Ogrenci Secme ve Yerlestirme Merkezi

2019 Ydt Ingilizce Online Test

Okuma Süresi:65 Dakika, 22 Saniye
  1. Because of increased migration, geographical proximity, and/or political conquest and colonisation, —-.
    1.   ?    bilingualism is often defined as proficiency in both languages
    2.   ?    in many countries, monolingualism represents the natural or norm of language development
    3.   ?    multilingual education programs aim for proficiency in more than two languages
    4.   ?    few countries today can claim monolingualism as the norm
    5.   ?    bilingual education is the instruction that uses two languages as the media of instruction
  2. Any mental exercise helps cognition —- building, lengthening, or strengthening the pathways that carry information —- neurons.
    1.   ?    in / upon
    2.   ?    off / from
    3.   ?    by / between
    4.   ?    towards / beneath
    5.   ?    at / with
  3. (I) Each Sumerian city-state had fine public buildings, markets, workshops, and water systems. (II) There was a royal palace and a ziggurat, on top of which was a shrine dedicated to the god of that city. (III) Scribes and accountants were also important, and involved in all aspects of Sumerian daily life. (IV) Around the public buildings were houses of local people. (V) Beyond these lay the farmers’ field and the marshlands of the Mesopotamian rivers
    1.   ?    II
    2.   ?    III
    3.   ?    V
    4.   ?    IV
    5.   ?    I
  4. Although the game of baseball as it is known today is uniquely American, it —- the popular English children’s bat-and-ball game called rounders
    1.   ?    derives from
    2.   ?    brings about
    3.   ?    accounts for
    4.   ?    gets along
    5.   ?    goes through
  5. The first civilisation in the Aegean world emerged with the settlement of people on the island of Crete in 6000 BCE, but the island reached the height of its power between the years of 2200 and 1450 BCE.
    1.   ?    Ege coğrafyasının ilk medeniyeti, MÖ 6000 yılında insanların Girit Adası’na yerleşmesiyle birlikte zenginleşmiş olsa da gücünün zirvesine ancak MÖ 2200 ve 1450 yılları arasında ulaşmıştır.
    2.   ?    Dünyadaki ilk Ege medeniyeti MÖ 6000 yılında Girit Adası’na olan yerleşimle oluşmuştur ancak ada, en iyi zamanlarını MÖ 2200 ve 1450 yılları arasında yaşamıştır.
    3.   ?    İnsanlar, Girit Adası’na MÖ 6000 yılında yerleşmeye başladığında ada, hâlihazırda Ege coğrafyasının önemli bir medeniyetiydi ama gücünün zirvesine ulaşması MÖ 2200 ve 1450 yıllarını bulmuştu.
    4.   ?    Dünyadaki ilk Ege medeniyeti, insanların MÖ 6000 yılında Girit Adası’na yerleşmesinin ardından gelişmeye başlamıştır ancak MÖ 2200 ve 1450 yılları arası adanın gücünün en çok arttığı zamanlardır.
    5.   ?    Ege coğrafyasındaki ilk medeniyet, insanların MÖ 6000 yılında Girit Adası’na yerleşmesi ile ortaya çıkmış fakat ada, gücünün zirvesine MÖ 2200 ve 1450 yılları arasında ulaşmıştır.
  6. Diseases that affect the organs of the digestive system, such as the stomach, pancreas, and liver, are caused by alcoholic drinks, poor nutrition, or bacteria that break down the layers of tissue and harm the organs
    1.   ?    Doku katmanlarını bozan ve organlara zarar veren alkollü içecekler, kötü beslenme ve bakteriler; karaciğer, pankreas ve mide gibi sindirim sistemi organlarının hastalıklardan etkilenmesine neden olmaktadır.
    2.   ?    Karaciğer, pankreas ve mide gibi sindirim sistemi organlarını etkileyen hastalıklar; alkollü içecekler, kötü beslenme ya da doku katmanlarını bozan ve organlara zarar veren bakterilerden kaynaklanır.
    3.   ?    Doku katmanlarını bozan ve organlara zarar veren bakteriler, alkollü içecekler ve kötü beslenme; karaciğer, pankreas ve mide gibi sindirim sistemi organlarına zarar veren hastalıkların nedenidir.
    4.   ?    Sindirim sistemi organları olan karaciğer, pankreas ve mide; organların doku katmanlarına zarar veren alkollü içecekler, kötü beslenme ve bakteri kaynaklı hastalıklardan etkilenmektedir.
    5.   ?    Mide, pankreas ve karaciğeri etkileyen hastalıklar; alkollü içecekler, kötü beslenme ya da sindirim sistemindeki doku katmanlarını bozarak organlara zarar veren bakteriler nedeniyle ortaya çıkmaktadır.
  7. Your friend is going to run in a marathon but is doubtful if she can complete the race because she has recently been ill. Now that she is feeling better, you want to encourage her before she runs the race, so you say: —
    1.   ?    Good luck, running in a marathon is difficult and now it will be even more challenging.
    2.   ?    You don’t have the courage to run a marathon because you’re disadvantaged from the start.
    3.   ?    You’ve worked hard to be in this marathon, and I’m sure you’ll do great from start to finish.
    4.   ?    Why don’t you consider running in next year’s marathon, instead? I’m sure you can do it then.
    5.   ?    Is this a good idea? Some runners can become ill when running such a long distance.
  8. One of your friends has asked you to check his project work before submitting it, but because of your own commitments, you lack the time to do it. You want to let him know about the situation without offending him, so you say: —
    1.   ?    I’m sorry, I suppose you’d better do it yourself, it’s your own responsibility. I can’t spare any time.
    2.   ?    I wish you had given it to me days before. How can you expect me to do it in such a short time? You know I’m busy.
    3.   ?    I really would like to help you but I’m really very busy. I wish I had enough time. I’m very sorry.
    4.   ?    Why don’t you ask another friend for help? I wish I could help you, but I’m clueless about the content of the project
    5.   ?    Do you think it’d be better if you asked your teacher to change the deadline? Otherwise, it won’t be possible to finish it.
  9. Although the early principles behind the calculation of an IQ score still hold, —-.
    1.   ?    IQ scores have proven very beneficial in identifying students in need of special attentio
    2.   ?    two-thirds of all individuals fall within 15 IQ points above or below the average score of 100
    3.   ?    some people consistently score higher than others on IQ tests
    4.   ?    psychologists have traditionally been interested in creating intelligence tests
    5.   ?    IQ scores are determined in a different manner today and are known as deviation IQ scores
  10. A scientist at Japan’s Osaka University built a robot for one purpose: to pretend to listen to you. When two or more are placed together, they will simulate people having a conversation. If a human attempts to join in, the robots will smile, nod, and respond to comments by saying things like “I see” or “interesting point”. They will not actually understand what has been said, but will appear to. —- But the motivation behind the robot was to try and model the subtle body language and polite niceties that are so important to conversation
    1.   ?    This is, of course, an entirely pointless achievement.
    2.   ?    Equally important for roboticists is an understanding of human psychology.
    3.   ?    The team hope to make robots with more realistic behaviours.
    4.   ?    There must be a balance between the psychological and the scientific when building a robot.
    5.   ?    Robots that seem more ‘human’ and less intimidating are being built
  11. Birçoğumuz için mutluluk arayışı hayatta önemli bir amaçtır ancak mutluluğun ne olduğunu anlamak için olumsuz tecrübelere ihtiyacımız vardır çünkü bunlar hayatımıza anlam katar.
    1.   ?    Many of us seek happiness as it is an important goal in life, but we need the negative experiences to understand what happiness is because they give meaning to our lives.
    2.   ?    The negative experiences give meaning to our lives so we need them to understand what happiness is because for many of us seeking happiness is an important goal in life.
    3.   ?    For most of us happiness is an important goal in life, so we look for it, but we need the negative experiences because they give meaning to our lives and make us understand what happiness is.
    4.   ?    For many of us seeking happiness is an important goal in life, but we need the negative experiences to understand what happiness is because they give meaning to our lives.
    5.   ?    Many of us seek happiness, which is an important goal in life, but we need the negative experiences that give meaning to our lives to understand what happiness is.
  12. Occupational therapy is a branch of medical care aiming to improve the quality of life of patients through occupational pursuits – helping them overcome disabilities resulting from illness, injury or age so that they can carry out the activities they need to perform in order to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. This means both giving them the means and mobility to pursue occupations, and selecting activities that are therapeutic to their particular condition. For example, a patient learning to get around in a wheelchair might need structural changes to their environment such as widening of doorways and fitting of ramps as well as a programme of physical exercise to build strength in their arms and shoulders. Another patient, who has suffered a stroke, might be encouraged to try arts and crafts as a way to rebuild their manual dexterity skills. Occupational therapy has a long history, dating back to the 1st century BCE and the physicians of Ancient Greece. Today, it is still applied as an effective method of medical care.

    According to the passage, occupational therapy supports patients by —-.
    1.   ?    ensuring their participation in outdoor activities on a regular basis
    2.   ?    providing them with the wheelchairs they need to be able to move
    3.   ?    helping them become physically strong enough to deal with arts and crafts
    4.   ?    choosing therapeutic activities that are designed to meet their specific needs
    5.   ?    preventing them from focusing on their disabilities with the use of certain medication
  13. Although the Roman Empire finally fell in 476, —-.
    1.   ?    the Roman Republic had a complex political and administrative system
    2.   ?    the Romans claimed that Romulus founded the city in 753 BCE
    3.   ?    leading generals wanted more opportunities to win wealth and glory
    4.   ?    its influence is still felt in the calendars and alphabets still in use today
    5.   ?    citizenship was given to every free male inhabitant of the empire
  14. Although the prices of the first gramophone recordings were incredibly high, —-.
    1.   ?    the business was shaped by technological advances
    2.   ?    the recording industry was slow to move into the world of music
    3.   ?    they were all written by the prolific composers of the era
    4.   ?    each went on to sell more than a million copies
    5.   ?    musicians lacked electronic amplification for recording
  15. Your friends have invited you to a concert; however, you have already made plans with your grandmother to go shopping for an upcoming special occasion. So, you tactfully decline their offer by saying: —
    1.   ?    I can’t believe my favourite singer is in town. Can I also bring my grandma to the concert?
    2.   ?    Sure, as soon as I finish shopping with my grandmother, I’ll be at the concert hall. See you all there!
    3.   ?    I’m afraid I’ll have to pass. I’ve promised my grandma that we’d hang out together and then see a concert.
    4.   ?    Thanks for the invitation guys, but I’ve promised my grandma that I’d help out with some shopping as we have a party coming up.
    5.   ?    I’d rather spend the day with my grandmother shopping than go see a concert with you. It just doesn’t sound fun to me.
  16. Global warming will bring significant changes to the world as a whole, but the particular types and scales of these impacts will be (16)—- affected by local conditions. Climate change will not just have general global effects, but (17)—- time it will create specific impacts within your very own neighbourhood. Because the changes people will face vary from place to place, local governments will be best equipped to address these problems as one-size-fits-all solutions (18)—-. National governments that signed and ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake adaptation planning. Several countries, (19)—- the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and others in the Caribbean, are also undertaking regional planning. But fundamentally, (20)—- climate change is happening globally, people need to react locally.

    19.________
    1.   ?    in terms of
    2.   ?    with regards to
    3.   ?    in case of
    4.   ?    such as
    5.   ?    as a result of
  17. Jesse Jackson fought for the rights of African Americans during the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Later on he became involved in politics and world affairs. Jackson joined the civil rights movement when he was a student. In 1965, he began working for a civil rights group led by the famous Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1971, Jackson founded the group People United to Save Humanity (PUSH). This group helped African Americans to get jobs and to open businesses. In 1984, he founded the National Rainbow Coalition (NRC) to help all kinds of people, not just African Americans. Jackson ran for President of the United States in 1984 and 1988. While he did not win either time, he did better than any other African American presidential candidates who had come before him. Jackson also gained a lot of attention for his role in world affairs. He spoke out against apartheid (separation of the races) in South Africa and took part in peace talks in the Middle East. He also worked with several countries to free US citizens being held as prisoners.

    What can be inferred from the passage about the African Americans in the 1970s?
    1.   ?    They were held in prisons in several other countries.
    2.   ?    It was difficult for them to find employment.
    3.   ?    They were not allowed to run for president.
    4.   ?    No one was willing to help them during this time
    5.   ?    They were all members of the PUSH.
  18. Implantation of the embryo is a milestone in human development as it is from this stage onwards that the embryo —- to take shape and the overall body plan —-.
    1.   ?    began / had been decided
    2.   ?    is beginning / has been decided
    3.   ?    had begun / will be decided
    4.   ?    begins / is decided
    5.   ?    will begin / was decided
  19. Many cultures regard dreams as having great significance for the dreamer, either by revealing something important about the dreamer’s present circumstances or predicting his or her future. The Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud analysed the dreams of his patients to understand their unconscious needs and desires, and psychotherapists still make use of this technique today. Freud believed that the primary function of dreams was to wish fulfillment, or the idea that dreaming allows us to act out the desires that we must repress during the day. Although Freud focused on the meaning of dreams, other theories about the causes of dreams are less concerned with their content. One possibility is that we dream primarily to help with consolidation, or the moving of information into long-term memory. Rauchs and Desgranges found that rats that had been deprived of REM sleep, the sleep stage in which dreaming occurs, after learning a new task were less able to perform the task again than rats that had been allowed to dream, and these differences were greater on tasks that involved learning unusual information or developing new behaviours.

    What can be concluded from Rauchs and Desgranges’s studies?
    1.   ?    They focused their studies more on the use of information in dreams of rats.
    2.   ?    They found that rats were only able to learn a new task during REM sleep.
    3.   ?    They showed the differences between rats that learned common information and those that learned unusual information.
    4.   ?    They found that dreaming resulted in poor performance in different tasks in rats.
    5.   ?    They discovered that when rats learned a new task, dreaming helped them successfully recall the new task later on.
  20. Functioning mini human brains grown in a lab could help cure Parkinson’s. It may sound incredible, yet the created blobs may help researchers defeat Parkinson’s disease and other age-related brain conditions. The mini brain is an organoid grown from stem cells to imitate the human midbrain, the ‘information superhighway’ of the brain that controls hearing, vision and movement. Other researchers have successfully grown brain tissue in a lab, but a team made up of researchers from A Star Genome Institute of Singapore, the Duke-NUS Medical School and the National Neuroscience Institute say theirs is the first to contain neuromelanin, a dark pigment found within the human brain that is closely linked to the development of Parkinson’s disease. It also contains specialised neurons that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved with motor control as low levels of dopamine lead to slowed reactions and disorders like Parkinson’s. Shawn Je, the lead researcher of the team, says that their mini-brain organoids mimic human midbrain development and that now they can really test how these mini brains react to existing or newly developed drugs before treating patients. This will be a game changer for future drug development.

    What is the author’s primary purpose in this passage?
    1.   ?    To explain why other researchers have failed to produce mini brains with neuromelanin
    2.   ?    To announce a new scientific breakthrough that can aid the treatment of age-related brain conditions
    3.   ?    To inform us about the development of Parkinson’s disease and other brain conditions
    4.   ?    To emphasise the importance of collaboration among researchers from various institutes
    5.   ?    To illustrate the reasons behind the failure of treatments for Parkinson’s disease
  21. The Zapotec are a group of American Indians who live in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. The Zapotec have lived in what is now known as Oaxaca since about 1500 BCE. In around 500 BCE, they built their capital city known as Monte Alban. This city had flat, step-style pyramids, temples, and very elaborate and ornate tombs. Like the Zapotec people of today, the early Zapotec people were farmers. They also made fine pottery. In addition to this, they carved writing onto slabs of stone. This was one of the earliest forms of writing in the Americas. Zapotec lands once stretched from what is now Puebla – the state north of Oaxaca – to the Pacific Ocean. But after around 500 AD, Monte Alban started to fall into ruin, and a people called the Mixtec took over the city. The Zapotec started to form a number of small kingdoms, but these were conquered by the Spanish when they took over the region in the 1500s.

    What is true about the Zapotec people of today?
    1.   ?    They rely on farming just like their ancestors.
    2.   ?    They continue to live in Monte Alban to this day.
    3.   ?    They still carve their writing onto slabs of stone.
    4.   ?    They have migrated out of the Oaxaca region towards Puebla.
    5.   ?    They are mostly of Spanish descent.
  22. —- World War II, many of the factories that had been devoted to military production —- the fighting were converted back to their original, civilian uses.
    1.   ?    Along / over
    2.   ?    Following / during
    3.   ?    Across / for
    4.   ?    At / with
    5.   ?    Through / within
  23. Jesse Jackson fought for the rights of African Americans during the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Later on he became involved in politics and world affairs. Jackson joined the civil rights movement when he was a student. In 1965, he began working for a civil rights group led by the famous Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1971, Jackson founded the group People United to Save Humanity (PUSH). This group helped African Americans to get jobs and to open businesses. In 1984, he founded the National Rainbow Coalition (NRC) to help all kinds of people, not just African Americans. Jackson ran for President of the United States in 1984 and 1988. While he did not win either time, he did better than any other African American presidential candidates who had come before him. Jackson also gained a lot of attention for his role in world affairs. He spoke out against apartheid (separation of the races) in South Africa and took part in peace talks in the Middle East. He also worked with several countries to free US citizens being held as prisoners.

    What is the passage mainly about?
    1.   ?    Jesse Jackson’s election campaign for president
    2.   ?    Jesse Jackson’s contributions to civil rights movements
    3.   ?    The human rights groups that Jesse Jackson was a part of
    4.   ?    The reason why Jesse Jackson was a role model to American
    5.   ?    Jesse Jackson’s moral beliefs about civil rights
  24. Leopardus guigna, one of the world’s smallest wild cats, is on the road to extinction due to the change in the way farms are run.
    1.   ?    Çiftliklerin işletilme şeklindeki değişiklik, dünyanın en küçük vahşi kedilerinden biri olan Leopardus guigna’nın yok olmasına sebep olmaktadır.
    2.   ?    Dünyanın en küçük vahşi kedilerinden biri olan Leopardus guigna, çiftliklerin işletilme şeklindeki değişiklik yüzünden yok olma yolundadır.
    3.   ?    Leopardus guigna’nın da aralarında olduğu dünyanın en küçük vahşi kedileri, çiftliklerin işletilme şeklindeki değişiklikten dolayı yok olmak üzeredir.
    4.   ?    Çiftliklerin işletilme şekli değiştiği için dünyanın en küçük vahşi kedilerinden olan Leopardus guigna neredeyse yok olma noktasına gelmiştir.
    5.   ?    Leopardus guigna, çiftliklerin işletilme şeklindeki değişikliğin bir sonucu olarak yok olması muhtemel en küçük vahşi kedilerden biridir.
  25. The town of Ushuaia lies at the southern tip of Argentina, —- close to the Antarctic —- it is bitterly cold for much of the year.
    1.   ?    as / as
    2.   ?    either / or
    3.   ?    such / that
    4.   ?    so / that
    5.   ?    the more / the more
  26. You go to a restaurant for lunch and pay with your credit card. When you check your bank statement later on, you realise the cashier has charged you more than your actual bill. So you call the restaurant and ask politely: —-
    1.   ?    Your waiter charged me more than the amount of my bill. Put yourself in my shoes, can you imagine my frustration?
    2.   ?    I’m busy with too many things at the moment and now look what you’ve made me deal with. Can you send my refund with one of your waiters?
    3.   ?    I don’t remember his name, but the waiter gave me the wrong bill. Can you check what’s going on?
    4.   ?    I’ve just realised that I paid more than the bill by mistake. Have you ever thought about firing your overcharging cashier?
    5.   ?    I think there’s been a mistake with my bill. Would it be possible to correct it and give me a refund?
  27. Following the last Ice Age, humans had to adapt their diet and ways of life. While mobility was usual, in favourable areas with exceptional resources, communities could become settled. Hunter-gatherers used a wide variety of foods. —- For example, herd animals moved between summer upland and winter lowland pastures, marine fish and birds migrated seasonally, and woodlands produced autumn fruits and spring bulbs. However, other food sources, such as shellfish, small mammals, and freshwater fish, could be found all year round
    1.   ?    Hunter-gatherers selected environments offering a diversity of food sources, such as lakes, rivers and coasts.
    2.   ?    In some favoured regions, early humans could remain in one location with abundant resources.
    3.   ?    Bones and shells recovered from archaeological sites are the most obvious remains of what hunter-gatherers ate.
    4.   ?    In most regions, some foods were available in different places at certain times of year.
    5.   ?    Hunter-gatherers in warmer areas often hunted gazelle, the most common mammal in the region.
  28. Car makers are looking for ways of reusing metal and plastic parts instead of throwing them away when a car is scrapped.
    1.   ?    Metal and plastic parts from unused cars should be taken advantage of, according to car manufacturers.
    2.   ?    Utilisation of metal and plastic parts without wasting them when a car is discarded is what car manufacturers are attempting to achieve.
    3.   ?    Before cars are disposed of, all their parts, whether metal or plastic, can be re-used by car manufacturers in many ways.
    4.   ?    It is essential for car manufacturers to make use of metal and plastic parts from old cars before their total removal.
    5.   ?    Utilisation of metal and plastic parts without wasting them when a car is discarded is what car manufacturers are attempting to achieve.
  29. The Zapotec are a group of American Indians who live in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. The Zapotec have lived in what is now known as Oaxaca since about 1500 BCE. In around 500 BCE, they built their capital city known as Monte Alban. This city had flat, step-style pyramids, temples, and very elaborate and ornate tombs. Like the Zapotec people of today, the early Zapotec people were farmers. They also made fine pottery. In addition to this, they carved writing onto slabs of stone. This was one of the earliest forms of writing in the Americas. Zapotec lands once stretched from what is now Puebla – the state north of Oaxaca – to the Pacific Ocean. But after around 500 AD, Monte Alban started to fall into ruin, and a people called the Mixtec took over the city. The Zapotec started to form a number of small kingdoms, but these were conquered by the Spanish when they took over the region in the 1500s.

    The main purpose of this passage is to —-.
    1.   ?    give some brief information about the Zapotec people
    2.   ?    contrast the Zapotec of the past with present-day Zapotec people
    3.   ?    talk about why the Zapotec were so successful in the past
    4.   ?    discuss the reasons why Monte Alban was an important capital
    5.   ?    explain why the Zapotec no longer exist today
  30. The Zapotec are a group of American Indians who live in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. The Zapotec have lived in what is now known as Oaxaca since about 1500 BCE. In around 500 BCE, they built their capital city known as Monte Alban. This city had flat, step-style pyramids, temples, and very elaborate and ornate tombs. Like the Zapotec people of today, the early Zapotec people were farmers. They also made fine pottery. In addition to this, they carved writing onto slabs of stone. This was one of the earliest forms of writing in the Americas. Zapotec lands once stretched from what is now Puebla – the state north of Oaxaca – to the Pacific Ocean. But after around 500 AD, Monte Alban started to fall into ruin, and a people called the Mixtec took over the city. The Zapotec started to form a number of small kingdoms, but these were conquered by the Spanish when they took over the region in the 1500s.

    According to the passage, the Zapotec people —-.
    1.   ?    preferred to make pottery and farm rather than protect their land, which is why they were conquered by the Spanish
    2.   ?    were never a successful group of people and mainly stayed in their capital until they were conquered by the Spanish
    3.   ?    allied themselves with the Mixtec people to control Monte Alban and protect themselves against the Spanish
    4.   ?    used to control a large region of land, but then something happened which caused them to abandon their capital and create smaller regions
    5.   ?    were migratory people who moved between Puebla and Oaxaca looking for fertile land for farming
  31. —- most people can find benefits in cross-cultural living or learning, some experience psychological blocks and other inhibiting effects due to culture shock.
    1.   ?    Unless
    2.   ?    Because
    3.   ?    Only when
    4.   ?    While
    5.   ?    Provided that
  32. Many cultures regard dreams as having great significance for the dreamer, either by revealing something important about the dreamer’s present circumstances or predicting his or her future. The Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud analysed the dreams of his patients to understand their unconscious needs and desires, and psychotherapists still make use of this technique today. Freud believed that the primary function of dreams was to wish fulfillment, or the idea that dreaming allows us to act out the desires that we must repress during the day. Although Freud focused on the meaning of dreams, other theories about the causes of dreams are less concerned with their content. One possibility is that we dream primarily to help with consolidation, or the moving of information into long-term memory. Rauchs and Desgranges found that rats that had been deprived of REM sleep, the sleep stage in which dreaming occurs, after learning a new task were less able to perform the task again than rats that had been allowed to dream, and these differences were greater on tasks that involved learning unusual information or developing new behaviours.

    The main purpose of this passage is to —-.
    1.   ?    inform readers about the effects of dreaming
    2.   ?    explain the Freudian approach to dream analysis
    3.   ?    give information about different theories of dreams
    4.   ?    refute critical theories about the functions of dreaming
    5.   ?    encourage readers to analyse their dreams
  33. (I) One essential requirement of healthy nourishment is that a meal must be complete. (II) In other words, it must supply all types of nutrients, those used for structural purposes (protein), those used for energy purposes (carbohydrates and fats), and those used for regulatory functions (minerals and vitamins). (III) Only consuming a variety of products from different food groups will guarantee the supply of diverse nutrients that the body needs. (IV) One should not take up even a standard diet without consulting with a doctor. (V) That is to say, only a varied diet containing different types of food can provide the body with the range of nutrients that it requires.
    1.   ?    II
    2.   ?    III
    3.   ?    V
    4.   ?    I
    5.   ?    IV
  34. Achieving mutual understanding is not a trivial skill because most people are not taught how to communicate effectively.
    1.   ?    As most people are not educated in effective communication, mutual understanding is an important trait to possess.
    2.   ?    Effective communication is the key to achieving mutual understanding, but a great number of people need some training on it.
    3.   ?    Most people still think that mutual understanding is an insignificant trait even if they are taught how to communicate effectively.
    4.   ?    Effective communication can only be acquired when people are educated, as it is considered by many people an important skill for mutual understanding.
    5.   ?    t is a good idea to teach people how to communicate effectively because they are usually not good at demonstrating mutual understanding
  35. Düşen doğum oranları ve yaşlanan nüfus sonucunda, bazı zengin ülkeler küçülecek ve daha az etkili olacaktır.
    1.   ?    Decreasing birth rates and aging population are the reason why some rich countries are getting smaller and less efficient.
    2.   ?    Falling birth rates and aging population will eventually cause some of the rich countries to become smaller and less effective.
    3.   ?    Some rich countries with falling birth rates and aging population will get smaller and less influential as a result.
    4.   ?    As a result of falling birth rates and aging population, some rich countries will become smaller and less effective.
    5.   ?    Getting smaller and less influential is the consequence of decreasing birth rates and aging population in some rich countries.
  36. Jesse Jackson fought for the rights of African Americans during the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Later on he became involved in politics and world affairs. Jackson joined the civil rights movement when he was a student. In 1965, he began working for a civil rights group led by the famous Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1971, Jackson founded the group People United to Save Humanity (PUSH). This group helped African Americans to get jobs and to open businesses. In 1984, he founded the National Rainbow Coalition (NRC) to help all kinds of people, not just African Americans. Jackson ran for President of the United States in 1984 and 1988. While he did not win either time, he did better than any other African American presidential candidates who had come before him. Jackson also gained a lot of attention for his role in world affairs. He spoke out against apartheid (separation of the races) in South Africa and took part in peace talks in the Middle East. He also worked with several countries to free US citizens being held as prisoners.

    Which statement is true about Jesse Jackson’s political involvement?
    1.   ?    He was the first African American candidate for president.
    2.   ?    He was concerned for the rights of people inside and outside the US.
    3.   ?    He received help from Martin Luther King, Jr. to establish the NRC.
    4.   ?    He supported apartheid in South Africa as well as in the Middle East.
    5.   ?    He was primarily interested in helping African Americans in the US.
  37. (I) Humans need social interaction, so depriving them of social contact, like when prisoners are sent to solitary confinement, is recognised by psychologists as a form of torture. (II) On the other hand, too much social interaction can be tiring; engaging with someone is a lot of work for the brain. (III) This explains the apparent contradiction between humans needing social interaction, but also needing privacy. (IV) The social brain hypothesis, first put forward in the 90s, suggests that our sociable nature is why we have such developed brains. (V) Social interaction wears our brain out, so we need privacy to get away for a bit and recharge.
    1.   ?    IV
    2.   ?    II
    3.   ?    III
    4.   ?    V
    5.   ?    I
  38. The Great Barrier Reef is one of the longest reefs in the world, —- more than 2000 kilometres along the northeastern coast of Australia.
    1.   ?    having been extended
    2.   ?    to extend
    3.   ?    to have extended
    4.   ?    having extended
    5.   ?    extending
  39. Functioning mini human brains grown in a lab could help cure Parkinson’s. It may sound incredible, yet the created blobs may help researchers defeat Parkinson’s disease and other age-related brain conditions. The mini brain is an organoid grown from stem cells to imitate the human midbrain, the ‘information superhighway’ of the brain that controls hearing, vision and movement. Other researchers have successfully grown brain tissue in a lab, but a team made up of researchers from A Star Genome Institute of Singapore, the Duke-NUS Medical School and the National Neuroscience Institute say theirs is the first to contain neuromelanin, a dark pigment found within the human brain that is closely linked to the development of Parkinson’s disease. It also contains specialised neurons that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved with motor control as low levels of dopamine lead to slowed reactions and disorders like Parkinson’s. Shawn Je, the lead researcher of the team, says that their mini-brain organoids mimic human midbrain development and that now they can really test how these mini brains react to existing or newly developed drugs before treating patients. This will be a game changer for future drug development.

    According to the passage, which of the following is true?
    1.   ?    The presence of neuromelanin can help people with Parkinson’s disease to recover from the condition
    2.   ?    Neuromelanin and dopamine are essential components to produce artificial organs.
    3.   ?    Compared to dopamine, neuromelanin can produce more neurotransmitters that enable motor control
    4.   ?    Neuromelanin and dopamine cause deterioration in our midbrain, leading to impairment in our reactions.
    5.   ?    Low levels of dopamine can be related to some other disorders along with Parkinson’s disease.
  40. Brain death happens when the brain shows no signs of any activity, —- machines are keeping the heart and lungs working.
    1.   ?    even if
    2.   ?    because
    3.   ?    after
    4.   ?    in case
    5.   ?    until
  41. Teacher:  Have you ever read a book by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle?
    Student:  Yes. I’ve just finished reading The Return of Sherlock Holmes.
    Teacher:  —
    Student:  Because it’s the collected short-story adventures published after the Great Detective’s return from the dead.
    1.   ?    Why do you think the book is called so?
    2.   ?    Do you know why the first one was titled Sherlock Holmes?
    3.   ?    Why is Sherlock Holmes so famous in fiction?
    4.   ?    Can you tell us what you really liked about the book?
    5.   ?    Why does the writer have a collection of stories?
  42. Not only were the Mayas sophisticated astronomers, but they also developed a system for mathematics that included the concept of zero.
    1.   ?    Matematik için gelişmiş bir sistemin yanı sıra sıfır kavramını da bulan Mayalar oldukça bilgili gök bilimcilerdi.
    2.   ?    Gök bilimci de olan Mayalar tarafından yalnızca sıfır kavramı değil aynı zamanda matematiksel bir sistem de geliştirilmiştir.
    3.   ?    Mayalar sıfır kavramı ve matematik sistemi gibi yeni gelişmelere imza atmışlardı çünkü gök bilimi onların tek uzmanlık alanı değildi.
    4.   ?    Deneyimli gök bilimci ve matematikçi olan Mayalar, sıfır kavramı ile birlikte gelişmiş bir matematik sistemi bulmuş oldular.
    5.   ?    Mayalar sadece bilgili gök bilimciler değillerdi, aynı zamanda matematik için sıfır kavramını da içeren bir sistem geliştirmişlerdi.
  43. In crime scene investigation, forensic science —evidence that may link a suspect to a crime or prove him or her innocent.
    1.   ?    provides
    2.   ?    counters
    3.   ?    initiates
    4.   ?    accelerates
    5.   ?    precedes
  44. İnci üretmek, istiridyenin bir parazitten ya da yaralanmadan korunması için tasarlanmış bir bağışıklık sistemi tepkisidir.
    1.   ?    By producing pearls, an oyster gives a response designed to protect its immune system from a parasite or an injury.
    2.   ?    Designed as an immune system response, making pearls protects oysters from a parasite or an injury.
    3.   ?    An oyster produces pearls to protect itself from a parasite or an injury because it is a response designed by the immune system.
    4.   ?    An oyster protects itself from a parasite or an injury by making pearls, which is a response designed by the immune system.
    5.   ?    Making pearls is an immune system response designed to protect the oyster from a parasite or an injury.
  45. Occupational therapy is a branch of medical care aiming to improve the quality of life of patients through occupational pursuits – helping them overcome disabilities resulting from illness, injury or age so that they can carry out the activities they need to perform in order to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. This means both giving them the means and mobility to pursue occupations, and selecting activities that are therapeutic to their particular condition. For example, a patient learning to get around in a wheelchair might need structural changes to their environment such as widening of doorways and fitting of ramps as well as a programme of physical exercise to build strength in their arms and shoulders. Another patient, who has suffered a stroke, might be encouraged to try arts and crafts as a way to rebuild their manual dexterity skills. Occupational therapy has a long history, dating back to the 1st century BCE and the physicians of Ancient Greece. Today, it is still applied as an effective method of medical care.

    According to the passage, the purpose of occupational therapy is to —-.
    1.   ?    improve the quality of therapies by encouraging patients to work harder
    2.   ?    enable patients to overcome their fear of getting involved in public life
    3.   ?    provide special treatment for patients who suffer from job-related illnesse
    4.   ?    motivate patients so that they can accept their particular condition
    5.   ?    help patients overcome certain physical issues so that they can lead better lives
  46. The effects of most antidepressant drugs may not be felt for several weeks, so continuing to take the medicine is important —-.
    1.   ?    f you are suffering from its side effects such as weight gain
    2.   ?    while it reduces the extreme sadness and hopelessness
    3.   ?    because the patient’s age may be taken into account to adjust its dosage
    4.   ?    even though it does not seem to be working at first
    5.   ?    given that psychotherapy could be more effective than using it
  47. (I) An elephant has a very large brain for its size and the ‘temporal lobe’ region responsible for memory is more developed. (II) The fascination with elephant memory has only been around for the last 200 years or so. (III) This results in powerful abilities to ‘download’ important survival data such as where to find food and water, and who is friend or foe. (IV) The matriarch of a herd may recognise over 200 individual elephants and can react to the call of a deceased member of her herd two years after their death. (V) During droughts, these grandma elephants lead family members to waterholes by recalling detailed maps they have made spanning hundreds of kilometres.
    1.   ?    III
    2.   ?    V
    3.   ?    II
    4.   ?    I
    5.   ?    IV
  48. Even though the theory of dualism —-, many people still cling to the idea that consciousness —- outside of the body.
    1.   ?    will be disproven / must have existed
    2.   ?    is disproven / had to exist
    3.   ?    was disproven / could exist
    4.   ?    has been disproven / can exist
    5.   ?    had been disproven / should have existed
  49. Adam:  I don’t understand how meditation has become so popular and is practised everywhere from hospitals to schools.
    Jennifer:  —
    Adam:  Yeah, you’re right, all you need is a comfortable posture and wish for self-transformation and desire for others’ well-being.
    Jennifer:  Of course the beneficial psychological effects can also be the reason.
    1.   ?    Because scientists proved that its practitioners are less prone to stress.
    2.   ?    Especially three types that developed through Buddhism are very commonly practised.
    3.   ?    It may be because it is derived from various branches of Buddhism.
    4.   ?    You know, meditation also leads to some physiological changes in the brain.
    5.   ?    I think it’s very easy to practise, I mean no equipment and workout is needed.
  50. Kevin:  Have you heard what famous footballer David Beckham says is his greatest achievement?
    Richard:  —
    Kevin:  Actually, no. He says his greatest achievement has been always putting his family first. He even makes breakfast every day for his kids.
    Richard:  That’s really unexpected from someone like him. I always thought celebrities only cared about themselves.
    1.   ?    That’s a really tricky question. He’s had such a successful career that anything could be considered great!
    2.   ?    Let me guess! He must’ve said something about his career playing for several well-known clubs.
    3.   ?    In my opinion, the real achievement is what you do for others in your daily life.
    4.   ?    That’s easy. Celebrities always say they put their loved ones and friends first.
    5.   ?    How would I know? I’ve never met a celebrity in my life!
  51. Global warming will bring significant changes to the world as a whole, but the particular types and scales of these impacts will be (16)—- affected by local conditions. Climate change will not just have general global effects, but (17)—- time it will create specific impacts within your very own neighbourhood. Because the changes people will face vary from place to place, local governments will be best equipped to address these problems as one-size-fits-all solutions (18)—-. National governments that signed and ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake adaptation planning. Several countries, (19)—- the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and others in the Caribbean, are also undertaking regional planning. But fundamentally, (20)—- climate change is happening globally, people need to react locally.

    18.____
    1.   ?    should not have worked
    2.   ?    were not working
    3.   ?    had not worked
    4.   ?    will not work
    5.   ?    will not have worked
  52. As shown in a study in which young adults became better sleepers after three weeks of listening to classical music at bedtime, music can have a profound effect on our lives.
    1.   ?    According to the results of a study, young adults should listen to classical music at bedtime for three weeks to increase their sleep quality since music has a deep effect on our lives.
    2.   ?    A study has found out that listening to classical music at bedtime for three weeks helped young adults sleep better, demonstrating how strongly music affects our lives.
    3.   ?    Music can impact our lives to a great extent, as young adults who listened to classical music regularly at bedtime in a study were able to sleep better for three weeks.
    4.   ?    Thanks to the profound effect of classical music, young adults were able to become better sleepers at the end of a study after listening to it at bedtime for three weeks.
    5.   ?    As proven in a three-week study, bedtime classical music has a significant effect on our lives, particularly helping young adults improve their sleep quality.
  53. Washing and cooking take care of most harmful microbes on or in food —-.
    1.   ?    after transported fruits and vegetables are loaded with fatal chemicals
    2.   ?    while others are usually killed by stomach acid or blocked by the immune system
    3.   ?    as most of the current produce seems especially worrisome to many people
    4.   ?    although the toxic kinds, such as hepatitis virus are more commonly known
    5.   ?    because nowadays people are not taking food safety very seriously
  54. (I) The ninja emerged in Japan in the mid-15th century as a class of specially trained warriors. (II) The ninja have typically been seen as the antithesis of the honourable samurai, but the relationship is in fact much more complicated. (III) They spent their entire lives improving the skills, disciplines and abilities they needed to become masters of ninjutsu. (IV) Training began at a very early age and like samurai, they began almost as soon as they could walk, learning how to fight with a vast array of weapons, from katanas, a long single-edged samurai sword, to throwing stars. (V) They were extremely fit and capable of impressive physical feats such as running for a long period of time, scaling castle walls, leaping great distances and fighting multiple opponents without weapons.
    1.   ?    IV
    2.   ?    III
    3.   ?    V
    4.   ?    I
    5.   ?    II
  55. Many cultures regard dreams as having great significance for the dreamer, either by revealing something important about the dreamer’s present circumstances or predicting his or her future. The Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud analysed the dreams of his patients to understand their unconscious needs and desires, and psychotherapists still make use of this technique today. Freud believed that the primary function of dreams was to wish fulfillment, or the idea that dreaming allows us to act out the desires that we must repress during the day. Although Freud focused on the meaning of dreams, other theories about the causes of dreams are less concerned with their content. One possibility is that we dream primarily to help with consolidation, or the moving of information into long-term memory. Rauchs and Desgranges found that rats that had been deprived of REM sleep, the sleep stage in which dreaming occurs, after learning a new task were less able to perform the task again than rats that had been allowed to dream, and these differences were greater on tasks that involved learning unusual information or developing new behaviours.

    It can be understood from the passage that Freud believed that dreams —-.
    1.   ?    should be examined for the reasons behind them rather than for their content
    2.   ?    that occurred during REM sleep were easily interpreted
    3.   ?    could help one recall past memories with more accuracy
    4.   ?    were about wishes people had to suppress while they were awake
    5.   ?    contributed to the prediction of patients’ wishes more than their desires
  56. Occupational therapy is a branch of medical care aiming to improve the quality of life of patients through occupational pursuits – helping them overcome disabilities resulting from illness, injury or age so that they can carry out the activities they need to perform in order to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. This means both giving them the means and mobility to pursue occupations, and selecting activities that are therapeutic to their particular condition. For example, a patient learning to get around in a wheelchair might need structural changes to their environment such as widening of doorways and fitting of ramps as well as a programme of physical exercise to build strength in their arms and shoulders. Another patient, who has suffered a stroke, might be encouraged to try arts and crafts as a way to rebuild their manual dexterity skills. Occupational therapy has a long history, dating back to the 1st century BCE and the physicians of Ancient Greece. Today, it is still applied as an effective method of medical care.

    It is understood from the passage that occupational therapy —-
    1.   ?    underestimates the importance of providing psychological support
    2.   ?    combines techniques from different medical fields to help patients
    3.   ?    has evolved dramatically since the time of Ancient Greece
    4.   ?    has been used as a method of treatment for a long period of time
    5.   ?    is effective only when it is given together with medication
  57. Bird nests differ from —- species to the next, and —nest has its own style of architecture, including location, materials, and shape.
    1.   ?    all / whole
    2.   ?    one / each
    3.   ?    every / neither
    4.   ?    other / any
    5.   ?    some / another
  58. The Internet has developed so rapidly since the 1990s that today we can capture and transmit information at a speed that could have seemed impossible 50 years ago.
    1.   ?    İnternet 1990’lardan beri o kadar hızlı gelişti ki bugün bilgiyi 50 yıl önce bize imkânsız görünebilecek bir hızda elde edebiliyor ve dağıtabiliyoruz.
    2.   ?    Bugün bilgiyi 50 yıl önce imkânsız görünen bir hızda elde edebiliyor ve dağıtabiliyoruz, çünkü İnternet son 50 yılda çok hızlı gelişti.
    3.   ?    İnternet, 1990’lardan beri o kadar hızlı gelişti ki, bugünün hızında bilgi elde etmek ve dağıtmak muhtemelen 50 yıl önce imkânsız olarak görünürdü.
    4.   ?    Internet, 1990’lardan beri çok hızlı geliştiği için bugün bilgiyi elde etme ve dağıtma hızımız 50 yıl önce imkânsız gibi görünüyordu.
    5.   ?    İnternet’in 1990’lardan bu yana hızla gelişmesiyle birlikte bugün bilgiyi 50 yıl önce imkânsız görünen bir hızda elde ediyor ve dağıtıyoruz.
  59. By messing with the balance of microorganisms in the body and by killing too many of the good bacteria in your gut, antibiotics may have certain —effects on your health.
    1.   ?    consistent
    2.   ?    prevalent
    3.   ?    negligible
    4.   ?    abundant
    5.   ?    damaging
  60. Caffeine is a bitter substance found in the beans, leaves, and fruits of plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide. It is found in a wide variety of products, including coffee, tea, soft drinks, candy, and desserts. Caffeine acts as a mood enhancer and provides energy. —- When heavy coffee drinkers reduce their caffeine intake, for example, they often report being irritable, restless, and drowsy, as well as experiencing strong headaches, and these symptoms may last up to a week.
    1.   ?    While most experts feel that consuming small amounts of caffeine during pregnancy is safe, larger amounts of caffeine can be harmful to the foetus.
    2.   ?    Although food authorities list caffeine as a safe food substance, it has at least some characteristics of an addictive substance.
    3.   ?    It causes accelerated heart and breathing rates, and increases in blood sugar accompanied by decreases in appetite, thus it is used to stay awake and control weight.
    4.   ?    For those who love and appreciate the flavour of good coffee, but would like to reduce their caffeine intake, there are options.
    5.   ?    There are many mixed messages about caffeine in the media, and it can be difficult to find information that relates to you.
  61. —-, recycling is the current solution for dealing with this basic and essential material.
    1.   ?    Even though paper use in printing is estimated to descrease with more and more people using electronic books
    2.   ?    Despite the fact that researchers are looking beyond the general hazardous consequences of global warming
    3.   ?    While the plastics industry tries to develop a durable natural plastic that will not take thousands of years to break down
    4.   ?    Since government policies and businesses focused on separating the components of electrical appliances are slowly emerging
    5.   ?    As millions of electrical appliances and computers are thrown out annually without any kind of recycling policy to govern them
  62. The numerous Italian princes’ palaces became significiant centres of the Renaissance and the Baroque periods —- their comparatively minor political influence.
    1.   ?    in terms of
    2.   ?    due to
    3.   ?    as well as
    4.   ?    rather than
    5.   ?    despite
  63. Functioning mini human brains grown in a lab could help cure Parkinson’s. It may sound incredible, yet the created blobs may help researchers defeat Parkinson’s disease and other age-related brain conditions. The mini brain is an organoid grown from stem cells to imitate the human midbrain, the ‘information superhighway’ of the brain that controls hearing, vision and movement. Other researchers have successfully grown brain tissue in a lab, but a team made up of researchers from A Star Genome Institute of Singapore, the Duke-NUS Medical School and the National Neuroscience Institute say theirs is the first to contain neuromelanin, a dark pigment found within the human brain that is closely linked to the development of Parkinson’s disease. It also contains specialised neurons that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved with motor control as low levels of dopamine lead to slowed reactions and disorders like Parkinson’s. Shawn Je, the lead researcher of the team, says that their mini-brain organoids mimic human midbrain development and that now they can really test how these mini brains react to existing or newly developed drugs before treating patients. This will be a game changer for future drug development.

    According to the passage, mini human brains may help cure Parkinson’s disease since —-.
    1.   ?    newly produced and available drugs for Parkinson’s have been tested on them
    2.   ?    they are organoids grown from stem cells with high levels of dopamine
    3.   ?    researchers from various institutes worked together to develop them
    4.   ?    they are like a simulation of our midbrains, which control some of our senses and movement
    5.   ?    they have already worked really well on other age-related brain conditions
  64. You are walking on a crowded street when suddenly you bump into a woman carrying several grocery bags and cause her to drop her groceries all over the ground. You feel terrible for the accident and say to her: —
    1.   ?    I guess if we were both paying attention this would have never happened.
    2.   ?    I’m so sorry! Here, let me help you with your things.
    3.   ?    Hey lady! Watch where you’re going!
    4.   ?    Excuse me? Why would I help with those?
    5.   ?    Sorry, but that shop should offer higher quality grocery bags so accidents like this won’t happen.
  65. Global warming will bring significant changes to the world as a whole, but the particular types and scales of these impacts will be (16)—- affected by local conditions. Climate change will not just have general global effects, but (17)—- time it will create specific impacts within your very own neighbourhood. Because the changes people will face vary from place to place, local governments will be best equipped to address these problems as one-size-fits-all solutions (18)—-. National governments that signed and ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake adaptation planning. Several countries, (19)—- the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and others in the Caribbean, are also undertaking regional planning. But fundamentally, (20)—- climate change is happening globally, people need to react locally.

    20.__________
    1.   ?    until
    2.   ?    since
    3.   ?    although
    4.   ?    as soon as
    5.   ?    in case
  66. Jane:  Do you think there could be another planet in the Solar System other than the ones we already know?
    Ronald:  Why not? But even if one exists, it must be quite distant from the Sun.
    Jane:  —
    Ronald:  Oh, don’t worry. If one’s out there, they’ll find it! Science has been improving faster than we may think.
    1.   ?    Will people ever believe that there could be life on other planets?
    2.   ?    Do you think that scientists will ever be able to find another one?
    3.   ?    I hope people will be able to travel across the universe in the future.
    4.   ?    Astronomers are going to start analysing the movements of objects in the Solar System soon.
    5.   ?    What if it was not that far from the Sun or our planet?
  67. Ödev, sadece öğrencilerin hayatlarının rutin bir yanı değil, aynı zamanda okul ve aile arasındaki temel günlük etkileşimdir.
    1.   ?    As being the key daily interaction between school and family, homework is a routine aspect of not only students’ but also their families’ lives.
    2.   ?    Homework can be considered to be a routine aspect of students’ lives as well as the key daily interaction between school and family.
    3.   ?    Homework is regarded as being both a routine aspect of students’ lives and the key daily interaction between school and family.
    4.   ?    Homework is not just a routine aspect of students’ lives, but it constitutes one of the key daily interactions between school and family as well.
    5.   ?    Homework is not only a routine aspect of students’ lives, but also the key daily interaction between school and family.
  68. Current research has suggested that people who consume more trans fatty acids have —- greater levels of aggression.
    1.   ?    deliberately
    2.   ?    mutually
    3.   ?    preciously
    4.   ?    significantly
    5.   ?    independently
  69. —-, many countries began to adopt agricultural practices that are more oriented towards conservation and sustainability.
    1.   ?    As long as they had a wide range of natural and economic resources at hand
    2.   ?    Whether they confronted considerable technological challenges in urban areas
    3.   ?    As they came to realise the importance of addressing environmental issues
    4.   ?    Although they were on the brink of starvation due to famine and drought
    5.   ?    Until they found solutions to the extinction of species in their natural habitats
  70. Materials found under water are preserved differently from materials found on land, so underwater archaeologists must know how to handle them without destroying the valuable information they reveal.
    1.   ?    Underwater archaeologists have to know how to deal with objects found under water without damaging the precious information they provide because the way they are kept is different from those found on land.
    2.   ?    Underwater archaeologists have to know how to deal with objects found under water and the ones found on land as they can be easily harmed if they do not pay enough attention to them.
    3.   ?    Not to give harm to the precious information they will provide, underwater archaeologists have to preserve objects found under water carefully because they are maintained differently from the ones found on land.
    4.   ?    It is very difficult to protect the objects found under water because, unlike the ones found on land, they can be harmed easily, so underwater archaeologists cannot get enough information.
    5.   ?    Knowing how to get enough information from them, underwater archaeologists show a great deal of effort not to cause harm to the objects found under water which are different from the ones found on land.
  71. Beynin sol ve sağ tarafları birbirine eşit olmadığından, bir kimsenin fiziksel ve zihinsel işlerde her iki elini ya da ayağını eşit derecede iyi kullanabilmesi oldukça nadirdir.
    1.   ?    For some, using both hands or feet equally well is very rare in physical and mental tasks even if the left side of the brain is equal to the right side.
    2.   ?    Since the left and right sides of the brain are not equal to each other, physical and mental tasks make it impossible for some people to be able to use both hands or feet equally well.
    3.   ?    Some people can hardly use both hands or feet equally well in physical and mental tasks because the left and right sides of the brain may not be equal to each other.
    4.   ?    In physical and mental tasks, both hands or feet may not be used equally well by some people if the left and right sides of the brain are not equal to each other.
    5.   ?    It is very rare for someone to be able to use both hands or feet equally well in physical and mental tasks since the left and right sides of the brain are not equal to each other.
  72. By looking at what you click and the pages you like, some social media companies can infer your preferences, then use this information to target you with adverts.
    1.   ?    Tercihlerinizle ilgili sonuçlara ulaşmak amacıyla bazı sosyal medya şirketleri tıkladığınız şeylere ve beğendiğiniz sayfalara reklam gönderebilir.
    2.   ?    Bazı sosyal medya şirketleri, tıkladığınız şeylere ve beğendiğiniz sayfalara bakabilir ve böylelikle tercihlerinizle ilgili sonuçlara ulaşarak size reklam gönderebilir.
    3.   ?    Bazı sosyal medya şirketlerinin tıkladığınız şeylere ve beğendiğiniz sayfalara bakarak tercihlerinizle ilgili sonuçlara ulaşmak istemelerinin sebebi, size reklam göndermektir.
    4.   ?    Sizi reklama boğmak amacıyla bazı sosyal medya şirketleri, tercihlerinizle ilgili bilgilere ulaşmak için tıkladığınız şeylere ve beğendiğiniz sayfalara bakmaktadır.
    5.   ?    Bazı sosyal medya şirketleri, tıkladığınız şeylere ve beğendiğiniz sayfalara bakarak tercihlerinizle ilgili sonuçlara ulaşabilir, sonra da bu bilgiyi size reklam göndermek için kullanabilir.
  73. Global warming will bring significant changes to the world as a whole, but the particular types and scales of these impacts will be (16)—- affected by local conditions. Climate change will not just have general global effects, but (17)—- time it will create specific impacts within your very own neighbourhood. Because the changes people will face vary from place to place, local governments will be best equipped to address these problems as one-size-fits-all solutions (18)—-. National governments that signed and ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake adaptation planning. Several countries, (19)—- the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and others in the Caribbean, are also undertaking regional planning. But fundamentally, (20)—- climate change is happening globally, people need to react locally.

    17. _________
    1.   ?    at
    2.   ?    over
    3.   ?    during
    4.   ?    for
    5.   ?    before
  74. Children’s furniture stresses the social position of the child in relation to both the environment and to adults. —- The very existence of children’s furniture promotes the child’s position because it is the property of the child and it also physically occupies space – a choice that excludes other furniture and reflects a priority, stressing the child’s social importance. If a child has a piece of furniture of his or her own, this acknowledges the status and rank of the child. The special form of children’s furniture signals that childhood is considered an important period.
    1.   ?    Having an individual piece of furniture for children indicates the child’s status and the right to status in society.
    2.   ?    Of the children’s furniture that has survived from earlier periods, chairs tend to show the most variety.
    3.   ?    The design of children’s furniture is influenced by period, material, form, function, pedagogical views, and children’s games and status.
    4.   ?    Children’s furniture has historically been defined not just by scale but also by aesthetic purposes.
    5.   ?    Furniture made especially for children is not a modern phenomenon but has existed independent of the ways in which adult views of children have changed.
  75. As soon as the computer was invented, a growing —- for computers by scientists and engineers evolved, and numerous universities started their own projects to produce them in the 1940s.
    1.   ?    variety
    2.   ?    isolation
    3.   ?    awareness
    4.   ?    demand
    5.   ?    concern
  76. Interviewer:  Many people believe that our personal information is quite safe if we have no apps on our phones. How true is that?
    Tech Expert:  Well, that depends. There’s new software available that can collect information about you simply by using your Wifi connection.
    Interviewer:  —
    Tech Expert:  By using this software, I can see which Wifi networks you’ve connected to before, I can predict your financial status, and I can also figure out where you live and work.
    1.   ?    What kind of information could you possibly learn through Wifi connection?
    2.   ?    How can I protect my personal information from this type of software?
    3.   ?    What would be the best way to detect such threats?
    4.   ?    What do you think is safe about this software?
    5.   ?    Are there any other ways to get information about people in addition to Wifi connection?
  77. Forests, conserved land, and natural habitats are not important just for the sake of saving trees and animals. Forests and all greenery are important in keeping the climate in check. Plants take in the carbon in the atmosphere and give back oxygen, and older trees hold on to that carbon, storing it for the duration of their lives. By taking in carbon dioxide, they are reducing the greenhouse effect. —- And now, deforestation is responsible for about a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions.
    1.   ?    Although the soil on a treeless hillside washes away in a mudslide, a tree-covered hillside’s soil stays put.
    2.   ?    Yet, some countries have chosen sustainable development plans instead of economic plans that would produce greenhouse gases.
    3.   ?    In other words, greenhouse gases trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, which increases global average temperature.
    4.   ?    In fact, it is not only the trees and oceans that store carbon, soil does, too, and by exposing the carbon to the oxygen in the air, it helps to produce carbon dioxide.
    5.   ?    Unfortunately, many of the world’s forests have been cut down to make way for farmland, highways, and cities.
  78. Böbreklerimizin kaldırabileceğinden daha fazla su tüketirsek, kanımızdaki sodyum ve diğer elektrolitlerin yoğunluğu azalmaya başlar ve belirli bir noktadan sonra hücrelerimiz kontrolsüz bir şekilde su emer.
    1.   ?    When we consume more water than our kidneys can tolerate, the concentration of sodium and other electrolytes in our blood drops and beyond a certain point, excessive water will be absorbed uncontrollably by our cells.
    2.   ?    Consuming more water than our kidneys can tolerate will decrease the concentration of sodium and other electrolytes in our blood and beyond a certain point, our cells will uncontrollably absorb water.
    3.   ?    If we consume more water than our kidneys can tolerate, the concentration of sodium and other electrolytes in our blood begins to drop and beyond a certain point, our cells uncontrollably absorb water.
    4.   ?    Even if more water than our kidneys can tolerate is consumed, the concentration of sodium and other electrolytes in our blood can begin to drop and beyond a certain point, our cells uncontrollably absorb this water.
    5.   ?    The concentration of sodium and other electrolytes in our blood begins to drop and beyond a certain point, our cells will uncontrollably absorb water when more water than our kidneys can tolerate is consumed.
  79. Though dynasties changed over the thousands of years of Chinese history, many of the elements of Chinese life remained the same.
    1.   ?    Chinese history witnessed many changing dynasties over thousands of years, yet many of the elements were preserved in Chinese life
    2.   ?    If dynasties had not changed over the thousands of years of Chinese history, all of the elements of Chinese life could have stayed the same.
    3.   ?    Some elements of Chinese life succeeded in staying the same; however, changing dynasties of Chinese history over the thousands of years could have prevented this.
    4.   ?    Due to the changing dynasties over the thousands of years of China’s history, only a few elements of Chinese life faced much change
    5.   ?    Many elements of Chinese life hardly succeeded to continue, while dynasties changed over the thousands of years of Chinese history.
  80. Global warming will bring significant changes to the world as a whole, but the particular types and scales of these impacts will be (16)—- affected by local conditions. Climate change will not just have general global effects, but (17)—- time it will create specific impacts within your very own neighbourhood. Because the changes people will face vary from place to place, local governments will be best equipped to address these problems as one-size-fits-all solutions (18)—-. National governments that signed and ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake adaptation planning. Several countries, (19)—- the Dominican Republic, Cuba, and others in the Caribbean, are also undertaking regional planning. But fundamentally, (20)—- climate change is happening globally, people need to react locally.

    16. _________
    1.   ?    lightly
    2.   ?    profoundly
    3.   ?    cautiously
    4.   ?    unintentionally
    5.   ?    occassionally

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