tanımlayan cümlede özne ya da nesne durumundaysa, onu tanımlarken "where" kullanamayız. Where kullanabilmemiz için o ismin, "at the cinema, to the theatre, in the country, etc." gibi yer belirtmesi gerekir.

I like the house. It has a large garden. (It – subject)

I like the house which   has a large garden.

that   has a large garden.

I liked the house. We saw it yesterday. (it – object)

I liked the house which we saw yesterday.

that   we saw yesterday.

Ø      we saw yesterday.

I like the house. I was born there. (in that house – adverb of place)

I like the house where I was born.

which   I was born in.

that      I was born in.

Ø         I was born in.

in which   I was born.

EXERCISE    5:    Combine the two sentences giving all the possible patterns.

I can't find the shop. I bought this watch from there. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

That's the golf course. Lee Westwood scored a 'hole in one' there in the Championship. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

It was the narrow strait between the Island of Salamis and the Greek mainland. A great naval battle was fought there between Greeks and Persians in 480 BC. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

I can't remember the name of it, but we went to that area. The Hittites dug underground cities there. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

That's a painting of the castle. My uncle worked as a cook there. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1-6 USING "WHEN"

Tanımladığımız isim, tanımlayan cümlede "on that day, in that year, at that hour, etc." biçiminde bir zaman belirtiyorsa, when, which, that kullanabilir ya da bir relative sözcüğü kullanmadan relative clause getirebiliriz. Bunlardan sadece which, preposition kullanmayı gerektirir. Preposition which'in önünde kullanılır: on which, at which, etc.

 

 

 

1923 is the year. The Republic of Turkey was founded then. (in that year)

1923 is the year when   the Republic of Turkey was founded.

that   the Republic of Turkey was founded.

Ø      the Republic of Turkey was founded.

in which the Republic of Turkey was founded.

(1923, Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin kurulduğu yıldır.)

Saturday is the day. We usually go shopping then. (on that day)

Saturday is the day when          we usually go shopping.

that  we usually go shopping.

Ø     we usually go shopping.

on which we usually go shopping.

EXERCISE    6   :     Combine the two sentences giving all the possible patterns.

Sunday was the day. Sonya went missing then. (on that day) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

13th June 1983 was the date. The shopping centre was opened by Princess Anne then. (on that date) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Half past four is the time. The caretaker always collects the rubbish then. (at that hour) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2006 is the year. Germany will host the world cup then. (in that year) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

October is the month. We have our annual appraisals then. (in that month) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

1-7    USING "WHY"

"Reason" sözcüğünden sonra neden ifade eden bir cümlecik getiriyorsak, why, that, ya da for which kullanabiliriz. Ya da hiçbirini kullanmadan direk relative clause getirebiliriz.

The reason why            we are holding this meeting is to seek solutions to our recent problems.

that we are holding this meeting

Ø                 we are holding this meeting

for which we are holding this meeting

Reason, explanation gibi isimleri, "….. ileri sürdüğü neden, ….. yaptığı açıklama" gibi ifadeler için kullanıyorsak, "why" kullanamayız. Bu anlamda onları diğer cansız varlıklar gibi düşünüp which, that kullanabilir ya da her ikisini de kaldırabiliriz.

The reason that            he gave us for the delay frustrated us all.     

which he gave us for the delay

Ø     he gave us for the delay

The explanations that the teacher made on the subject confused us.

which     the teacher made on the subject

Ø     the teacher made on the subject

EXERCISE    7   :    Choose the correct answer.

The reason …….. he handed in his work late did not sound convincing at all.

A) where          B) why               C) which                                              D) what              E) how

The reason ………. they stated for moving premises was quite believable.

A) that             B) why                                              C) when                 D) where                        E) who

While in England, I visited the town ………. Charles Darwin was born in.

A) whose         B) when              C) where                D) whom                   E) which   

Let's go somewhere ……… the children can run around and enjoy themselves.

A) where          B) when              C) why                  D) who                  E) which

That was the moment ………. I realised he had been lying to me.

A) how            B) when              C) who                  D) whom                   E) why

The items ……… were on sale had been overpriced originally.

A) why            B) —                   C) which                D) whose                  E) where

The player ………. he competed against was relatively unknown.

A) whose         B) which             C) when                 D) where                   E) that

The gentleman ……… you are referring has been transferred to our head office in

London.

A) for which                               B) to whom            C) for what            D) at which         E) about whose

The time ……… I feel most stressed every day is 4 p.m. because we balance the shop's cash register then.

A) where          B) to whom         C) at which            D) whose                  E) why

The student ………. design won the competition had never entered such an event before.

A) whom         B) who                C) whose               D) where                   E) when

The story ……….. I based my play originated in the Middle Ages.

A) on which     B) —                  C) why                   D) about what        E) when

The crowd ……….. had marched to parliament wanted to protest about the new law.

A) why            B) whose            C) when                 D) where                   E) that

The products ………. we have had more than two months will be reduced by 20%.

A) why            B) when              C) —                      D) whose                  E) where

The only person who didn't seem to be enjoying the party was the girl for …….. it was organised.

A) that             B) which             C) who                   D) whom                   E) where

The injury for ……… she was compensated was caused by a fall in a restaurant ……… they held their anniversary dinner.

A) when/that  B) that/when                                       C) whom/—           D) why/what       E) which/where

We really didn't believe the explanation ………. was given to us at the time.         

A) that             B) why                C) when                 D) where               E) whom

2002 will be the year in ……….. the football World Cup is hosted by two Asian countries.

A) which          B) where             C) when                 D) why                      E) that

The point of the bridge ………. there is the most strain is the middle.

A) that             B) which             C) when                 D) where                   E) whom

The girl …….. article was published in last week's issue of the school magazine is in my brother's class.

A) where          B) whose            C) that                                                  D) whom                        E) when

I hope she can produce the same kind of tennis …….. she won the semi-final.

A) where          B) when              C) with which        D) for whom          E) that

 

 

 

 

1-8 USING RELATIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS

Bir relative clause everybody, someone, anybody, etc. gibi belgisiz zamirleri tanımlayabilir. Eğer tanımladığımız zamir, tanımlayan cümlede özne durumundaysa who ya da that kullanılır. Nesne durumundaysa, who, whom ya da that kullanabiliriz ama genellikle relative sözcüğü kullanılmaz.

Everybody who came to the party was elegantly dressed.

that came to the party

Everybody whom         I met said that he was dishonest.

who   I met

that     I met

Ø       I met

There is someone whom           I want you to meet.

who    I want you to meet.

that    I want you to meet.

Ø        I want you to meet.

Anything, something, nothing gibi sözcükleri tanımlarken which çok ender kullanılır. Onun yerine that tercih edilir. Eğer tanımlanan sözcük nesne durumundaysa relative sözcüğü kullanmamak daha yaygındır.

Everything that was said at the debate was true.

Everything that he said at the debate was true.

Ø    he said at the debate was true.

Anything that has been found can be helpful to prove his innocence.

Anything that you have found can be helpful to prove his innocence.

Ø you have found can be helpful to prove his innocence.

Bir relative clause I, we, they, etc. gibi zamirleri tanımlayabilir.

It was I who objected to the proposal.

that objected to the proposal, (daha çok "who" kullanılır.)

Öneriye karşı çıkan bendim.                             

It's they who want to cancel the meeting.

that want to cancel the meeting.

Toplantıyı iptal etmek isteyen onlar.

Those sözcüğünü tanımlarken insanlar için daha çok who, nesneler için ise which kullanılır ancak her ikisi için that de kullanabiliriz.

Only the people who/that are members can enter the club.

Only those who/that are members can enter the club.

Bu iki cümlenin Türkçe'ye çevirisine dikkat ediniz. Birinci cümleyi "Kulübe, sadece üye olan kişiler girebilir." ; ikinci cümleyi ise "Kulübe sadece üye olanlar girebilir." biçiminde çevirebiliriz.

The students who/that want to come on the picnic should inform me well in advance.

Those who/that want to come on the picnic should inform me well in advance.

(Pikniğe gelmek isteyen öğrenciler………. Pikniğe gelmek isteyenler……)

– Shall I bring all the books?

– No, I need only those which/that are on the top shelf.

 

2- NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Zaten tanımlanmış, bilinen bir ismi niteleyen cümleye non-defining relative clause denir. Bu isimleri su şekilde gruplandırabiliriz.

a) Proper nouns (özel isimler):

The person who lives above us is an engineer. (defining)

Mr. Smith, who lives above us, is an engineer. (non-defining)

A country which is by the sea is usually a tourist attraction. (defining)

Turkey, which is surrounded by the sea on three sides, is of strategic importance.                 (non-defining)

b) Nouns with preceding modifiers (Başka niteleme sözcükleriyle tanımlanmış isimler):

A mother who is very permissive with her children doesn't necessarily mean a good mother. (defining)

My mother, who lives in Germany now, was moderately permissive with us. (non-defining)

Any bus which comes here already full doesn't stop at this bus-stop. (defining)

This bus, which usually comes here already full, goes direct to Kadıköy. (non-defining)

The book which is on the table belongs to me. (defining)

That green book, which is on the table, belongs to me. (non-defining)

Bir isim kendinden sonra gelen bazı sözcüklerle de tanımlanmış olabilir.

The man who was working at the shop was friendly. (defining)

The man at the shop, who gave my son a sweet, was friendly. (non-defining)

The table which is in the kitchen needs repairing. (defining)

The table in the kitchen, which we usually have our breakfast on, needs repairing.                            (non-defining)

c) Coat, rice, milk, flower, etc. gibi isimler genel anlamda kullanıldığı zaman, zaten herkesçe bilinen isimler olduğu için, non-defining relative clause alır.

Flowers, which almost everybody likes, need special care to grow.

(general-non-defining)

The flowers which are sold at that florist's are usually fresh.

(specific-defining)

Milk, which is essential for everybody of all ages, should be boiled well.

(general-non-defining)

The milk which we get from that dairy is really delicious. (specific-defining)

Non-defining relative clause ile that hiç bir durumda kullanılmaz. Diğer relative sözcükleri who, whom, which, whose, where ve when kullanılır. Non-defining relative clause, eğer araya giriyorsa iki virgülle, cümlenin sonunda yer alıyorsa bir virgülle temel cümleden ayrılır.

Mr. Smith, who works at the same company as me, is very fond of children.

I can rely on Mr. Smith, who works at the same company as me.

2-1 SUBJECT POSITION

Özne durumunda, insanlar için sadece who, nesneler için sadece which kullanabiliriz.

My father lives in Germany. He is over sixty now.

My father, who is over sixty now, lives in Germany.

Our television set has become erratic. It was bought eight years ago.

Our television set, which was bought eight years ago, has become erratic.

2-2 OBJECT POSITION

Nesne durumunda, insanlar için who ya da whom, cansız varlıklar ve hayvanlar için which kullanabiliriz. Who, whom ve which sözcüklerini atamayız. Mutlaka kullanmamız gerekir.

My father lives in Germany. You met him yesterday.

My father, whom you met yesterday, lives in Germany.

, who    you met yesterday.

Our television set has become erratic. We bought it eight years ago.

Our television set, which we bought eight years ago, has become erratic.

Eğer isim, bir preposition'ın nesnesi durumunda ise, preposition'ı relative clause'un sonunda kullanırsak who ya da whom, başında kullanırsak sadece whom kullanabiliriz. Nesneler için ise yine which kullanılır.

Mr Smith is an honest person. I've been working with him for five years.

Mr Smith, whom           I've been working with for five years, is an honest person.

, who            I've been working with for five years, is an honest person.

, with whom   I've been working for five years, is an honest person.

My car is beginning to cause trouble. I had saved up for it for two years.

My car, which I had saved up for for two-years, is beginning to cause trouble.

, for which I had saved up for two years,

2-3 POSSESSIVE

Bütün isimler için whose kullanabiliriz. Cansız varlıklar için "of which" de kullanabiliriz ama bu kullanım pek yaygın değildir.

My classmate Susan doesn’t want to be a doctor.  Her parents are both doctors.

My classmate Susan, whose parents are both doctors, doesn't want to be a doctor.

Their house cost them too much money. They painted its exterior pink.

Their house, whose exterior they painted pink, cost them too much money.

, the exterior of which they painted pink,

Possessive durumdaki isme ait bir preposition varsa, bu preposition’ı whose'un önünde ya da relative clause'un sonunda kullanabiliriz.

Mr Clark is leaving hospital tomorrow. The doctor had some doubts about his recovery.

Mr Clark, whose recovery the doctor had some doubts about, is leaving hospital tomorrow.

, about whose recovery the doctor had some doubts,

Uludağ is a famous ski resort. You can always see snow on its top.

Uludağ, whose top        you can always see snow on, is a famous ski resort.

, on whose top       you can always see snow,

, on the top of which you can always see snow,

2-4 "WHERE" IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

Yer bildiren sözcükler için, non-defining relative clause'larda da where kullanabiliriz.

Istanbul has many problems to solve. More than ten million people live there.

(in Istanbul)

Istanbul, where        more than ten million people live, has many problems to solve.

, which      more  than  ten  million people  live in,

, in which more  than  ten million people  live.

Eğer bir yer ismi, tanımlayan cümlede özne ya da nesne durumundaysa where kullanamayız. Sadece which kullanabiliriz.

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. It is my hometown. (It — Subject)

Salihli, which is my hometown, is located in the west of Turkey.

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. I like it very much, (it — object)

Salihli, which I like very much, is located in the west of  Turkey.

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. I was born there. (in Salihli — adverb of place)

Salihli, where I was born, is located in the west of Turkey.

, which       I was born in,

, in which  I was born,  

EXERCISE      8:         Choose the correct answer.

We spent the afternoon of our second day in Egypt, ………. was extremely hot, relaxing by the Nile.

A) when           B) which                                           C) why                  D) that                            E) where

I can't wait to tell you about the afternoon ……… Jake fell in the river.

A) which          B) —                                                 C) why                      D) who                        E) whose

The director, ………. signature is required on this contract, won't be back in his office until 2 p.m. Can you wait?

A) who            B) whom                                           C) whose                  D) —                       E) that

The form ………. you need to get the customer to sign is the one ………. the finance department sent you yesterday.

A) —/—           B) which/who                                   C) —/when               D) that/whom              E) where/what

Black cumin oil, ……….. healing properties have been known since ancient times, is now available in capsules.

A) when           B) that                 C) whom                                              D) whose                        E) what

Amber. …….. is found abundantly around the Black Sea, occasionally contains the fossilised remains of insects or plants.

A) whose         B) who                                              C) when                    D) where                     E) which

The financial director, ………. I argued almost every week, has finally retired.

A) with whom B) about what                                   C) of whom           D) in which                    E) for which

Sadly, my mother's neighbour, ……… I was always very fond of, has died.

A) whose         B) whom                                           C) that                       D) when                      E) which

A large and good quality pair of scissors, ………. you can buy at fabric stores, are essential for dressmaking.

A) —               B) that                                               C) where                   D) which                     E) when

The diploma, for ………. she studied for three years, is recognised throughout Europe.

A) whom         B) what                                             C) which                   D) that                         E) when

The only Ukrainian in the championship, ……..receives no sponsorship and borrows his clothes from other competitors, has qualified for the semi-final.

A} that             B) whose                                          C) —                         D) whom                     E) who

In the Spring, ………. the forest comes back to life, we clear and repair the hiking trails.

A) where          B) which                                           C) that                       D)—                            E) when

The car park ………. I used to park my car on weekdays now costs £8 per day.

A) where          B) when                                            C) which                   D) that                         E) —

The point………. I decided solar heating wasn't the best solution for us was when the salesman told me we Would have to keep our conventional heating as well.

A) for whom     B) who              C) at which                                          D) where                        E) why

Something, ……… may be to do with his exams, is worrying him today.

A) who            B) when              C) where                                              D) that                            E) which

Someone ………. knows how to read a map and use a compass should lead the group.

A) which          B) when              C) who                                                D) where                        E) why

Mr Pettlgrew. ………. authority the project was approved, needs to inspect the architect's plans.

A) at which                                 B) for whom          C) on whose             D) where                     E) by what

Anyone ……… has seen-this man should telephone the police immediately.

A) whose         B) who                C) whom                                             D) —                              E) when

Tod Woodbridge, ………. partner is retiring after the Olympics, is hoping to pursue a career in singles tennis.

A) who            B) whose            C) for whom                                        D) why                           E) when

We went to the town made famous by the story of the Trojan Horse, a replica ……… is on display for tourists.       

A) for whom     B) that               C) why                                                D) of which                    E) where

2-5 USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN RELATIVE CLAUSES

One of, all of, most of, none of, etc. gibi ifadeleri, hem insanları hem de nesneleri tanımlarken kullanabiliriz. Bu ifadeleri relative clause'da insanlar için one of whom, some of whom, most of whom, etc. biçiminde, nesneler için ise one of which, some of which, most of which, etc. biçiminde kullanırız. Eğer tanımladığımız isim possessive durumundaysa, one of whose, some of whose, etc. gibi ifadeler kullanabiliriz.

Sally has two very close friends. Both of them are interested in music like her.

Sally has two very close friends, both of whom are interested in music like her.

Sally has very nice parents. I like both of them very much.

Sally has very nice parents, both of whom I like very much.

I want to introduce you to my friend Sally.  One of her biggest interests is classical music.

1 want to introduce you to my friend Sally, one of whose biggest interests is classical music.

She bought many things at the store. Only a few of them were necessary.

She bought many things at the store, only a few of which were necessary.

There are many films on this week. I'm quite interested in two of them.

There are many films on this week, two of which I'm quite interested in.

I watched a film on TV last night. Some of its scenes were disgusting.

I watched a film on TV last night, some of whose scenes were disgusting

 

EXERCISE      9    :    Combine the two sentences. Use the second sentence as a relative clause.

The trainer gave a series of presentations. Some of them weren't useful to my work. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

My mother's favourite actor was Sean Connery. One of his best knovm roles was James Bond. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The army sold some houses to a property developer. Ten of them will be auctioned on Friday. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

He has two assistant brand managers. Neither of them is efficient in his work. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I’ve ordered blinds for every window. Each of them is a different colour and style. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

There are many smaller islands in the group. Only a few of them are inhabited: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2-6 USING "WHICH" TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE

Bazen bir relative clause tek bir sözcüğü değil de bütün bir cümleyi tanımlayabilir. Bu durumda relative sözcüğü olarak sadece which kullanılır. Relative clause temel cümlenin sonuna eklenir ve bir virgülle cümleden ayrılır.

She got a rather low grade on the test. That surprised me.

She got a rather low grade on the test, which surprised me.

Testten çok düşük bir not aldı ki bu da beni şaşırttı.

It's impossible for us to catch the train. This will be very bad.

It's impossible for us to catch the train, which will be very bad.

Trene yetişmemiz imkansız ki bu da çok kötü olacak.

Bu örneklerde that ve this, birinci cümlenin yerine kullanılmıştır. Birinci cümlenin yerine kullandığımız this ya da that, bazen ikinci cümlenin ortalarında yer alabilir. Bunu relative clause'a çevirirken which virgülden hemen sonra gelmek durumundadır.

They invited me to their wedding. I appreciated that very much.

They invited me to their wedding, which I appreciated very much.

Beni düğünlerine davet etliler ki bu da çok hoşuma gitti.

Bu yapıyla ifade ettiğimiz cümleleri genellikle başka şekillerde de ifade edebiliriz.

He helped me. That was kind of him.

He helped me, which was kind of him. (=It was kind of him to help me.)

They lent me a large sum. That was generous of them.

They lent me a large sum, which was generous of them.

(=It was generous of them to lend me a large sum.)

EXERCISE      10: Combine the two sentences.                             

The council has approved planning permission for the project. This means our town will soon have a new sports stadium. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

His daughter is touring South Africa with a friend. This is worrying him because of the high crime rate there. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

They carried out their mission behind enemy lines. This was brave of them. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

We are moving to brand new offices. I am really pleased about this. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

He passed a degree in medicine without any financial assistance from his family. This must have been difficult. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3- RELATIVE CLAUSE, NOUN CLAUSE OR ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

Relative clause'larda kullandığımız that, which, who, when, where gibi sözcükleri noun clause ve adverb clause ile de kullanabiliriz. Aradaki farkı şu örneklerle inceleyelim.

I don't know the city   where he lives.

(noun)    (relative clause)

I don't know   where he lives.

(verb)    (noun clause)

Örneklerde de gördüğümüz gibi, relative clause daima bir isimden sonra, noun clause ise bir fiilden sonra gelir. Örnekteki relative clause'u başka biçimlerde de ifade edebiliriz.

I don't know the city where he lives.

that     he lives in.

which      he lives in.

Ø       he lives in.

in which he lives.

Noun clause'u bir tek biçimde ifade edebiliriz.

I don't know where he lives.

They got married on a day   when I was abroad.

(noun)     (relative clause)

(Benim yurt dışında olduğum bir günde evlendiler.)

They got married   when I was abroad.

(verb)          (adverbial clause)

(Ben yurt dışındayken evlendiler.)

I want to know the students   who/that are coming with us.

(noun)                (relative clause)

(Bizimle gelecek öğrencileri öğrenmek istiyorum.)

I want to know   who are (is) coming with us.

(verb)            (noun clause)

(Bizimle kimlerin geleceğini öğrenmek istiyorum.)

What bir isimden sonra gelmez. Genellikle bir fiilden sonra gelir ya da özne durumundaki bir noun clause'un başında bulunur. What, the thing that/the things that* anlamındadır.

I don't know   what he bought. (Ne aldığını bilmiyorum.)  

(verb)      (noun clause)

I don't know the thing   that he bought. (Aldığı şeyi bilmiyorum.)

(noun)    (relative clause)

What he said wasn't so important.

(noun clause)

The thing that he said wasn't so important.

(relative clause)

*Burada that yerine which de kullanılabilir; ama, that kullanımı daha yaygındır.

EXERCISE       11:    Choose the correct answer.

I was the last to find out …….. he had left town.

A) whom            B) where                  C) who                                                 D) why                              E) what

Gerard visits France on May 17th every year, which was the day ……….. his father was killed there.

A) on which        B) by whom           C) what                                                   D) about that         E) where

I'm not sure ………. station in London trains to Enfield run from.

A) that                B) when                                                  C) where                      D) what                       E) which

………. you are staying is excellently located for historical tours of the city.

A) Whose           B) When                  C) Which                                              D) Whom                          E) Where

……… he saw his chance to win a point off his opponent, he took it swiftly and confidently.

A) What              B) When                  C) That                                                 D) Why                             E) Whom

The snow, ………. cast includes Prunella Scales and John Cleese, has won several awards.

A) whom            B) where                                                 C) whose                     D) which                     E) what

Our school came third in the competition, ……… disappointed all the students and the staff alike.

A) that                B) where                                                 C) when                       D) which                     E) who

Frankie Howard, for ………. my sister worked for ten years, was not at all funny in his private life.

A) whose            B) whom                                                 C) which                      D) where                     E) who

I think the film ……… we saw last week at the cinema is still showing, if you want to go and see it.

A) where             B) why                                                    C) what                        D) when                      E) that

I would like to know ………. I should address my complaint to — to the sales manager or the director?

A) what               B) whom                                                 C) where                      D) that                         E) why

Our new manager, ………. started last week, has ten years' experience of exporting.

A) —                  B) when                                                  C) who                         D) whom                     E) where

The cafe, ………. is situated on the border of England and Scotland, is called 'Border Cafe'.

A) when              B) where                C) that                      D) which                      E) how

The inquiry committee is satisfied that there were good reasons ………. the police dispersed the protesters.

A) why               B) whose                 C) which                                               D) whom                           E) how

Derrigton Park, ………. the jazz festival is held every year, is still owned by the Sandford family.

A) that                B) where               C) when                   D) which               E) whose

The factory has 2000 employees, some ……….. work permanent nights.

A) about which                                 B) with which           C) of whom           D) for whom                     E) where

I don't know ……… the mileage charges are calculated.

A) whom            B) who                      C) which                     D) how                  E) what

The sisters. ……. were coached by their father, are both ranked within the world's top twenty tennis players.

A) whom            B) where                   C) when                      D) whose                           E) who

The salesman ………. sold the most tractors last season won a colour television.

A) that                B) which                C) —                         D) where                      E) when

The bride's wedding dress, the bodice …….. is decorated with real pearls, cost 10.000

pounds.

A) at which         B) of which           C) by whom                                            D) whose                          E) where

One of the finest landscape artists was J.M.W. Turner, …….. work was exhibited

when he was still a teenager.

A) when              B) whose                                                C) of which                 D) whom                     E) who

4- REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

Bir relative clause'u, anlamını hiç bozmadan, cümle olmaktan çıkarıp sözcük öbeği biçiminde kısaltabiliriz.

The boy who is running towards us is my son.

The boy        running towards us is my son.

The money which was stolen from the bank has been recovered.

The money                 stolen from the bank has been recovered.

Bir relative clause'u kısaltabilmemiz için, who, that, which sözcüklerinin relative clause'da özne durumunda bulunması gerekir. Yani, relative clause'un bu sözcüklerden başka bir öznesinin olmaması gerekir. Eğer varsa, o cümlede kısaltma yapamayız.

The boy who you met yesterday is my son. (kısaltılamaz)

whom you met yesterday

that    you met yesterday

Ø       you met yesterday

The money which I lost last week has been recovered. (kısaltılamaz)

that   I lost last week

Ø      I lost last week

Bir relative clause'u şu şekillerde kısaltabiliriz:

a) Present participle: the boy running, the people waiting for the bus, etc.

Eğer relative clause'un tense'i, present ve past continuous, simple present ya da simple past tense ve yüklemi active ise kısaltmada present participle kullanılır.

The man who lives upstairs is making too much noise.

The man        living upstairs is making too much noise.

The woman who is talking to the teacher is my mother.

The woman       talking to the teacher is my mother.

The customers who wanted  to see the manager looked very angry.

The customers       wanting to see the manager looked very angry.

The children who were playing in the rain seemed very happy.

The children                playing in the rain seemed very happy.

I need a bottle which holds     two litres of liquid.

I need a bottle          holding two litres of liquid.

The tree which blocked the road was blown down by the storm.

The tree           blocking the road was blown down by the storm.

Aynı kuralları göz önüne  alarak, non-defining relative  clause'larda  da kısaltma yapabiliriz. Kısaltılan bölümü yine virgülle cümlenin devamından ayırmamız gerekir.

Her parents, who expect her to get a high grade, will be disappointed if she can't.

Her parents,      expecting her to get a high grade, will be disappointed if she can't.

Mary, who wanted to make an impression on the teacher, studied very hard.

Mary,         wanting to make an impression on the teacher, studied very hard.

My son, who is playing with children over there, is very sensitive.

My son,           playing with children over there, is very sensitive.

b) Past participle: the money stolenjrom the bonk, the explanations made by the Prime Minister, etc.

Relative clause'un yüklemi passive ise kısaltmada past participle kullanılır.

The child who was punished by the teacher was standing in the comer.

The child               punished by the teacher was standing in the corner.

I like to listen to songs which are sung in Turkish.

I like to listen to songs               sung in Turkish.

Her husband, who was promoted to a higher position, will get more money.

Her husband,              promoted to a higher position, will get more money.

c) Be + adjective phrase

The girl who is happy with the result is smiling.

The girl           happy with the result is smiling.                                                 ;

Anyone who is interested in animals can join our club.

Anyone           interested in animals can join our club.

1 need a box which is big enough    to hold these books.

I need a box              big enough to hold these books.

My car, which was much cheaper than yours, hasn't caused me any trouble.

My car,                 much cheaper than yours, hasn't caused me any trouble.

 

d) Be + prepositional phrase

The books which are on the top shelf are difficult to reach.

The books                on the top shelf are difficult Lo reach.

The people who were along both sides of the road were watching the parade.

The people                along both sides of the road were watching the parade.

The students who are in the canteen must not be aware of the time.

The students             in the canteen must not be aware of the time.

e) To + infinitive

The first, the second, the last, the only gibi ifadelerden sonra, bazen de superlative'lerden sonra relative clause "to do" biçiminde kısaltılabilir.

Yesterday, I was the last person who left the office.

Yesterday, I was the last person to leave the office.

(Dün bürodan en son aynlan itişi bendim.)

I'm usually the first person who leaves the office.

I'm usually the first person to leave the office.

(Genellikle bürodan ilk ayrılan kişi ben olurum.)

Eğer relative clause'un yüklemi passive ise, kısaltmada passive infinitive "to be done" kullanılır.

The only man that was seen there that day was Mr Smith.

The only man to be seen there that day was Mr Smith.

(O gün orada görülen tek kişi Mr Smith idi.)

The best route that can be followed is through the woods.

The best route to be followed        is through the woods.

(izlenecek en iyi yol koruluktan geçendir.)

To + infinitive biçimindeki kısaltmayı something, anything, nothing, someone, anybody, etc. gibi sözcüklerden sonra ve zorunluluk, gereklilik ifade ederken pek çok isimden sonra kullanabiliriz.

Would you like something that you can read?

Would you like something to read?

It's cold outside. I need something that I can put on.

I need something to put on.

There was nothing that we could eat.

There was nothing to eat.

I have a lot of work that I must do.

I have a lot of work to do.

Today, I will have many clients that I must deal with.

Today, I will have many clients to deal with.

We need a larger box that we can put these books in.

We need a larger box to put these books in.

The children need a playground that they can play in.

The children need a playground to play in.

f) Appositive Phrase

Appositive phrase, bir isme açıklık kazandırmak için, isimden sonra kullanılan bir isim ya da zamir grubudur. Appositive phrase, fazladan bilgi verdiği için, virgülle cümlenin devamından ayrılır.

Mr Jones, who is the headmaster of our school, is a very strict man.

Mr Jones, the headmaster of our school, is a very strict man.

İsmet İnönü, who was the second President of Turkey, was a contemporary of Atatürk's.

İsmet İnönü, the second President of Turkey, was a contemporary of Atatürk's.

Ankara, which is the capital city of Turkey, is better organized than İstanbul.

Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, is better organized than Istanbul.

Basketball, which is my favourite sport, attracts less interest than football.

Basketball, my favourite sport, attracts less interest than football.

g) A Perfect Participial Phrase

Relative clause'un tense'i simple past,   present ve past perfect  tense  ise  kısaltmada  active eylemler için  having done, passive eylemler için having been done kullanabiliriz.

The students who attended our course last year will get a discount this year.

The students having attended our course last year will get a discount this year.

(Geçen yıl kursumuza devam etmiş olan öğrencilere bu yıl indirim yapılacaktır.)

The students who have finished their work can go out.

The students having finished their work can go out.

(Ödevini bitiren /bitirmiş olan öğrenciler dışan çıkabilir.)

Mary, who had finished her work, left the classroom after the teacher’s announcement.

Mary, having finished her work, left the classroom after the teacher's announcement.

(İşini bitiren/bitirmiş olan Mary öğretmenin duyurusundan sonra sınıftan çıktı.)

The passengers, who had travelled more than eight hours, felt exhausted.

The passengers, having travelled more than eight hours, felt exhausted.

(Sekiz saatten fazla yolculuk yapmış olan yolcular bitkin düştüler.)

Non-defining relative phrase, bazen tanımladığı ismin önünde ya da cümlenin sonunda yer alabilir. Özellikle I, he, she, they gibi kişi zamirlerini tanımlıyorsa, bu zamirin önünde yer alır.

She, who was once interested in rock music, now listens to classical.

Once interested in rock music, she now listens to classical.

(Bir zamanlar rock müziğe ilgi duyan o şimdi klasikleri dinliyor.)

Today's people, who aren't thinking of the future generations, are cruelly polluting the earth.

Today's people, not thinking of the future generations, are cruelly polluting the earth.

Not thinking of the future generations, today's people are cruelly polluting the earth.

Today’s people are cruelly polluting the earth, not thinking of the future generations.

(Gelecek nesilleri düşünmeyen günümüz insanı dünyayı zalimce kirletiyor.)

 

EXERCISE 12: Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases.

Our garden, which hasn't been weeded all summer, resembles a jungle. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

His supporters, who had been campaigning for him for months, were delighted when it was announced that he had been elected. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Mr Charles Demsey, who is the delegate from New Zealand, abstained from the final vote. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The player who was the last to be awarded his medal tripped down the stairs. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

I have some messages here that I should give you. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The player, who was leaping to reach the ball, slipped on the wet grass. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The protesters who were throwing stones and bottles were blasted with water cannon by the police. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The Mississippi, which is America's longest river, is deceptively fierce. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

One of the houses that overlook the park is for sale. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Some nurses, who don't want to work 'with inadequate resources, have left the profession. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The song, which was written in her memory, was played at the funeral. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The woman who has been chosen to play Juliet is an Australian film actress. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The books which are marked 'reference only' are not to be removed from the library. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The protesters, who were angry at the rise in income tax, refused to disperse. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The photographer, who was desperate to take a clear photograph of the prince, pushed his way through the crowd. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The champion's father, who was proud of his son's achievement, hugged him lovingly. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The customer who owns a blue Mercedes. R123 RAB, has left the car's headlights on. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Funchal, which is the capital of Madeira, is a bustling town with grand hotels. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The bridge in the town of Ironbridge, which was the first cast iron bridge in the world, was constructed in 1779. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Those residents who don't want the ring road around the town to be built should make sure they sign the petition. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS

 

 

Exercise 13:   Fill in the blanks with suitable relative pronouns where necessary. Give all the possible forms for each blank.

JOHNNY APPLESEED

About the time (1) ……………….. the battle of Bunker Hill was fought, a baby was born in Massachusetts, (2) ……………….. proud parents called him John Chapman. When he was an old man, he had become a strange but lovable character (3) ……………….. folks on the American frontier called Johnny Appleseed. The old man, (4) ………………..   wore a tin pot for a hat and old cloth sacks for clothing, wanted one thing onhy — to carry the apple seeds of the East to the newly cleared lands of the West so that the people (5) ………………… had settled there would have the juicy fruit to eat. Johnny Appleseed, (6) ………………… carrying bags of the precious seeds, made many lonely journeys from the apple orchards of western Pennsylvania to the fertile river valleys of Ohio and Indiana. He gave the seeds away to the home builders along the frontier. Although he travelled through woods (7)  ………………….  bears, wolves and wildcats roamed, he did not carry a gun. He even walked barefoot through grass (8)  …………………. rattlesnakes lurked.

Indians, (9) …………………. hostile to other white men, were his friends. They called him "great medicine man" because he scattered seeds of healing herbs. Having a folk belief of their own that such men were dear to the Great Spirit, they let him go wherever he wished without harm.  Appleseed,   (10)   ………………….   tried  to  make  peace  between settlers  and  Indians, supposedly saved Mansfield. Ohio, from massacre by running through the night to alert troops -30 miles away.

Johnny Appleseed lived to see thousands of acres of orchards (11) …………………. were planted in trees (12) ………………… descended from his nursery stock. He saw wide orchards in blossom (13) …………………. promising big harvests of red apples. When he died, many of the citizens of the nation looked upon die apple orchards of the Middle West and blessed the good old man (14) …………………. had brought the seeds from (15) …………………. they grew. They remembered all the stories (16) …………………. had been told about him. As they told them, they added to them and changed them until John Chapman was no longer a real person, but a man (17) …………………. mind was not as other men's minds, a simple fellow (18) …………………. lived and worked in the days of long ago. To them he had become a folk hero (19) …………………. memory was celebrated with joy and affection.

ANTIOCH

Ancient Antioch, (1) …………………. was called the "queen of the East", is now the modern town, Antakya, (2) …………………..is a small trading centre in the southern part of Anatolia, (3) ………………….about   32 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea coast. The town, (4) …………………. chief crops are wheat, cotton, grapes, rice, olives, vegetables and fruit, has soap and olive oil factories,  cotton textile mills and other processing industries.  Silk, shoes and knives are also manufactured.

The old city, (5) ………………….   was founded in about 300 BC by one of Alexander the Great's generals, later became the capital of the Seleucid kings of Syria. Soon the city drew great wealth from the caravan trade to India, (6) …………………. helped it grow into a centre of Greek culture. Just beyond its 70-foot walls lay the grove of Daphne, (7) …………………. filled with magnificent temples (8) …………………. attracted pilgrims from many parts of the world. Antioch, (9) …………………. the name Christian was first used, attracted the reforming spirit of the Apostles even after it had passed under Roman rule. There Barnabas and Paul — and perhaps Peter — are said to have sown the seed (10)  ………………….  eventually converted half the population to Christianity. The most famous of the saints of the region was Simeon Stylites, (11) …………………. spent 30 years doing penance on top of a high pillar (12) ………………….   was located near Antioch.

Antioch, (13) …………………. suffered from many severe earthquakes, was sacked by the Persian king Chosroes I in AD 538 and never recovered its former glory. It was taken from the Seljuk Turks by the Crusaders alter a nine months' siege in 1098, and for nearly two centuries, it remained a Christian principality. Then it was conquered by the Muslims again, in 1268, after great fighting (14) …………………. caused much destruction and slaughter. This last blow destroyed ancient Antioch, and in modem Antakya, (15) …………………. little remains of the old city, a few ruins of great aqueducts and parts of the walls can be seen.

 

 

 

This book gives details about various                tribes………….. customs are very strange to us.

A) those                           B) which

C) whom                          D) that

E) whose

(ÖYS 1988)

He is looking for an engineer………………… .

A) if the pay is good enough

B) it was four years ago

C) who knows both German and English

D) until the department was opened

E) who really had a lot of experience

(ÖYS 1988)

Some months ago, a team of physicists working in the research laboratory discovered some new facts about solar energy.

A) Aylardan beri laboratuvarda 

araştırmalar yapan fizikçiler, güneş

enerjisi ile ilgili bazı yeni veriler elde

ettiler.

B) Birkaç aydan beri araştırma laboratuvarında çalışmalarını sürdüren bir grup fizikçi, güneş enerjisinin bazı yeni özelliklerini onaya koydu.

C) Birkaç ay önce, araştırma laboratuvarında çalışan bir fizikçiler ekibi, güneş enerjisi ile ilgili bazı yeni gerçekleri keşfetti.

D) Güneş enerjisi ile ilgili birtakım bilgiler laboratuvarda araştırma yapan bir grup fizikçi tarafından daha birkaç ay önce elde edildi.

E) Laboratuvarda araştırmalarını sürdüren bir grup fizikçi birkaç aydan beri, güneş enerjisi ile ilgili yeni gerçekleri keşfetmeye başladı.

(ÖYS 1989)

This city, which was totally destroyed in the war, has been rebuilt and is today a major centre of international trade.

A) Bu şehir savaşta tamamen yıkılmış, fakat en kısa zamanda yeniden inşa edilmiş ve artık bugün uluslararası ticarette önemli bir merkez olarak ortaya çıkmıştır.

B) Bugün uluslararası bir ticaret merkezi olan bu şehir, savaşta tamamen yıkılmış olmasına rağmen, en kısa zamanda yeniden inşa edilmiştir.

C) Savaşta tamamen yıkılmış olan bu şehir, yeniden inşa edilmiştir ve bugün uluslararası ticaretin önemli bir merkezidir.

D) Yemden inşa edilerek uluslararası tiearetin en önemli bir merkezi olan bu şehir, savaşta baştan başa yıkılmıştı.

E) Bugün önemli bir uluslararası ticaret merkezi olan bu şehir, önce savaşın yıkımına uğramış fakat hemen arkasından yeniden inşa edilmiştir.

(ÖYS 1989)

There are certain countries in the world ……….. .

A) that is developing rapidly

B) where famine is still a serious problem

C) unless the rainfall is heavy

D) as the food supplies are limited

E) even if rice is the main diet

(ÖYS 1989)

…………. which I had grown myself.

A) Here are some of the bananas

B) For the salad I will use the lemons

C) They don't want those

D) I gave her some of the flowers

E) I am sending her some of the pears

(ÖYS 1989)

You will be introduced to the president ………….. interests include fishing and travelling.

A) that                              B) which

C) who                             D) whom

E) whose

(ÖYS 1989)

The group I am responsible for consists largely of high school students.

A) Ben sadece lise öğrencilerinin grubundan sorumluyum.

B) Benim sorumlu olduğum grup, çoğunlukla lise öğrencilerinden oluşuyor.

C) Tamamen lise öğrencilerinin oluşturduğu grup benim sorumluluğum altındadır.

D) Ben genel olarak gruptaki lise öğrencilerinden sorumluyum.

E) Grupta bulunan lise öğrencilerinin büyük çoğunluğundan ben sorumluyum.

(ÖYS 1990)

I don't think anybody would argue against the proposals we made to the authorities.

A) Herhangi birisinin, üst makamlara sunulan önerileri tartışmak istediğini sanmıyorum.

B) Yaptığımız önerileri yetkililere şikayet edecek birisinin olacağını sanmıyorum.

C) Yetkililere yaptığımız önerilere kimsenin karşı çıkacağını sanmıyorum.

D) Yaptığımız önerileri üst makamların kabul etmeyeceğini düşünüyorum.

E) Üst makamlara yapağımız önerileri başkaları ile tartışacağımızı düşünmüyorum.

(ÖYS 1990)

Toplantıda ele alınan konulardan bir tanesi de hava alanındaki güvenlik sorunuydu.

A) They discussed whether a meeting should be called to deal with the question of airport security.

B) At the meeting held at the airport, the question of security was discussed.

C) At one of the meetings the question of security at the airport attracted attention.

D) It was pointed out at the meeting that the question of security at the airport was of first importance.

E) One of the matters discussed at the meeting was the question of security at the airport.

(ÖYS 1990)

 

The novel our literature teacher has asked us to read will take several weeks to finish.

A) Edebiyat öğretmenimizin verdiği romanı okumamız haftalarımızı alacak.

B) Edebiyat öğretmenimiz birkaç hafta ;çinde o romanı bitirmemizi istiyor.

C) Romanı edebiyat öğretmenimizin istediği şekilde okumamız birkaç hafta sürer.

D) Birkaç haftamızı alsa da edebiyat öğretmenimizin söylediği romanı okuyacağız.

E) Edebiyat öğretmenimizin okumamızı istediği romanı bitirmek birkaç hafta alacak.

(ÖYS 1991)

He is the director of an institute ……………. has become famous for its research into nutrition.

A) who                             B) what

C) which                          D) whom

E) whose

(ÖYS 1993)

New housebuilding should not mean the disappearance of the playing fields and green spaces which every town and city needs.

A) Yeni konut yapımı, her kasaba ve şehrin gereksinim duyduğu oyun sahalarının ve yeşil alanların yok olması anlamına gelmemelidir.

B) Konut yapımında çalışmaya yeni başlayanların ilk dikkat edeceği şey, kasaba ve şehirlerin gereksinimi olan oyun sahalarına ve yeşil alanlara dokunmamaktır.

C) Konut yapımıyla uğraşanlar, kasaba ve şehirlerdeki oyun sahalarına ve yeşil alanlara dokunulmaması gerektiğini bilmelidir.

D) Her yeni konut yapımıyla birlikte kasaba ve şehirlerimizin oyun sahaları ve yeşil alanlarında azalma görülmektedir.

E) Kasabalar ve şehirler planlanırken yeni konut alanlarında oyun sahala­rına ve yeşil alanlara gereksinim duyulacağı unutulmamalıdır.

(ÖYS 1993)

Today’s cities are faced with considerable problems, most of which are caused by rapid growth.

A) Günümüzün şehirleri, hızlı büyümeden kaynaklanan sorunları azaltacak birçok olanağa sahiptir.

B) Günümüzde, şehirlerdeki hızlı büyümenin getirdiği birçok sorunu çözmek için çalışmalar aralıksız sürdürülüyor.

C) Pek çok sorunla karşı karşıya olan şehirlerimizin günümüzdeki bir diğer sorunu da hızlı büyümedir.

D) Şehirlerimiz, hızlı büyümenin beraberinde getirdiği pek çok sorunla baş etmek durumundadır.

E) Günümüzün şehirleri, çoğuna hızlı büyümenin neden olduğu pek çok sorunla karşı karşıvadır.

(ÖYS 1993)

The sun, …………. has a surface temperature of 6000'C, warms the Earth from a distance of 150 million km.

A) whom                          B) which

C) whose                          D) when

E) what

(ÖYS 1994)

Brazil produces only one fifth of the 1.8 million barrels of oil that it consumes every day.

A) Brezilya'da her gün tüketilen 1,8 milyon varil petrolün yalnız beşte biri ithal edilmektedir.

B) Brezilya, her gün tükettiği 1,8 milyon varil petrolün yalnız beste birini üretmektedir.

C) Brezllya'da her gün üretilen 1.8 milyon varil petrolün yalnız beşte biri tüketilmektedir.

D) Brezilya, sadece günlük tüketimin beşte biri olan 1,8 milyon varil petrolü üretebilmektedir.

E) Her gün 1,8 milyon varil petrol tüketen Brezilya, bunun sadece beşte birini ithal edebilecek imkanlara sahiptir.

(ÖYS 1994)

Kurul tarafından belirlenen adaylardan en çok hangisini destekliyorsun?

A) Won't the committee support any of the candidates that have been nominated?

B) Which of the candidates has the support of most of the committee members?

C) All the candidates will be considered by the committee but which one has your support?

D) Will you support any of the candidates that the committee has nominated?

E) Of the candidates determined by the committee, which one do you support most?

(ÖYS 1994)

I'd like to introduce you to Mrs Trot, …… husband you used to work with.

A) where                          B) whom

C) whose                          D) which

E) who

(ÖYS 1995)

Faxing is a means of telecommuni­cation, ………….. .

A) that worked on a system similar to the telephone system

B) which has developed very quickly over the past few years

C) therefore charges will vary according to the time of the day

D) unless companies were using it in place of telex machines

E) whether or not you state the name of the receiver

(ÖYS 1995)

………. who crossed the Atlantic alone in a small sailing craft.

A) That must be the man

B) The news is that

C) I can't believe that anyone

D) I didn't realize how few people

E) Presumably he was lying

(ÖYS 1996)

………. whose coat was stolen last week?

A) Why were they surprised

B) Do you have their address

C) How unusual is it

D) Isn't that the new librarian

E) Is there any news yet

(ÖYS 1997)

O, eserlerini okumaktan büyük zevk aldığım çağdaş birkaç yazardan biridir.

A) Among the contemporary writers he is the one whose work I enjoy reading.

B) I really enjoy reading the works of only a few contemporary writers.

C) Except for him, there are few contemporary writers whose works I actually enjoy reading.

D) I get a great deal of pleasure out of reading his works and those of a few other contemporary writers.

E) He is one of the few contemporary writers whose works I greatly enjoy reading.

(ÖYS 1997)

Many Italian cities are famous for their beautiful gardens many ……… date from the great days of the Italian Renaissance.

A) of whose                     B) at which

C) of which                      D) in what

E) with whom

(ÖYS 1998)

1950'lerde çoğu İngiliz romancısı, ozanı ve oyun yazan, toplum üzerinde derin bir etkisi olan siyasal gelişmeler üzerinde öncelikle durmuşlardır.

A) In the 1950s, most British novelists, poets and playwrights focused primarily upon the political develop­ments which had a profound impact on society.

B) Most English novelists, poets and dramatists concentrated on the 1950s and upon the political developments that had so profound an impact upon society.

C) The political developments of the 1950s attracted- the attention of most English novelists, poets and playwrights since they had a profound impact upon society.

D) According to most English novelists, poets and playwrights, it was the political developments of the 1950s that had the greatest effect on society.

E) The astounding impact on society of the 1950s has attracted the attention of a great many English novelists, poets and dramatists.

(ÖYS 1998)

I still haven't had a chance to thank the nurse ………… .

A) until the child was well enough to go home

B) why she visited us every day for a week

C) who looked after my mother so well in hospital 

D) whose carelessness would make recovery slow

E) whether any more treatment was necessary

(YDS 1999)

The Great Pyramid of Khufu, ……. is near Cairo, is one,iflf the most famous monuments in the world.

A) who                             B) where

C) which                          D) whom

E) what

(YDS 2000)

Surely that's the boy …………………. .

A) that his sister won the painting competition

B) who sang so beautifully at the concert last night

C) unless he sent us the heavy box

D) whether his bicycle has been repaired

E) which everyone is talking about

(YDS 2000

……. who really established and developed the thriller style in films.

A) The cartoon is another popular type of film, especially among children

B) Strong film industries began to emerge in other countries

C) Contemporary issues such as violence and poverty will attract the attention of many film directors

D) Star Wars is perhaps his best film

E) It was the film director Alfred Hitchcock

(YDS 2001)

 

TEST YOURSELF   1

 

 

 

A speedy response by life savers is essential in the icy waters of the Arctic, ……….. it is a race against time to save victims at sea.

A) which                       B) of whom

C) whose                      D) where

E) what

I had lunch with Janice Small, …. son owns the shoe factory in our town.

A) whom                      B) which

C) —                             D) what

E) whose

Liquorice, ………. contains clycyrrhetic acid, was a favourite ingredient of ancient Egyptian medicines.

A) who                         B) when

C) which                       D) where

E) why

Robert Holden, ……… wrote 'Happiness Now', was the founder of Britain's first laughter clinic.

A) who                         B) when

C) where                       D) —

E) how

He is a talented cricket player ….. abilities include fast bowling and powerful batting.

A) where                       B) whose

C) whom                       D) when

E) of which

Eastern Rwanda is very different from the South-west, ………. monkeys, birds and orchids thrive in the high altitude primary forest.

A) when                        B) where

C) which                       D) why

E) of whom

Wednesday is the day ………. a tour guide leads a tour around the town's historical places.

A) when                        B) which

C) whose                      D) where

E) how

Doura Europos, ……… is perched on a hill high above the river, is one of the most dramatic castles lining the Euphrates.

A) what                         B) when

C) where                       D) which

E) who

Robert Riva, an Italian ………. used to play for Cremonese, now coaches the Reigate under 11's football team.

A) when                        B) which

C) where                       D) whom

E) who

In the end, my sister's husband, ………. steadfast determination never faltered, became a wealthy businessman.

A) when                        B) whose

C) that                           D) whom

E) of which

For 65 years, the hermit Anthony lived in a cave ………. cut into a narrow ledge on the Al Galua mountain in Egypt.

A) how                         B) what

C) who                          D) whose

E) – 

Sidney this autumn, ………. the Olympic games took place, was host to approximately two million visitors.

A) when                        B) which

C) how                          D) that

E) whose

I don't think I'll be going out much next month as the tires, ………. are quite expensive, need replacing on my car.

A) which                       B) that

C) where                       D) when

E) why

The new batsman, ……… everybody believes will strengthen the team, played superbly in yesterday's match.

A) whose                      B) where

C) whom                       D) why

E) that

The little bay, ………. a small boat brings provisions daily in fine weather, cannot be reached by road.

A) which                       B) where

C) what                         D) whose

E) when

Fewer chicks survive in years ………. lemmings, ……… make up the diet of the snowy owl, are sparse.

A) what/where              B) why/how

C) when/that                 D) that/which 'who

E) which

Everyone at the meeting yesterday, ……….. proved very constructive, showed their support for the new stadium.

A) that                          B) when

C) who                          D) which

E) where

20th June, Midsummer's day, ……… is the longest day of the year, is one of the days on ……… religious leaders called Druids meet and pray at ancient stone circles.

A) that/why                   B) where/where

C) when/when             D) why/—

E) which/which

The other day ……… Druids gather at their religious sites is Midwinter's day, …….. is the shortest day of the year.

A) when/which             B) which/when

C) where/what              D) whom/where

E) that/that

The town ……….. the folk festival is taking place is usually a quiet resort.

A) when                        B) where

C) whom                       D) which

E) what

Our hotel, ……… is a converted 17th century manor house, is very comfortable.

A) where                       B) whose

C) which                       D) when

E) that

As a celebrity ………. many children admire, it is important for her to act responsibly.

A) when                        B) where

C) whom                       D) which

E) whose

We always hold a family barbecue in our garden on Independence Day, …….. was on a Tuesday this year.

A) what                         B) that

C) when                        D) which

E) where

There is a place on the form ………. we are supposed to write comments in, but they haven't left enough room for us to write much at all.

A) why                         B) what

C) when                        D) where

E) which

Gigi Fernandez, ………. was born in Porto Rico, won the Wimbledon Championship four times in the 1990s.

A) where                       B) that

C) when                        D) whom

E) who

When I was at school, there was a girl in my class …….. skin was so sensitive that she couldn't expose her skin to the sun even with cream on.

A) where                       B) whose

C) whom                       D) which

E) that

We'll row until the spot ……. the river bends and then we'll turn back.

A) where                        B) when

C) whose                        D) which

E) —

Cornwall, ……… beaches and rocky coves attract tourists from the UK and abroad, is one area to consider for your new hotel.

A) which                        B) whose

C) when                          D) of whom

E) why

During summer months, ……… snow only remains on the highest peaks, very few tourists come to St Moritz.

A) where                        B) which

C) when                         D) why

E) whose

The only hairdresser ……… Judy trusts to cut her hair is Caroline.

A) which                         B) when

C) where                         D) —

E) how

On the days ……… I feel I need to reflect on the past and plan my future, I sit by the river and watch the swans swim past.

A) when                         B) where

C) whose                        D) whom

E) which

One of the greatest leaders of all time was Ghandi, ……… peaceful rebellion against imperialism gained him respect at home and abroad.

A) where                         B) whom

C) who                                       D) whose

E) when

……… you need to run this office smoothly is an efficient assistant. You can't do all the work yourself, can you?

A) Which                        B) What

C) When                                     D) Where

E) How

I can't imagine ……… she wants to go to Canada in the winter.

A) what                          B) who

C) where                        D) why

E) which

One of the contestants ……… reached the final solved the puzzle in only twenty-three seconds.

A) whose                        B) whom

C) that                            D) where

E) which

The new traffic system in the city, ……… reserves one lane for cars with more than one person in, has reduced congestion considerably.

A) that                            B) why

C) where                         D) when

E) which

The academy, ……… students from all over the world can learn English, has a number of flexible courses.

A) when                          B) where

C) whom                         D) which

E) that

The teachers ……… negligence resulted in the boy being left behind in France have been suspended.

A) whose                       B) why

C) that                          D) whom

E) o f which

My mother's Elvis Presley tape, ……… she listened to every day, has broken in the music centre.

A) whose                                    B) that

C) where                        D) when

E) which

The only reason ………. she stayed at the company was the additional money she was offered.

A) which                       B) where

C) whose                                    D) whom

E) why

Unfortunately, the friend with ……… I intended to go on holiday to Side is ill, so I'll have to cancel my trip.

A) who                         B) whom

C) where                        D) that

E) which

According to the research, the time at ………. most road accidents happen is early evening.

A) when                        B) which

C) whose                      D) that

E) —

Retirement, during ………. people have plenty of free time, should be a time of enjoyment and relaxation.

A) whose                      B) that

C) which                       D) when

E) what

As a retired person, the place in ………. my mother spends the most time is the garden.

A) that                          B) who

C) where                       D) which

E) what

In the end, we chose the restaurant ……… menu looked the most interesting.

A) where                       B) that

C) whom                        D) when

E) whose

The police are trying to find out ……… was blackmailing the victim.

A) when                        B) that

C) whom                       D) who

E) what

The new stadium, ……… will be completed next year, will seat 30,000 spectators.

A) what                         B) where

C) when                        D) how

E) which

Blenheim Palace, ………. Churchill was born, is now open to the public.

A) when                        B) where

C) which                       D) that

E) whose

Both modern philosophy and modern mathematics began with the work of Rene Descartes, …….. analytic method of thinking focused attention on the problem of how we know.

A) where                       B) when

C) which                       D) whose

E) whom

Sandra, a short, frail girl, ………. neither captain wanted in his team, burst into tears.

A) whom                      B) which

C) –                              D) why

E) whose

The police officer, ……… the thief, was pushing him into a police vehicle to be taken to the station.

A) to catch                    B) to have caught

C) caught                      D) having caught

E) Being caught

The excuse ………. by the company for not delivering the product on time was unbelievable.

A) to give                      B) having given

C) given                        D) to be giving

E) giving

……… his sun cream at home, the man reluctantly bought a new bottle.

A) Left                          B) To be leaving

C) To leave                   D) Leaving

E) Having left

We will need someone ……… our daughter during the award ceremony.

A) to be baby-sat         B) baby-sat

C) having baby-sat        D) baby-sitting

E) to baby-sit

If you leave the letters ……… on my desk, I will put them away first thing tomorrow morning.

A) filing                        B) having filed

C) to have filed             D) to be filed

E) to be filing

Her husband, ……… a garage of his own, repairs her car for her.

A) to have                     B) having

C) have                         D) has

E) to have had

Various games ……… soccer have been played for more than 2,000 years, probably starting in China, but the modern game developed in England.

A) resembling               B) resembled

C) to resemble                D) resemble

E) being resembled

………. in a 'no-parking' zone, the Boss's car was towed away.

A) To be parked           B) Parking

C) Having been parked   D) To be parking

E) To park

The smartest way…….. situations like this is to speak to the manager first.

A) approached           B) having approached

C) approaching          D) to be approached

E) to approach

………. cheerfully in the spring sunshine, the paper boy handed her 'The Guardian'.

A) To sing                     B) To have sung

C) Sung                         D) Singing

E) To be singing

A scholar-explorer with an inborn love of adventure, Richard Burton was the first European ……..forbidden Muslim cities in Africa unharmed.

A) being penetrated     B) to penetrate

C) penetrated                D) penetrate

E) to be penetrated

All decisions ………. at this meeting will be published in the club's quarterly bulletin.

A) made                        B) making

C) to make                    D) having made

E) to be making

……….. it to be certain that the horse was a winner, the man bet his entire wages on it.

A) To have believed      B) To believe

C) Believing                  D) Believed

E) To be believed

Yesterday the player, ……… with the singer for some time, announced his engagement.

A) linking                     B) to be linked

C) having linked           D) linked

E) to link

The vase, ………… for £2 in a jumble sale, was valued by the expert at £1500.

A) bought                     B) buying

C) to buy                      D) having bought

E) to be bought

TEST YOURSELF   2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isadora Duncan, …………. dance techniques revolutionised ballet, had a tragic personal life.

A) whose                        B) where

C) whom                         D) when

E) which

Thanks to modern technology, people …….. steal from shops can be identified using closed circuit television.

A) which                         B) when

C) who                            D) where

E) what

Our reporter is going to ask them………. the effects of the new taxation will be.

A) where                   B) what

C) which                   D) why

E) who

When I unpacked my suitcase, I was upset to find that the vase ………….. I had bought at the market in Portugal as a gift for my mother was broken.

A) what                           B) who

C) when                    D) which

E) where

The Queen gave out medals for services to the community, most …………. were given to famous people.

A) that                            B) for whom

C) —                               D) where

E) of which

Goldau, a small Swiss town ………. a landslide took place in 1806, is now called Neu-Goldau and consists merely of a few houses.

A) when                          B) where

C) which                         D) what

E) whose

St Andrews, a Scottish town, …………….. golf course is one of the oldest in the world, is the host for this year's British Open Golf Championship.

A) whose                        B) for whom

C) with which                 D) that

E) when

I’m glad that the snacks…………….. we served at the reception were very popular with the guests.

A) where                         B) what

C) —                               D) whom

E) how

There is now a radio station, called ‘Talksport’, broadcasts sports twenty-four hours a day.

A) where                         B) who

C) whose                        D) when

E) which

Leopald Grielin's 'Handbuch der Chemie', ………… originally written in German, was translated into English in the 1876s.

A) where                         B) whom

C) that                             D) —

E) which

Galileo, …………………..published works proving that the Earth revolves around the Sun, continued his scientific experiments even when he went deaf and blind.

A) when                          B) who

C) where                         D) which

E) whose

The children ………. sang at the Mayor's parade were from the local school.

A) whose                        B) —

C) where                         D) who

E) whom

All his staff, ………. he had good relations, admired him greatly.

A) of which                    B) that

C) where                         D) with whom

E) whose

 

Genghis Khan, ………. name means 'very mighty ruler', was a Mongol emperor in the Middle Ages.

A) whom                   B) whose

C) who                       D) what

E) how

Barbara Cartland, ……… light-hearted romantic novels were popular, died earlier this year.

A) whose                   B) whom

C) which                    D) what

E) of which

Discus throwing is an athletic discipline ……… tests strength and agility.

A) that                       B) what

C) when                     D) where

E) how

Today ethnic Ainus, ……… are the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan, are only found in the extreme north of the country and on a few scattered islands belonging to Russia.

A) whom                   B) for whom

C) who                       D) of which

E) whose

The greatest number of Native American Indians are Navajos, one sixth ……… still live in traditional one-room houses called Hogans.

A) for which              B) in which

C) for whose                   D) with whom

E) of whom

We stood at the Grand Canyon looking down into the cleft below, ……… the  Colorado river continues to carve deeper and deeper into the Earth's crust.

A) when                     B) how

C) which                    D) where

E) that

Castle Combe, ………. Dr Doolittle was filmed, is considered the prettiest village in England.

A) about what            B) in which

C) with whom            D) of whose

E) whom 

There are about thirty workshops on the new industrial estate, half ………. are still empty.

A) from whom           B) where

C) of which               D) what

E) that

Hundreds of people have been evacuated from the town, many …… will spend the night under the stars.

A) for which              B) whose

C) of whom               D) in which

E) with whom

Nothing could stop the mud slide, ………. tore down houses as if they were made of match sticks.

A) which                    B) where

C) when                     D) who

E) that

The police are searching the area …….. the boy was last seen.

A) which                    B) where

C) that                        D) how

E) who

Tiger Woods, ………. the favourite to win the event, is placed second at the moment.

A) that                       B) whose

C) –                           D) where

E) who

The transport secretary has announced that over the next ten years, 180 million pounds will be spent on transportation, some…….. will pay for the new railway system.

A) for whom              B) for what

C) –                           D) of which

E) that

The complex in the Forbidden City, Beijing, has an outer palace, …….. emperors held official audiences, and an inner palace, …….. served as living quarters for the imperial family.

A) that/where             B) —/when

C) whose/that             D) which/—

E) where/which

Noel helped the old woman, ……… could barely walk, board the plane.

A) who                      B) when

C) where                    D) whose

E) that

We will always remember this as the day ……… we won our first match as a team.

A) whom                   B) what

C) that                        D) where

E) which

There is much less traffic in the city ……… the children are on holiday from school.

A) which                    B) when

C) that                        D) why

E) whose

He managed to land the hot air balloon at a place ……… the land was flat and open.

A) when                     B) where

C) whose                   D) what

E) which

The park is open to the public at no charge except for one weekend…….. the flower show is held there.

A) when                     B) where

C) which                    D) whom

E) how

"Don't run away. Stay……… I can see you," the mother shouted to her children.

A) which                    B) how

C) where                     D) why

E) when

My sister has just bought the hairdresser's ……… she has worked for since she was a teenager.

A) when                     B) where

C) what                      D) –

E) who

He almost laughed when he was shown the uniform ……… he is supposed to wear for work at 'Fattie Arbuckles American Style Diner'.

A) when                     B) which

C) where                    D) whom

E) why

I had my first baseball glove in 1957, …….. my grandfather gave me one as a birthday present.

A) which                    B) what

C) —                          D) whose

E) when

The philosopher ………. theories I am writing went insane before he died.

A) about whose        B) for whom

C) with whom            D) in which

E) at which

Why don't you ask her ………. she likes to do most and then arrange something?

A) that                       B) when

C) who                       D) what

E) why

Our managing director, …….. is Australian, misses the beaches and weather of his home town.

A) whom                   B) who

C) that                        D) —

E) which

There was a time ………. coal was mined in this valley, but now all that remains to remind us of those days is the 'Miners' Male Voice Choir'.

A) what                      B) whose

C) where                    D) which

E) when

Unlike many artists of his era, J.M.W. Turner, ……… entire life was devoted to his art, was successful throughout his career.

A) —                         B) whom

C) when                     D) which

E) whose

Freckles, ………. are largely hereditary, are caused by an uneven distribution of pigments.

A) whom                   B) that

C) which                    D) where

E) what

4.23 p.m. is the time ……… the tide here will be at its highest.

A) for which              B) whose

C) where                    D) that

E) why

County Air Ambulance is a charity ……… provides emergency medical services to rural parts of the county.

A) which                    B) what

C) why                       D) where

E) how

Mike, ……… brother I bought this car, is starting to work at our company tomorrow.

A) from whose          B) for whom

C) where                         D) when

E) about which

The meal, ……….. we had paid twenty pounds, was tasteless.

A) for whom              B) for which

C) about what            D) whose

E) –

Walrus fur, ……… used by the Eskimos for clothing, has a special oily texture ……… stops it freezing.

A) that/when              B) which/—

C) —/that                  D) who/where

E) whom/which

Davie Crocket, ……. the battle of the Alamo in Texas is associated with, may not have even been there.

A) which                    B) that

C) whom                    D) —

E) where

Irish whiskey is made from rye, so it has a different taste from Scottish whiskey, ……… is made from wheat.

A) who                      B) that

C) —                          D) which

E) when

Hundreds of United Nations peacekeeping soldiers have been sent to Sierra Leone, ……. there is a civil war at the moment.

A) what                      B) where

C) who                       D) which

E) that

All the vegetables ………. on that farm are free from chemicals.

A) grown                   B) having grown

C) to grow                  D) to be growing

E) grow

The only non-violent sport ………. by the King of England was golf in the 1400s, when the King thought his soldiers weren't doing enough archery practice.

A) banning                 B) to ban

C) having banned      D) to be banned

E) to be banning

Johnny, ………. Italian, didn't enjoy the Opera as much as Sonya did.

A) not being understood  

B) not to understand

C) not to be understood

D) not understand

E) not understanding

……… ten times as fast as the old printer, the new printer has made our office much more efficient.

A) To print              B) Printing

C) Being printed             D) To be printed

E) Printed

………. several competitions as an amateur, he decided to play professionally.

A) To win               B) Won

C) Having won               D) Being won

E) To be won

Before the lecture, you'll be given some notes ……….. Freud's theory of the Ego and Alter Ego.

A) explaining          B) to be explained

C) explained                   D) being explained

E) having explained

……… of the dangers many times by his mother, Cameron never swam in the river.

A) To warn             B) Having been warned

C) To have warned         D) Having warned

E) To be warning

The bridge, ……….. to the town by the Horticultural Society in 1882, crosses the river from the road to the park.

A) having given              B) given

C) to give                D) giving

E) to be giving

………… the required score in the qualifying round, the former champion will not take place in the final.

A) Not to reach

B) Not being reached

C) Not having been reached

D) Not having reached

E) Not to be reaching

………. in superstitions, Jess walked confidently under the ladder.

A) Not to believe

B) Not to be believing

C) Not believing

D) Not believed

E) Not believe

All the people ………. to the committee are experts in this subject.

A) appointing          B) having appointed

C) to appoint             D) to be appointing

E) appointed

It would be nice if I had someone …….. on to look after the shop when we go on holiday.

A) having relied     B) to rely

C) relied                  D) to be relied

E) relying

The sand on this beach, ………. specially from Spain, is golden and not the black volcanic sand of most of the beaches on this island.

A) to bring              B) bringing

C) having brought           D) brought

E) to be bringing

Stockholm is a city of broad streets and substantial buildings …….. of white granite, brick or stone that give the city a clean, uncrowded appearance.

A) making               B) to make

C) made                  D) having made

E) to be making

None of the men ………. on the building site have a work permit.

A) working             B) work

C) being worked             D) worked

E) to be working

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOURSELF   3

 

 

1- 70. sorularda, cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan kelime ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.

 

71-80. sorularda, yarım bırakılan cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

 

81-100. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulunuz.

 

101-110. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

 

111-120. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

 

Metin Kutusu: 1- 70. sorularda, cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan kelime ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.Stratford-upon-Avon, the English town ……. Shakespeare was born in, has a beautiful theatre by the River Avon.

A) when                  B) why

C) whom                 D) where

E) —

< >Unfortunately, the field …….. we had to put our tent up was extremely muddy.A) by whom           B) which

 

C) that                     D) in which

E) when

< >I admit that Sally is not a good cook, but the meal she cooked us was much nicer than the one ……… we ate at a restaurant last Saturday.A) when                  B) where

 

C) —                       D) who

E)  whom

< >David Bowie, ………….. career has lasted over 20 years, drew the largest crowd at Glastonbury Festival.A) whose                B) when

 

C) whom                 D) which

E) that

< >Do you think the scarf ……….. I'm wearing goes with my dress?A) what                   B) —

 

C) when                  D) where

E) whose

 

< >Once again the manager, ………. anger was often directed at the salespeople, told Paul that if he didn't improve his performance, he could face dismissal.A) that                    B) whose

 

C) whom                 D) when

E) where

< >The show, ………. the contestants are monitored on cameras twenty-four hours a day, has caused controversy in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain.A) for whom           B) who

 

C) when                  D) in which

E) why

< >The room …….. we are standing in now is the one …….. the President used to write his letters.A) where/whom       B) why/that

 

C) which/which       D) when/—

E) —/where

< >The emergency staff prepared themselves as the injured man, ……. had been hit by a bus in a busy part of the city, was brought into the hospital.A) which                 B) where

 

C) who                    D) when

E) whom

< >The farmer ……… crops were damaged by the police during the search for a body wants compensation.A) whose                B) when

 

C) which                 D) that

E) who

 

< >A diary is a daily personal record …….. the writer is free to record anything at all.A) what                   B) in which

 

C) when                  D) that

E) to whom

< >Manager:         Did the lady buy anything?Sales Assistant: Unfortunately, we didn't have ………. she was looking for.

 

A) when                  B) which

C) what                   D) where

E) that

< >They don't know ……… someone managed to break their computer security code.A) whom                B) what

 

C) how                    D) which

E) who

< >Spaghetti Bolognaise, ………. is originally an Italian meal, is very popular around the world today.A) whom                B) who

 

C) where                 D) which

E) that

< >Early Welsh settlers, from ………… some modern day Patagonians are descended, brought sheep farming to Patagonia.A) when                  B) which

 

C) where                 D) who

E) whom

< >The shop ……… sold handmade pottery has closed down.A) why                   B) where

 

C) when                  D) —

E) that

< >There were only eleven entries to the competition, none ……… were very impressive.A) of which            B) for whom

 

C) from that            D) whose

E) in whom

< >The Empire State Building, ……… was the world's tallest building from 1931 until the 1970s, is five storeys shorter than the World Trade Centre.A) where                 B) which

 

C) that                             D) when

E) whose

< >280,000 children die of Tuberculosis each year. However, these are deaths ………. could be prevented with a simple vaccine.A) what                   B) why

 

C) who                      D) that

E) where

< >Chromes disease is an illness ………. affects a person's intestines and bowels.A) why                   B) which

 

C) where                 D) whom

E) when

< >Epping forest, ………. the Royal family used to hunt, was given to the public by Queen Victoria in 1882.A) —                      B) which

 

C) when                    D) where

E) whose

< >….. I eat cucumber, I get indigestion.A) Whenever          B) Whatever

 

C) Wherever             D) Whomever

E) Whichever

 

< >The security guard stopped a stranger entering the building and asked him …….. he was and ……… he wanted there.A) who/what           B) that/why

 

C) —/which            D) whom/that

E) whose/—

< >Of the firemen ……… helped extinguish the fire, two were injured in the rescue attempt.A) which                 B) that

 

C) when                  D) where

E) —

< >The firemen, two ……… were injured themselves in the rescue attempt, were awarded medals for bravery by the Mayor.A) with whose        B) for which

 

C) of whom            D) in which

E) whose

< >It was the old lady next door ………. called the police on the night of the burglary.A) who                   B) —

 

C) whose                D) when

E) whom

< >Elder is a small tree, the berries ………. are used to make a country wine.A) about whose      B) for whom

 

C) of which            D) for which

E) by whom

< >………. busy you are, you should take a break at least every four hours.A) Whatever           B) Wherever

 

C) Whenever             D) However

E) Whichever

 

< >First we need to find out ………  caused this epidemic.A) wherever            B) whenever

 

C) however             D) whomever

E) whatever

< >The police think that ………. broke in must have known the layout of the bank.A) whoever             B) wherever

 

C) whenever           D) however

E) whomever

< >……… happened at yesterday's meeting was not really one person's fault. It was just an unfortunate coincidence.A) Which                B) Who

 

C) What                  D) When

E) That

< >The examples …….. he gave to help explain this theory made it much clearer.A) who                   B) —

 

C) when                  D) what

E) why

< >Robert Redford, ……… also appeared in the stage play of the same name, plays the lead role in Neil Simon's "Barefoot in the Park".A) what                   B) where

 

C) who                    D) that

E) —

< >The last week of July, ………. most of the schools break up for summer, is the week ………. we take the most holiday bookings.A) why/what           B) where/which

 

C) that/when                   D) when/that

E) —/why

 

< >The quality of the air ……….. we breathe can have a dramatic effect on our health.A) what                   B) where

 

C) when                  D) —

E) why

< >The leader recommends that we should pack only ………. we will really need on the holiday.A) what                   B) —

 

C) which                 D) when

E) that

< >The wine business is controlled by people …….. obsession is encouraging new customers to try wine.A) where                 B) which

 

C) that                     D) when

E) whose

< >During the middle of the day, …. the Sun's rays are the strongest, many Spaniards stay indoors.A) —                      B) where

 

C) when                  D) which

E) that

< >………. this restaurant needs is a new carpet and some better quality furniture.A) Why                   B) Who

 

C) Which                D) What

E) Where

< >The dilemma in which he ……… himself now ……… whether to continue working and risk getting poorer grades or give up his job and suffer financially.A) found/have been

 

B) was finding/had been

C) will find/was

D) has found/were

E) finds/is

< >Sarah, who …….. from a chest pain for some time now, …….. to see the doctor tomorrow.A) was suffering/will go

 

B) has been suffering/is going

C) suffered/has been going

D) will suffer/has gone

E) is suffering/goes

< >The team ………. wins this competition will play the winner of the other semi-final.A) —                      B) what

 

C) where                 D) which

E) when

< >The man ………. the manager hired was not the man ………. he originally offered the job to.A) whom/—            B) whose/who

 

C) who/whose         D) who/which

E) which/who

< >The polecat, ………. has been eradicated from most parts of the UK by gamekeepers, survives today in remote parts of Wales.A) who                   B) where

 

C) when                  D) —

E) which

< >The construction of a railway junction in the village is the main explanation as to ……… Polegate grew so rapidly.A) who                   B) which

 

C) why                    D) —

E) what

< >William de Morgan, about ……. work we will be talking today, was the son of the mathematician Augustus De Morgan.A) who                   B) that

 

C) whose                D) whom

E) which

< >In Judaism, Bethlehem was the birthplace of David, …….. became king of Israel in about 1000 BC.A) when                  B) who

 

C) which                 D) that

E) where

< >It is one of the most sacred places for Christians as well because, according to the Gospels, Bethlehem was also the place ……. Jesus was born.A) where                 B) whom

 

C) which                 D) that

E) whose

< >The small island of Pitcairn was settled in 1790 by mutineers, ….. had set their captain adrift from their ship, 'The Bounty'.A) when                  B) that

 

C) whose                D) who

E) which

< >William De Morgan, ………. designs can be seen at Wightwick Manor, never achieved commercial success.A) that                    B) —

 

C) whom                 D) where

E) whose

< >Syria, ……… by Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman civilisations, has some striking architecture ……… the influence of all the three.A) to occupy/to have been reflecting

 

B) occupying/to have reflected

C) to be occupying/being reflected

D) having been occupied/reflecting

E) having occupied/reflected

< >Those …….. for the coach to Rattle Snake Springs should proceed to the side door.A) to wait                   B) waiting

 

C) having waited        D) to be waiting

E) waited

< >The man who won the 'Tour de France', ……… by crowds of Parisians, came from the United States of America.A) having watched     B) watched

 

C) to watch                D) to be watching

E) to have been watched

< >I'm sure I've seen the tall man … in the corner somewhere before.A) to sit                      B) having sat

 

C) sitting                    D) sat

E) to be sitting

< >Paintings by Bartolome Murillo and Diego Velasquez, both ……. in Seville, may be found throughout the city.A) born                      B) to be born

 

C) having born           D) being born

E) to have born

< >Garlic, ……… since ancient times to have medicinal properties, made up part of the Egyptian pyramid-builders' rations.A) having believed   B) to believe

 

C) to have believed    D) believed

E) believing

< >The new Volvo four-wheel drive vehicle, …….. to function well on the country's worst roads, costs £28,910.A) having designed    B) to be designing

 

C) designing               D) designed

E) to design

< >The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget was the first scientist …….. systematic studies of how children learn.A) to be made            B) made

 

C) being made          D) be making

E) to make

< >Virtually everybody ………… on the show agreed with the Prime Minister's decision.A) interviewed           B) to interview

 

C) interviewing          D) having interviewed

E) to be interviewing

< >The deer I ………… on my way to work was wandering across the road.A) to hit                     B) was hit

 

C) hit                         D) to be hitting

E) hitting

< >Henry the Minstrel, ……….. as Blind Harry, wrote a narrative poem of 11,000 lines about the Scottish national hero, Sir William Wallace.A) knew                     B) knowing

 

C) having known       D) to know

E) known

< >Louis Bleriot, ………. the design of the monoplane, made the first cross-channel flight on 25th July 1909.A) improved              B) to be improving

 

C) being improved     D) having improved

E) to improve

< >The British government, ……….. to it as part of the peace process in Northern Ireland, released a murderer, Michael Stone, from jail.A) to agree                 B) having agreed

 

C) agreed                   D) to be agreed

E) being agreed

< >Michael Stone, ………. as part of the peace process, wants to spend time with his family.A) to release

 

B) releasing

C) having been released

D) to be releasing

E) having released

< >The mobile phone company …… free connection charges a lot for calls.A) being advertised    B) advertising

 

C) to advertise           D) advertised

E) to be advertising

< >The workers ……….. to work all weekend stocktaking were paid a bonus.A) having                   B) to have

 

C) had                        D) to be having

E) to have had

< >The procedure ………. by the new manager seems to be working well.A) having introduced

 

B) to introduce

C) to be introducing

D) introduced

E) introducing

< >Bears are farmed in China to provide bile, ………. in traditional Chinese medicine.A) having used         B) be used

 

C) using                     D) to be using

E) used

< >Anyone ……… to Rwanda should contact their embassy about security procedures.A) to be travelling      B) travelled

 

C) be travelling         D) travel

E) travelling

< >The old boat, ………. in the family's barn, was taken to Swansea for relaunching.A) having been restored

 

B) to restore

C) to be restoring

D) to have been restoring

E) having restored

 

< >

  The town of Bolgar was a thriving centre of commerce until, in 1237, the Mongols launched an attack, ………….. .

A) with whom they signed a peace treaty

B) from which the town never recovered

C) in which we bought our souvenirs

D) Bulgar wheat comes from the same area.

E) who claimed the land for himself

< >The art of bronze casting in India reached its full development in the South, ……… .A) for whom this elaborate perfume burner was made in the year 1277

 

B) whose pleasant colour makes it popular for ornaments as well as for everyday utensils

C) which became popular in France in the 18th century

D) even though cannons were once made of it

E) where the art has flourished from the  10th century until the present day

 

 

< >This disease is absolutely incurable, …………….. .A) which explains the name meaning 'white blood'

 

B) when his gland became enlarged

C) however early the diagnosis is made

D) whom I know died of the disease

E) whose symptoms include anaemia and haemorrhage

< >The manager thinks Susan is the calibre of employee ……. .A) for which he was very grateful

 

B) the fact that he promoted her

C) who are threatening to take strike action

D) who has management potential

E) the reason why she resigned:

< >We would have attracted more people to the disco ……. .A) that we ran out of food and drink

 

B) unless we plan to publicise the event well in advance

C) part of which plays music by new artists

D) the disc jockey of whom is from Spain

E) if we had advertised the event in the newspaper

< >Having finished all her housework for the day, ………. .A) her husband weeds the garden and mows the lawn

 

B) she sat down and had a cup of tea and some cake

C) on which the scandal broke in the newspapers

D) when she met her husband at the collage dance

E) which gets her oven particularly clean

 

< >The area is a breeding ground for African penguins, ……….. .A) 40 percent of which were affected by the recent oil spill

 

B) when the tanker hit the coast due to adverse weather conditions

C) whose carelessness caused one of the biggest disasters of ever

D) that was a greater number than we had expected

E) to have been discovered by a Dutch explorer

< >……… , it won't arrive before the deadline.A) When she received the results of her examinations

 

B) Unless you send your application today

C) The more newspapers we advertise in

D) She's flying out to Australia immediately

E) Because they feared getting stuck in traffic

< >On board the plane were a total of 109 passengers, ……. .A) whose engines caught on fire

 

B) some of which were damaged

C) none of whom survived the crash

D) into which the plane collided

E) which caused this dreadful tragedy

< >What I am looking for most in a school for my daughter ………. .A) was the broad range of both academic subjects and sports they taught

 

B) once I have received all the brochures I have sent for

C) during which she learnt a lot about the arts

 

D) is a balance between academic and creative subjects

E) has one of the best reputations in our area

     

< >It is hard to explain to my mother why I don't like my new job.A) I explained to my mother why I don't like my new job, but she refuses to understand that.

 

B) I explained to my mother that I don't like my new job as I have to work too hard there,

C) Giving an explanation to my mother as to why I dislike my new job is not easy.

D) Except for my mother, I could easily give everybody an explanation as to why I hate my new job.

E) My mother found it quite difficult to believe that I hated my new job.

< >It was Jeremy Black, who works with Nigel, who caught the most fish.A) Nigel and his colleague Jeremy Black caught the most fish.

 

B) The man who caught more fish than anyone else was Jeremy Black, a colleague of Nigel's.

C) Nigel works with Jeremy Black, who often goes fishing and usually catches a lot offish.

D) Nigel and his colleague, Jeremy Black, went fishing and Jeremy caught more fish than Nigel.

E) I went fishing with Nigel and his colleague Jeremy Black, who caught the most fish among us.

 

< >The museum is visited mainly by those who are interested in the impressionist painters.A) The museum, which attracts large numbers of visitors, has a particularly interesting display of impressionist paintings.

 

B) The museum, which displays mainly impressionist art, attracts visitors with a serious interest in art.

C) A lot of visitors to the museum who are interested in Impressionism buy paintings.

D) The museum, which displays only impressionist paintings, receives lots of visitors.

E) Most of the visitors to the museum have an interest in artists from the era of Impressionism.

< >What he least expected to happen was for him to beat the champion.A) He thought his beating the champion was the most unlikely outcome.

 

B) Everybody was quite surprised when he beat the champion.

C) Everyone thought he would certainly be beaten by the champion.

D) More than anything else, he wanted to beat the champion, but that was extremely unlikely.

E) He was absolutely certain that the champion would win the race.

< >The hotel where their wedding reception is being held is not far from the station.A) We can walk from the station to the hotel in which their wedding reception is being held.

 

B) They are holding their wedding reception in a hotel situated close to the station.

C) It's a long way from the station to the hotel they intend to hold their wedding reception in.

D) It won't take us long to get from the station to the hotel on the day of their wedding.

E) They are looking for a hotel close to the station in which to hold their wedding reception.

< >We should book a table in the restaurant for Friday night as it could be busy then.A) We booked a table because we were going to dine on Friday night, when the restaurant is usually busy.

 

B) Since there is a possibility that the restaurant will be busy on Friday night, it would be a good idea for us to reserve a table.

C) It is advisable to reserve tables on Friday nights, when the restaurant is exceptionally busy.

D) We didn't know that we had to book a table, but it is the restaurant's policy on Friday nights, when they are particularly busy.

E) In my opinion, there is no need to book a table at the restaurant, but, as we are dining on Friday, you may wish to.

< >When driving at night, I can't bear people driving towards me without dipping their head lamps.A) If drivers don't dip their head lamps at night, they can dazzle drivers coming in the opposite direction.

 

B) Sometimes, when driving at night, I forget to dip my head lamps and dazzle a driver in a vehicle coming in the opposite direction.

C) When at the wheel, I get annoyed with the drivers coming in the opposite direction at night who don't dip their head lamps.

D) I get dazzled if a driver who is coming in the opposite direction does not dip his head lamps at night, which is very annoying.

E) The thing I find most annoying when driving at night is drivers who don't dip their head lamps for oncoming traffic.

< >The hardest job for anyone who has children is bringing them up to be decent citizens.A) For parents, the most rewarding job is raising their children to appreciate the difference between right and wrong.

 

B) Most people don't take the job of bringing up children, which is the most difficult job in the world, seriously enough.

C) I found bringing up my children to be sensible adults the most difficult job I have ever had.

D) For parents, raising children so that they grow into responsible adults is the toughest task they will face.

E) Bringing up children to be educated adults is one of the most difficult jobs in the world.

< >This watch, will retain its value forever.A) Make sure you always value this watch.

 

B) If you keep this watch, it will become more and more valuable.

C) This watch is as valuable as any.

D) Keep this watch as it might become     valuable some day.

E) This watch will never lose its value.

< >My mother-in-law has made an appointment with a chiropodist to ask about her foot, which has been troubling her lately.A) A chiropodist is treating my mother-in-law's foot, which has been unbearably painful for ages.

 

B) I have made an appointment with my mother-in-law's chiropodist because my foot has been painful to walk on for some time.

C) My mother-in-law should go and see a chiropodist about her foot because it has been very painful to walk on lately.

D) My mother-in-law suggested that I arrange to visit a chiropodist about my foot, which has been quite sore lately.

E) In order to find out what is wrong with her foot, from which she has been experiencing pain lately, my mother-in-law has arranged to see a chiropodist.

< >For my new project, I'm looking for a business partner who is honest and trustworthy.A) I'm starting a new business project for which I will require a partner who is famous and has a good reputation.

 

B) The most important qualities in a business partner are reliability and truthfulness, but someone with both of these qualities is difficult to find.

C) I hope my business partner, who is usually trustworthy, works efficiently for this new project.

D) I'm trying to find someone who can be trusted and is truthful to be my partner in my new business project.

E) I wish I had a reliable and truthful partner, in my new business project.

< >Developing nations cannot afford to buy advanced technology from the industrialised nations, which could improve their productivity in industry.A) Advanced technology owned by the developed world could improve industrial output in developing countries, but it is too expensive for them to buy.

 

B) The developed world is reluctant to share its' advanced technology with the developing world, which doesn't want to pay for it.

C) When a developed country sells its technology to a poor country, it usually overcharges the purchasing country for it.

D) In developing countries, the lack of advanced technology, which they are reluctant to invest in, means their productivity is much lower than that of developed countries.

E) The gap between productivity in the undeveloped world and in the developed world keeps widening due mainly to the technological advances made by the industrialised nations.

< >Only those whose work takes place in disaster areas can really comprehend the psychological effects of mass devastation.A) People who don't work in areas where a catastrophe has occurred cannot fully understand the mental effects of total disaster.

 

B) Those people whose work involves treating the survivors of disasters have an appreciation of the mental scars their experiences can leave.

C) Being involved in a scene of physical devastation can leave psychological scars, which take years to overcome.

D) People who have never experienced this kind of physical devastation have no idea about the psychological scars it can leave.

E) Those who work in areas of total devastation can be badly damaged psychologically by their experiences.

< >This course is designed for students with a basic knowledge of the language.A) This course attracted a number of students who could already speak the language.

 

B) During this course, people will gain a basic knowledge of the language.

C) Basically, this is a course for absolute beginners in this language.

D) Students with a clear understanding of this language are ideally suited to this course.

E) This course is aimed at students who possess an elementary understanding of the language.

 

 

 

< >I believe everyone approves of this charitable organisation.A) It's impossible that anyone could doubt the good done by this charity.

 

B) In my opinion, this charity does exceedingly good work.

C) I don't think anyone disapproves of this charity.

D) The work of this charity has gained widespread approval.

E) The charity is believed to be supported by vast numbers of people.

< >She hadn't expected such wisdom from an uneducated man.A) He was surprisingly dull for the amount of education he had received, she thought.

 

B) She had expected him to be wise, but he was actually an uneducated man.

C) As he had never been to school, she didn't expect him to be literate.

D) The amount of wisdom he possessed surprised everyone as he hadn't even finished school.

E) Although he wasn't educated, the man was wise, which surprised her.

< >Six people were inside the bank which was set on fire by people taking part in the riots.A) Six people who were rioting set fire to the bank in protest.

 

B) Six rioters involved in the arson attack were from the staff of the bank.

C) The bank was set on fire by six people who were taking part in a riot.

D) The bank which was set on fire by rioters had six people inside.

E) Six people died inside the bank which was set on fire by rioters.

 

< >It is possible for a spiny lobster to live up to twenty-five years.A) Most spiny lobsters live at least twenty-live years.

 

B) The average life span of a spiny lobster is twenty-five years.

C) Spiny lobsters are the longest living lobsters with a life span of twenty-five years.

D) The life span of a spiny lobster can be as long as twenty-five years.

E) The longest living spiny lobster existed for twenty-five years.

< >There is hardly a house which the mud slide has left standing in the town.A) There is a number of houses in the town demolished by the mud slide.

 

B) After the mud slide, there wasn't a house remaining in the town.

C) The mud slide has torn down almost all the houses in the town.

D) The mud slide almost missed the town, but some houses were damaged.

E) A few houses were almost completely demolished by the mud slide in the town.

< >We rushed for shelter as soon as we heard the thunder storm corning.A) The moment we heard the approaching thunder storm, we dashed under cover.

 

B) Luckily, we were inside when we heard the thunder storm approaching.

C) We were outside until we heard a thunder storm approaching, at which time we went inside.

D) If we had dashed for cover when we first heard the thunder storm approaching, we wouldn't have got wet.

E) Any time that we hear a thunder storm coming, we rush to get under cover.

< >Avrupalılar, Afrika kıyılarında ilk kez, teknolojik gelişmelerin uzun deniz yolculuklarını mümkün kıldığı 15. yüzyıl sonlarında görünmeye başlamıştır.     A) The first European landed on the coast of Africa during the late 15th century, proving that technological advancements made long voyages possible.

 

B) Europeans first began to appear along the African coast during the late 15th century, when technolo­gical improvements made long voyages possible.

C) During the 15th century, technological advancements made travel, from Europe to the African coast by ship possible.

D) Europeans began to colonise Africa during the late 15th century, when technology had improved to the point which made long voyages possible.

E) The fact that was mainly responsible for the appearance of Europeans along the African coast during the late 15th century was technological improvement in sea travel.

< >Tropikal hastalıkların pek çoğu, yok edilmeleri çok güç olan parazitlerden kaynaklanmaktadır.A) The difficulty with tropical diseases is that I he parasites responsible for spreading the disease are very difficult to control.

 

B) Many attempts to eradicate parasites which cause tropical diseases have failed.

C) The parasites which cause tropical diseases are extremely hard to destroy.

D) Many tropical diseases which are caused by parasites are extremely difficult to cure.

E) Many of the tropical diseases are caused by parasites that are extremely difficult to eradicate.

< >Afrika'nın çeşitli yerlerinde yapılan arkeolojik kazılar, ilk insanların bir milyon yıl önce ilk kez orada ortaya çıktığı teorisini destekleyen deliller sağlamıştır.A) Since evidence was found at archaeological excavations at several sites in Africa, a theory has evolved that the first human beings lived there one million years ago.

 

B) The fact that the first human beings evolved over one million years ago has been proved by archaeological excavations at various sites in Africa.

C) Archaeological excavations at various sites in Africa have provided evidence supporting the theory that the first human beings evolved there one million years ago.

D) One theory, supported by evidence at various archaeological excavations. is that the first human beings lived in Africa about one million years ago.

E) The oldest archaeological evidence of human existence has been found at an excavation in Africa and it is over one million years old.

< >İlgi alanı balıklardan buzullara kadar uzanan Amerikalı doğa bilimci Louis Agassiz, zooloji ve jeoloji konusunda zamanının en büyük otoritesiydi.A) The American naturalist Louis Agassiz, who added to our knowledge on subjects such as fishes and glaciers, had a wide range of interests from zoology to geology.

 

B) The American zoologist and geologist, Louis Agassiz, was the greatest authority on nature from fishes to glaciers in his day.

C) The greatest zoologist and geologist at the time was Louis Agassiz, who knew about a range of subjects from fishes to glaciers.

D) The American naturalist Louis Agassiz, whose interests ranged from fishes to glaciers, was the greatest authority of his day on zoology and geology.

E) Louis Agassiz was a naturalist who, through his contributions to the understanding of subjects ranging from fishes to glaciers, became the authority of his day.

< >Bazı yarı göçebe grupların, hayvanla­rıyla birlikte yazlık otlaklara göç etmeden önce ürünlerini yetiştirdik­leri daimi ikametgahları vardır.A) Some seminomadic groups have permanent dwellings where they plant crops before moving with their animals to summer pasture.

 

B) Several seminomadic groups, who have settled down into permanent dwellings, no longer move with their animals, but plant crops.

C) Some seminomadic groups have a permanent winter home, where they plant crops and a separate summer home, which is situated where they take their animals.

D) Seminomadic people live in groups in permanent houses, which they leave in the summer to take their animals to summer pastures.

E) Seminomadic tribes move with their animals to pastures, but sometimes also set up permanent homes, to which they return each winter to plant crops.

< >Bolivya'nın doğusundaki Royal Range'in karla kaplı zirveleri başkent La Paz'a muhteşem bir görüntü verir.A) The capital city ol' Bolivia is located in the eastern section of the snowclad Royal mountain range, which gives it a beautiful setting.

 

B) The Bolivian capital city, La Paz, is set in the centre of the magnificent, snowclad mountains of the Royal Range.

C) Snowclad peaks of the Royal Range in eastern Bolivia give the capital city, La Paz, a magnificent setting.

D) The snowclad Bolivian mountains known as the Royal Range are of magnificent beauty and contain the country's capital, La Paz, in their eastern section.

E) The area in eastern Bolivia surroun­ding the capital city, La Paz, is famous for its beautiful landscape, including the magnificent, snowclad Royal Range.

< >Nükleer silahların ürkütücü gücü yüzünden, her türlü istihkam biçiminin güvenirliğine artık kuşku ile bakılmaktadır.A) The development of awesome nuclear weapons has rendered more traditional fortifications useless.

 

B) Because of the awesome power of nuclear weapons, standard weapons and fortifications are no longer considered reliable.

C) It is doubtful whether many types of fortifications could withstand the awesome power of nuclear weapons.

D) It is believed that the awesome power of nuclear weapons could penetrate all conventional types of fortifications.

E) The reliability of all types of fortifications has now been cast in doubt because of the awesome power of nuclear weapons.

< >Başlıca tarım ürünleri içinde kahve farklıdır; çünkü kahvenin yetiştiril­mesi, toplanması ve işlenmesi makinalasmadan büyük ölçüde etkilenmemiş olarak kalmıştır.A) Among the major agricultural products, coffee is unusual because its cultivation, harvesting and processing remain largely unaffected by mechanisation.

 

B) Among the major agricultural products, coffee is different because its cultivation, harvesting and processing are difficult to mechanise.

C) Coffee is an exception among major agricultural products as it is largely cultivated, harvested and processed without the use of mechanisation.

D) Of all the major agricultural           products, coffee uses the most highly mechanised methods of culti­vation, harvesting and processing.

E) Unlike most agricultural products, coffee is still cultivated, harvested and processed using traditional methods.

< >Onun, kesinlikle güvenebileceğimiz tipte bir insan olduğunu bana garanti edebilir misin?A) Are you sure that he is the kind of person who can really be trusted absolutely?

 

B) Can you assure me that he is the kind of person whom we can absolutely rely on?

C) I need your assurance that he is the kind of person whom we can rely on in all circumstances.

D) How can we be sure that he is the sort of person whom we should rely on absolutely?

E) I would like you to assure me that you believe he is the type of person whom we can trust.

 

 

< >Tıptaki gelişmeler sayesinde, bir zamanlar ürkütücü olaylar olan çocuk felci salgınlarından artık sadece tarih kitaplarında söz edilmektedir.A) Had it not been for advances in medicine, we would still experience the kind of dreadful events, such as polio epidemics, described in history books.

 

B) Although with modern medical advances polio epidemics are no longer a concern, we know from history books that they were once dreaded events.

C) As a result of advances in medicine, polio epidemics, which were described as dreaded events in history books, are now purely a thing of the past.

D) Thanks to advances in medicine, polio epidemics, once dreaded events, are now mentioned only in history books.

E) Due to advances in medicine, it is very rare these days for us to experience a polio epidemic on the scale described in history books.

 

< >The pen with which the author wrote so many great novels is now preserved with great care.A) Yazarın bu kadar çok büyük romanlar yazdığı kalemi şimdi büyük bir özenle korunmaktadır.

 

B) Yazar, bu denli büyük romanlar yazdığı kalemini şimdi büyük bir dikkatle korumaktadır.

C) Yazarın kalemi şimdi büyük bir özenle korunuyor çünkü bu kadar büyük romanları yazar o kalemle yazmıştı.

D) Yazarın kalemi, bu denli büyük romanları onunla yazdığı için simdi büyük bir dikkatle korunmaktadır.

E) Yazar, bu kadar çok büyük romanları, şimdi büyük bir özenle korunan kalemiyle yazmıştı.

< >The field of medicine has benefited greatly from nuclear energy in the form of radioisotopes.A) Radyoizotoplar biçiminde nükleer enerjinin yararı daha çok üp alanına olmuştur.

 

B) Tıptaki kullanımı radyoizotoplar biçiminde olan nükleer enerji pek çok alanda kullanılmaktadır.

C) Tıp alanı nükleer enerjiden, radyoizotoplar biçiminde, büyük ölçüde yararlanmıştır.

D) Tıp alanında nükleer enerjiden en çok radyoizotoplar biçiminde yararlanılmıştır.

E) Nükleer enerjinin üp alanında en yaygın kullanımı, radyoizotoplar biçiminde olmuştur.

< >Since the 1970s, technological advances have improved the physician's ability to see inside the human body for the purpose of disease detection and diagnosis.

 

 

A) Teknolojik gelişmeler, 1970'lerin başından bu yana hekime, insan vücudunun içini görerek hastalığı tespit ve teşhis etme imkanı vermektedir.

B) 1970'lerdeki teknolojik gelişmeler sayesinde hekim, hastalığı tespit ve teşhis amacıyla insan vücudunun içini görebilmektedir.

C) Büyük teknolojik ilerlemeler, 1970'lerde hekime, hastalığın tespit ve teşhisinde insan vücudunun içini görme olanağı sağlamıştır.

D) Hekimin, hastalıkların tespiti ve teşhisi amacıyla insan vücudunun içini görebilmesi ancak 1970'lerde tıptaki ilerlemelerle mümkün olmuştur.

E) 1970'lerden bu yana teknolojik ilerlemeler hekimin, hastalığı tespit ve teşhis amacıyla insan vücudunun içini görme imkanını geliştirmiştir.

 

< >Mrs Wilson is a highly efficient teacher, who takes her duties very seriously.A) Görevlerini çok ciddi yapan Mrs Wilson'm öğretmenliği son derece mükemmeldir.

 

B) Mrs Wilson, görevlerini olabildiğince iyi yapmaya çalışan son derece ciddi bir öğretmendir.

C) Son derece mükemmel bir öğretmen olan Mrs Wilson, görevlerini çok ciddiye alır.

D) Mrs Wilson, görevlerin: çok ciddiye aldığı için son derece başarılı bir öğretmendir.

E) Mrs Wilson, görevlerim çok ciddiye alan son derece yetkin bir öğretmendir.

< >I can't believe that you went from shop to shop for days and in the end bought this crazy dress.A) Günlerce çılgın gibi dükkanları dolaştıktan sonra bu elbiseyi aldığına inanamam.

 

B) Günlerce dükkan dükkan dolaşıp sonunda bu çılgın elbiseyi aldığına inanamıyorum.

C) Günlerdir çılgınca dükkanları dolaşıp sonra da bu elbiseyi alman inanılır gibi değil.

D) Bu elbiseyi almak için günlerce dükkan dükkan dolaşman inanılması güç bir çılgınlık.

E) Bu çılgın elbiseyi bulmak için . günlerce dükkan dükkan dolaştığına inanmıyorum.

< >The director of our company is certainly one of those people who have devoted their lives to their business.A) Bizini şirketin müdürü tüm yaşamını işine adamış biri gibi görünüyor.

 

B) Şirket müdürümüzün tüm yaşamını işine adayan bir insan olduğu kesin.

C) Hayatını işine adamış insanlardan biri de kesinlikle bizim şirketin müdürüydü.

D) Bizim şirketin müdürü kesinlikle hayatım işine adamış insanlardan biri.

E) Bizim şirketin müdürü yaşamını bütünüyle işine adamış biridir.

< >Until the opening in the 1990s of France's immense Euro-Disneyland, there were few commercial amusement parks in Europe.A) 1990'larda Fransa'da açılan devasa Euro-Disneyland, Avrupa'nın az sayıda ticari eğlence parklarından biridir.

 

B) 1990'larda Fransa'nın devasa Euro-Disneyland'inin açılışına kadar. Avrupa'da çok az sayıda ticari eğlence parkı vardı.

C) 1990'larda Fransa'nın devasa Euro-Disneyland'i açılmış olsa da. Avrupa'da hala çok az sayıda ticari eğlence parkı vardır.

D) Fransa'nın devasa Euro-Disney­land'inin açılmasına kadar. 1990'ların Avrupası hala çok az sayıda ticari eğlence parkına sahipti.

E) 1990'larda Fransa'daEuro-Disney-land'ın açılmasıyla, Avrupa'nın az sayıdaki ticari eğlence parklarına devasa bir yapı eklendi.

 

< >The rapidly expanding population in African savannas since the 1950s has created a rising demand for wood used as fuel and construction material.A) Afrika savanlarında hızla büyüyen nüfus, 1950'lerden beri yakıt ve yapı malzemesi olarak sürekli artan miktarlarda ağaç kullanmaktadır.

 

B) 1950'lerden sonra Afrika savanlarında hızla çoğalan nüfus, çok fazla miktarda ağacı yakıt ve yapı malzemesi olarak kullanmıştır.

C) 1950'lerden bu yana Afrika savanlarında hızla büyüyen nüfus, yakıt ve yapı malzemesi olarak kullanılan ağaç için sürekli artan bir talep yaratmıştır.

D) Afrika savanlarında nüfus 1950'lerden sonra hızla arttığı için, yakıt ve yapı malzemesi olarak kullanılmakta olan ağaca talep de sürekli artmaktadır.

E) Afrika savanlarında yakıt ve yapı malzemesi olarak kullanılan ağaca olan talebin 1950'lerden beri sürekli artması hızla büyüyen nüfus yüzündendir.

< >Flight by humans was realised thanks to the studies and experiments of patient and curious inventors.A) İnsanların uçması, sabırlı ve meraklı mucitlerin çalışmaları ve deneyleri sayesinde gerçekleşmiştir.

 

B) İnsanlar uçmayı, sabırlı ve meraklı mucitlerin çalışmaları ve deneyleri sonucunda gerçekleştirebilmiştir.

C) Sabırla çalışıp deneyler yapan meraklı mucitler, insanların uçmasını sağlamıştır.

D) Çalışmaları ve deneyleri sayesinde insanların uçmasını gerçekleştirenler sabırlı ve meraklı mucitlerdir.

E) Sabırla ve merakla çalışıp deneyler yapan mucitler, insanların da uçabileceğini farkettiler.

< >One of the world's favourite storytellers was La Fontaine, whose fables have been translated into many languages.A) Tüm dünyada tanınmış bir öykücü olan La Fontaine'nin çeşitli dillere çevrilmiş pek çok fablı vardır.

 

B) Dünyanın en çok beğenilen öykücülerinden biri olan La Fontaine'in fablları pek çok dile çevrilmiştir.

C) Fablları çeşitli dillerde yayınlanmış olan La Fontaine. dünyanın en çok beğenilen öykücülerinden biridir.

D) Usta öykücü La Fontaine'in pek çok dile çevrilmiş fablları tüm dünyada. bilinir.

E) Dünyanın en çok sevilen öykücülerinden biri, fablları pek çok dile çevrilmiş olan La Fontaine idi.

 

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

 

E) immediately

C) apologetically      D) tragically

A) continually           B) regretfully

When I received the message from my son's school, the manager said I could leave……… .

E) belongings

C) edges                    D) properties

A) marks                   B) possessions

The bark and leaves of the shrub witch hazel have medicinal …….. . Extract of witch hazel are used in the treatment of bruises and sprains.

E) break

C) glue                      D) stick

A) crack                    B) foam

"This new …….. is fantastic," enthused Nicky. "It has stuck my broken guitar together nicely and you can't see the join."

E) to nag

C) to labour              D) to attempt

A) to relax                B) to loosen

On Sunday afternoons in the summer, I like …….. in the garden, reading a book and sipping orange juice.

E) critical

C) mythological                D) native

A) hereditary            B) legendary

Babe Ruth, born George Herman Ruth, was a ……… baseball player and possibly the best player in history.

E) voters

C) admirers                       D) assassins

A) candidates            B) bandits

In the election for our local member of parliament, there were four ……..all of whom were respectable members of society.

E) relative

C) portrait                 D) landscape

A) procession                   B) ceremony

My grandmother has a…….. of the queen hanging over her fireplace.

E) nominated

C) won                      D) lost

A) earned                  B) donated

Princess Diana's childhood home is open to the public in the summer every year. The entrance fees are …….. to charity.

E) constituted

C) conquered                    D) framed

A) mapped                B) planned

Cappadocia is an attractive area of Turkey which ……… part of the Hittite kingdom around 1200 BC.

E) timidly

C) conceitedly          D) deceptively

A) falsely                  B) cleverly

Although swans are noted for their graceful movements, they are ……..strong and a swan can break the arm of a human attacker.

E) strolled

C) skipped                D) crawled

A) slipped                 B) swung

After a week's skiing, in which he didn't fall down once, he ………. and sprained his ankle on the hotel steps.

E) conversations

C) alterations                    D) appearances

A) similarities           B) differences

Julia doesn't like the bridesmaid's dress in the shop. The dressmaker will have to make a few …….. to suit her tastes.

E) criticises

C) favours                D) compares

A) likes                     B) resembles

The sprat ………. a herring, but unlike the latter, it has a strong saw-like edge to its belly. Both fish are members of the same primitive family.

 

E) compared

C) yelled                     D) shouted

A) confessed            B) announced

The government has ………. that they will be spending an extra 13 billion pounds for the National Health Service.

E) fault

C) remark                 D) grumble

A) complaint             B) threat

We have received a ……… that some of the children from our school have been teasing a local resident's dog.

E) essential

C) bearable                       D) impatient

A) permanent            B) scarce

You will be sore for a long time, but you were lucky to escape without any ……… injury.

E) superficially

C) naturally               D) incessantly

A) harmoniously      B) reluctantly

The noise of the lorry outside our flat last night went on ………. which drove me crazy.

E) opponent

C) glove                    D) enemy

A) career                   B) medal

In the boxing match, Lennox Lewis's ……… was heavier and shorter.

E) bosses'

B) rivals'                   D) options'

A) assistants'             C) partners'

The salesman said that we had a good chance of getting the order as our quotation is lower than our …….. .

E) hug

C) arrival                  D) blow

A) sigh                      B) departure

Jane hadn't seen her brother for two years. When they met at the airport, she threw her arms around him and gave him a great big …….. .

E) symbols

C) designs                 D) sculptures

A) graphs                  B) portraits

We chose the best of the three …………. of ceramic tiles for the restaurant.

E) timid

C) conceited                     D) graceful

A) brave                   B) selfish

It was very ……… of people who hid the Catholic monks during the time of their persecution as discovery of hiding places could be punishable by death.

E) practically

C) personally            D) theoretically

A) conditionally                B) relatively

The River Severn is England's largest and longest river, but compared to rivers in South America, it is ………. small.

E) swapped

C) transferred           D) exchanged

A) translated             B) dismissed

When her husband was ………. to the Bradford branch of the bank, Sara had to give up her job at the school.

E) overpriced

C) precious                       D) invaluable

A) reasonable           B) charitable

I never buy any clothes from that shop because, although they are good quality, they are ………. .

E) calculated

C) thoughtful            D) believable

A) respectable           B) decent

The fact that currency fluctuations caused a price increase is ……….. but I'm afraid it's incredible that it could have caused a rise of 100 percent.

E) polluted

C) predominant        D) pronounced

A) literate                  B) notorious

The ……… outlaw Billy Clanton, who was shot by Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday in the famous gunfight at the OK Coral, is buried in Boothill cemetery in Tombstone, Arizona, USA.

E) therapeutic

C) irreparable           D) extinct

A) impossible           B) incurable

Parkinson's disease is a/an ………. disease which affects the chemical balance of the brain.

E) shapeless

C) homeless                      D) ignorant

A) temperate             B) illiterate

The 'Big Issue' is a magazine sold by …….. people to earn money. It helps them to help themselves until they can afford decent housing.

E) undisturbed

C) crooked                D) harsh

A) uneven                 B) level

The road to the village was very ……… .   We were quite shaken up by the time we arrived.

E) immense

C) memorable                   D) distant

A) efficient               B) demanding

Sue's new job is very …….. . Not only does she work very long hours, but she only has one day off a week as well.

E) display

C) magic                   D) attack

A) lightning               B) fight

In the evening after the flower show, they have a fireworks…….. . The best place to watch it from is the bank behind the school, which is about half a mile away.

E) fake

C) fictional               D) realistic

A) artificial               B) insincere

My aunt has been able to walk much better since she had her hip replaced with a/an ………. one.

E) solutions

C) remnants                      D) consequences

A) responses             B) improvements

One of the negative ………. of the coal mine's closure is that many of the shops in the town are closing down.

E) illness

C) murder                 D) calamity

A) disagreement       B) lawlessness

Last night, there was a/an ……… in our town. A civil rights leader was shot dead on the doorstep of his house.

E) design

C) explanation                  D) composition

A) strategy                B) campaign

I didn't believe the salesman's ……… as to why the prices had increased. I think he was just trying to make more money from us.

E) to approve

C) to reward              D) to consider

A) to commission             B) to compensate

The hotel is giving the guests a voucher for one night's free accommodation ……… for the fact that they had a power cut this morning and, as a result, no hot water.

E) protesting

C) attacking              D) insulting

A) proving                B) campaigning

The marchers were ……… about the poor sewage system in the city.

E) reduce

C) shrink                   D) minimise

A) limit                     B) raise

The professor wanted a 3,000-word essay, but unfortunately, I've written 5,000 words. Now I'll have to ……… the number of words by at least 1,500 if I don't want to be penalised.

E) declined

C) preserved             D) originated

A) terminated            B) attempted

The art of Cameo engraving first …….. in Ancient Greece, from which it spread to other cultures.

Yazar Hakkında

Erdem OVAT

1985-1988 Dörtler Köyü İlköğretim Okulu 1988- 1993 Sakıp Sabancı İlköğretim Okulu 1993-1996 Orhan Çobanoğlu Lisesi 1997-2000 Almanya'da Turist 2001-2002 Vatani Görev Isparta Muş'ta yaptım 2002-2004 Açiköğretim Lisesinden Üstün Başarı 2005-2010 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Alman Dili Öğretmenliğinde Mezun Oldum 2010-2011 Halk Eğitim Merkezinde Almanca Öğretmenliğine Başladım 2011-2013 Çeşitli Özel Dersane ve Okullarda çalıştım 2013- .... Milli Eğitimde Almanca Öğretmeni olarak çalışmaya devam ediyorum
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